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Full text of "Commercial survey of New England"

INDUSTRIAL STRUCTURE 
OF NEW ENGLAND 



UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE 
BUREAU OF FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC COMMERCE 



THE UNIVERSITY 

OF ILLINOIS 

LIBRARY 

330.974 

Un"3c 



Return this book on or before the 
Latest Date stamped below. 

University of Illinois Library 



MAY 1 a 






L161— H41 



U. S. DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE 

R. P. LAMONT, Secretary 

BUREAU OF FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC COMMERCE 

WILLIAM L. COOPER, Director 



Domestic Commerce Series — No. 28 



INDUSTRIAL STRUCTURE 
OF NEW ENGLAND 



BY 



CHARLES E. ARTMAN 



Part I OF THE COMMERCIAL SURVEY 
OF NEW ENGLAND 



f*r 




APR i x 



1930 



UNITED STATES 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 

WASHINGTON : 1930 



For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, Washington, D. C. 



Price $1.30 




HIGHLANDS AND LOWLANDS 

OF NEW ENGLAND 



W ( )/} ft 



^x 



\ j 



^ 



A 



cy K 



\ & 




SIGNIFICANT FACTORS IN 

Agricultural development 
Location of Manufactures 
Marketing Areas 
Distribution of population 
Transportation Routes 
Water power development 
Recreational advantages 

ELEVATION IN FEET 
| Above 3,000 
| 2,000 to 3,000 

1,000 to 2,000 

500 to 1,000 

100 to 500 
I Sea level to 100 feet 



_^ .r> \ 



24 MILES TO I INCH 
25 50 



IOO MILES 



\ 



NEW ENGLAND SURVEY 




U. S. DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE 

Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce 

Domestic Commerce Division 



!^ 



Geographic Section 



CONTENTS 



Page 

Foreword xi 

I ntroduct ion 1 

Parti. Natural characteristics and resources 4 

Physical background 4 

Boundaries and area 5 

Topography , 6 

Rivers and waterfalls 7 

Coast line and harbors 7 

Climate 8 

Significance to industries _'__ 9 

Annual precipitation 10 

Recreational advantages 10 

Agriculture 11 

Specialization 12 

Character of soils _' 12 

Improved farm land 14 

Regional production 14 

Changes and trends 17 

Problems of New England agriculture 19 

The dairy industry 20 

Milk production 20 

~~ Dairying regions 22 

Marketing dairy products : 22 

Poultry and livestock 24 

Poultry and eggs 24 

Hog and pork production 26 

"*^> Sheep, lambs, and wool 26 

Horses 27 

Tfz? Feed consumption 27 

Commercial fruits 28 

Apples 28 

\z> Peaches 32 

Cranberries 32 

Blueberries 34 

Other small fruits 35 

Commercial vegetables 35 

Potatoes 35 

Onions 38 

Sweet corn and other vegetables for canning 39 

Dry beans 41 

Market-garden crops 41 

Specialty crops 42 

Maple sugar and sirup 43 

Tobacco 43 

Commercial fertilizers 45 

Relative consumption 45 

Types and sources 46 

Merchandising of fertilizers 47 

in 



721638 



IV CONTENTS 

Part I. — Natural characteristics and resources — Continued. Page 

Forest resources 48 

Importance of forests 48 

Present stand of timber 50 

Types of timber land 51 

Lumber consumption 52 

Forest protection and maintenance 53 

Protection from fire 53 

Protection from other enemies 54 

Forest planting 54 

Local forestry organizations 55 

Ownership of forest land 5G 

Public holdings 56 

Forestry policies 56 

Mineral resources 58 

Value of mineral production 58 

Production by States 59 

Stone production 61 

Granite 62 

Marble 62 

Slate . 62 

Limestone and lime 63 

Clay, sand, and gravel 63 

Feldspar 63 

Mica 64 

Talc 64 

Other products 65 

Fisheries 66 

Principal fishing areas 67 

Types of fishing 68 

Historical development 69 

Ceneral trend and prospects 71 

Fishing operations 72 

Ground fish 73 

Mackerel 78 

Swordfish 79 

Herring 80 

Lobsters 81 

Oysters 82 

Clams 83 

Miscellaneous shore fisheries 83 

Summary of New England fishing activities 84 

Wholesale fish trade 85 

Fresh and frozen fish 86 

Oysters and Lobsters 88 

Canning and preserving fish 88 

Fish canning 88 

Sailed and smoked fish 90 

[ncome of persons engaged in fish industry 91 

Fishermen 91 

Wholesale trade employees 91 

Canning and preserving industry 92 



CONTEKTS V 

Page 

Part II. Transportation, power, and fuel 93 

Rail and water transportation 93 

Rail gateways 93 

Freight-rate structure 94 

Break-up of territory 95 

Rates to near-by territory 96 

Percentage rate area 96 

Differential rail rates L 97 

Combination rates with the Great Plains 97 

Transcontinental rates__ = 97 

Rates to and from the South 98 

Facilities for water transportation 99 

Main routes and connections 100 

New England power situation 101 

Power requirements and equipment 102 

Nature of power equipment 102 

Growth in power equipment 104 

Changes in sources of power 104 

Electrification of industries 105 

Use of purchased current 105 

Ownership of central-station power plants 105 

Public utility power development 106 

Sources of energy 107 

Sources of central-station power in different States _ 107 

Interconnections of central power stations 109 

Water-power development 109 

Growth of water-power development 111 

Extent of present development 111 

Undeveloped water-power resources 112 

Water power sources adjacent to New England 113 

New England fuel supply 115 

Coal consumption 115 

Bituminous coal 118 

Sources 118 

Movement from northern fields 119 

Areas served by different fields 121 

Transportation rates 123 

Marketing 124 

Anthracite and other household fuels 125 

Anthracite 125 

Coke 126 

Fuel oil 126 

Gas and electricity 127 

Wood 127 

Importations of fuel 127 

Near-by sources of fuel 127 

Part III.— The people of New England 129 

Number and distribution 129 

Relative density , 130 

Urban and rural areas 131 

Movements and migrations 132 

Movements within New England 133 



VI CONTENTS 

Part III. — The people of New England — Continued. Page 

Foreign stock 134 

Foreign born, by States 135 

Concentration of foreign born 136 

Changes in regions of origin 137 

Distribution of foreign population 137 

Age, sex, and occupations 141 

Age groups 141 

Sex distribution 141 

Occupations 142 

Trend of growth 142 

Changes from 1850 to 1920 142 

Contrasts within the area 145 

Part TV. — Manufactures 148 

Introductory . 148 

Commercial significance 149 

Wages and production in New England 151 

Types of manufacture 152 

Average size and output of establishments 155 

Production per wage earner in major groups 156 

Diversity of output 157 

Contribution of individual industries to Nation's 

total 164 

Changes in New England manufactures 166 

Comparison with other sections 170 

Pre-war and post-war periods compared 171 

Changes in leading industries 171 

Localization of New England manufacturing 177 

Localization by States 177 

Concentration in cities 192 

Localization by counties 195 

Metal manufactures 197 

Characteristics of the industry 198 

Factors influencing location 199 

Raw materials 199 

Seasonal variation 200 

Incentive methods of wage payment 200 

Trend of activity 200 

Market for products 200 

Principal classes 201 

Machinery group 201 

Electrical machinery and appliances 201 

Textile machinery and equipment 206 

Machine tools 211 

Miscellaneous machinery \ 217 

Foundry and machine-shop products 221 

Experiences of manufacturers 224 

Independent foundries 226 

New England market for iron and steed 228 

Hardware group 240 

Hardware 240 

Cutlery and edge tools 245 

Mechanics' tools 248 



CONTENTS VII 

Part IV. — Manufactures — Continued. 

Metal manufactures — Continued. Page 

Brass, bronze, and other nonferrous metals 252 

Importance in New England 253 

Conditions as shown by reporting companies 255 

Jewelry, silver, and plated ware 257 

Jewelry 257 

Silver and plated ware 264 

Other metal-using industries 266 

Motor equipment 266 

Railroad equipment and repair shops 267 

Ship and boat building 268 

Clocks, watches, cases, and parts 268 

Needles, pins, and similar articles 269 

Firearms 269 

Miscellaneous metal manufactures 270 

Textiles 279 

Place in New England industrial life 279 

Cotton manufactures 281 

Importance in New England 281 

Localization 281 

Nature of processes 285 

Development in New England 287 

Cotton consumption and spindle activity 293 

Cotton woven goods. 295 

Use of rayon in New England textile manufac- 
tures 299 

Marketing agencies for cotton manufactures 301 

New factors in present situation 306 

Cross-section of New England cotton industry __ 308 

Dyeing and finishing textiles 319 

Cotton manufactures other than woven goods. __ 323 

Wool manufactures 333 

Relative importance of industry 333 

Materials used _ 335 

Boston wool market 336 

Principal products 338 

Woolens and worsteds 339 

Experiences of manufacturers 347 

Reworked wool 357 

Wool scouring 359 

Wool carpets and rugs 360 

Wool and hair felt goods 362 

Silk manufactures 364 

Materials used 365 

Trend of growth 365 

Experiences of ma nuf acturers 367 

Knit goods 376 

Importance in individual States 376 

Principal materials Used 377 

Nature of products » 378 

Trend of manufacture .•...»-...•. *~«.....».. 379 

Present condition of the industry *_..»*« ~^**_ 381 

Experiences of knit-goods manufacturers, »*---« 382 



VIII CONTENTS 

Part IV. — Manufactures — Continued. 

Textiles — Continued. Page 

Wearing apparel 391 

Importance of individual items 391 

Localization of industry 393 

Experiences of members of the industry 396 

Leather and leather goods 406 

Localization of production 406 

Lines of manufacture 407 

Primary manufacture of leather 409 

Localization of industry 411 

Conditions in recent years 411 

General view of leather industry 412 

Boot and shoe industries L 417 

Trend of boot and shoe manufacture in New 

England 419 

Localization of the industry 42 1 

General view of the industry 423 

Boot and shoe accessories 435 

Cut stock 436 

Boot and shoe findings 436 

Dependence upon shoe manufacturing 437 

Conditions in the industry 438 

Miscellaneous leather manufactures 441 

Rubber manufactures 443 

Types of products 443 

Trends in New England 445 

Manufacturing conditions 446 

Paper and paper products 447 

Producing regions . 447 

Types of manufacture 449 

Primary paper manufacture 450 

Pulpwood and wood pulp 453 

Secondary paper industries 455 

General view of paper industry 458 

Groups reporting 458 

Age of industries 459 

Size of establishments 459 

Conditions of production 460 

Labor and employment 461 

Improvements in production 462 

Sales and marketing 463 

I >< >cation of markets 464 

Channels of distribution 466 

Sales organization of paper mills 466 

Methods of distribution 467 

Changes in paper market 468 

Printing and publishing 470 

Main branches of industry 470 

Newspapers and periodicals 471 

Income lo Slates 472 

Nature of publications 473 

Book and general job printing 473 



CONTENTS IX 

Part IV. — Manufactures — Continued. 

Printing and publishing — Continued. Page 

General view of the industry 475 

Age and size of establishments 475 

Materials purchased 477 

Employment conditions 477 

Trend of sales . 477 

Location of markets 477 

Marketing methods 478 

Improvements in manufacturing processes 478 

Industries accessory to printing 479 

Importance of accessory lines 480 

Wood manufactures 481 

Importance of various branches 482 

Wood industries of individual States 485 

Leading wood products 485 

Lumber and timber production 485 

The lumber market of New England 488 

Millwork and planing-mill products 497 

Wooden packing boxes 499 

Furniture 504 

Wood turning and woodenware 509 

Stone and other mineral manufactures 515 

Principal products 515 

Granite, marble, and other stone 516 

Granite 519 

Marble 522 

Slate 523 

Limestone and lime 523 

Clay and concrete products 524 

New England market for brick and sewer pipe 525 

Building brick 525 

Sewer pipe 526 

New England market for Portland cement 527 

Seasonality of shipments 528 

Domestic sources 529 

Foreign sources 530 

Methods of merchandising cement 53 1 

Food manufactures and tobacco 532 

Bakery products 534 

The confectionery industry 535 

Localization 535 

Conditions in the industry 536 

Dairy products 540 

Milk, butter, and cheese " 540 

Ice cream 541 

Slaughtering and meat packing 541 

Canning and preserving 542 

Vegetables 545 

Blueberries „ 546 

Fish canning and curing 546 

Miscellaneous food preparations 547 

Flour, feed, and other mill products 548 

Manufacture of beverages 549 



X CONTENTS 

Part IV. — Manufactures — Continued. 

Food manufactures and tobacco — Continued. Page 

Tobacco manufacture 549 

Chemicals and drugs 551 

Gas manufacture 553 

Soap manufacture 554 

Medicinal and toilet preparations 555 

Manufacture in individual States 555 

— Raw materials 557 

Sales trends and distribution 557 

Industrial chemicals 557 

Cleansing and polishing preparations 558 

Haw materials 558 

Sales trends and distribution 558 

Paint and varnish 559 

Petroleum refining 560 

Other chemical industries 560 

Ammunition and explosives 560 

Glue, gelatin, and mucilage 560 

Grease and tallow 561 

Fertilizers 561 

Tanning materials and dyestuffs 561 

Animal and vegetable oils 562 

Ink 562 

Miscellaneous manufactures 563 

Musical instruments 563 

Sporting and athletic goods 565 

Toys and games 566 

Emery wheels and other abrasives 567 

Optical goods 567 

Professional and scientific instruments 568 

Brushes . 568 

Fancy and novelty articles 569 

House-furnishing goods 570 

Roofing materials 571 

Buttons 571 

Combs and hairpins 571 

Glass processing 572 

Summary of unclassified manufactures 573 

Part V. Building and construction 575 

Buildings and public works 575 

Classes of construction 581 

Commercial buildings 581 

Residential building 581 

Industrial building 581 

Public works and utilities 581 

Other types of construction 582 

Changes in cost of construction 582 

Highway and street construction 583 

High ways 583 

Market for road-building materials 588 

Si reel construction 588 



FOREWORD 

Rapid changes taking place in American commerce and industry 
make it especially timely to marshal and analyze pertinent facts 
bearing upon the economic life of the Nation. To this end commer- 
cial and industrial surveys of different sections of the United States 
have been undertaken by the Department of Commerce with a view 
to reducing waste in industry and in the distribution of goods. New 
England is the second region to be surveyed under this program, the 
first survey having dealt with the Southeastern States. The three 
volumes devoted to this New England study give a complete economic 
analysis of the region, dealing with the various phases of its indus- 
tries, commerce, and marketing. 

This volume presents the productive activities and resources of 
New England. The greater portion is devoted to a detailed analysis 
of its manufactures; but agriculture, forestry, fisheries, transporta- 
tion, power, fuel, population, and building and construction are each 
given full consideration. The report shows the general condition of 
New England's industrial life, its trend in recent years, and its place 
in national affairs. 

Much of the information presented here was obtained prior to 1927, 
at a time when some phases of New England industries were at low 
ebb. It should be borne in mind that this region has made substantial 
advances since that time in adjusting itself to national and world 
changes, and it has recovered in large measure from the depression 
that followed the sharp readjustment in some of its basic industries. 
The favorable factors are dominant. New England industries as 
a whole are on a sound basis, and the outlook for the future is 
generally one of confidence. 

It is manifestly impossible to deal here with every phase of New 
England industrial life. If time and space permitted, it would be 
highly desirable to show the important part played by New England 
investments, both within and without these States, and to discuss the 
insurance activities which bring a large revenue to the region. Early 
investments now widely distributed throughout the Nation provide a 
substantial income to the people of New England. A great industrial 
asset exists in its supply of skilled workmen and factory operatives. 
With long experience in business management and in labor organiza- 
tion, New England appears to be increasing harmonious relationships 
between labor and management. Its highly developed civic, educa- 



MI FOREWORD 

tional, and social institutions, and the family ties strengthened by 
several generations of life in this section are also powerful influences 
that react favorably upon the whole population. 

The discussion of productive activities and resources in this volume 
is supplemented by an analysis of New England as a consuming 
market in Volume II, Commercial Structure of New England, and in 
Volume III, Market Data Handbook of New England, with maps 
and statistics of the various marketing areas of the region. These 
three volumes give New T England, for the first time, a common body 
of authentic facts about its agricultural, industrial, and commercial 
development, and provide probably the most comprehensive study 
of the economic structure of New England yet undertaken. 

The New England Council was largely instrumental in under- 
taking this survey and made a substantial appropriation of funds 
to assist the Department of Commerce in obtaining the facts regard- 
ing New T England industry. The survey was carried out with the 
cooperation of many manufacturers, business men, public officials, 
local chambers of commerce, trade associations, and other agencies, 
whose helpful assistance is acknowledged. 

The present volume is the specific work of Dr. Charles E. Artman, 
who has had general charge of the entire New England Survey. 
A->istance and criticism were given by various Government agencies. 
Credit for major contributions is given to individuals in the sections 
concerned. 

William L. Cooper, Director. 
Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce. 

November, 1921). 



INDUSTRIAL STRUCTURE OF NEW ENGLAND 



INTRODUCTION 

Generalizations regarding New England industry can be fairly 
made only with full command of the facts underlying its economic* 
structure. In this work emphasis is placed upon the presentation of 
facts in organized form, from which the reader may make his own 
interpretations and draw his own conclusions. 

In this volume New England is considered primarily as a produc- 
ing region. All available sources have been canvassed for facts 
regarding the resources and productive activities of the region. 
The important elements that form a background for New England's 
commercial and industrial development are its natural characteristics, 
including its location; its physical structure and climate; its native 
resources in soil, forests, minerals, and fisheries; and the number, 
types, and distribution of its population. These have determined the 
form and growth of its industry and the extent of its commerce. 
The topography and climate of the region have influenced the devel- 
opment of a rugged, enterprising, self-reliant population, and have 
given impetus to specific forms of industrial development. 

The first portion of this volume deals with these background ele- 
ments, giving separate analyses of New England agriculture, forest 
resources, mineral assets, and fisheries. The facilities bv which 
New England is tied up with the rest of the United States 
through rail and water transportation are briefly presented. Be- 
cause power and fuel supply play a vital part in the industrial life 
of this region, these subjects are treated in separate sections. A gen- 
eral analysis of the population is then presented in respect to (a) dis- 
tribution throughout the area, (6) racial elements, (c) migrations 
within New England, and (d) trend of population growth. 

Much space is given to a detailed presentation of the various manu- 
facturing activities. An introductory section presents a general pic- 
ture of the nature, importance, diversity, and trends in New England 
manufacturing as a whole, and its position in the industrial life of 
the Nation. Analysis is then made of each important line of manu- 
facture. For this portion of the report an inquiry was directed to 
every manufacturing establishment in New England, requesting in- 
formation as to (a) experience in methods of manufacture, (&) plant 
organization, and (c) marketing organization. 

Upward of 5,000 New England manufacturers cooperated by sup- 
plying information concerning their experiences in the past few years 
of industrial adjustment. This information was carefully analyzed 
and digested. It is supplemented by an analysis of census data 
for the individual industries, and by other information from trade 

1 



Z INDUSTRIAL STRUCTURE OF NEW ENGLAND 

sources. Many months of effort were devoted to this work. The 
1'esults presented here perhaps afford the most comprehensive survey 
of the industrial structure of a major area that has yet been made. 

The information is presented in condensed and carefully organized 
form to give the reader the general facts about other fields as well as 
the one in which he is especially interested. The purpose of this 
work is to build up a fairly complete picture of New England 
industrial life as a whole, rather than to present a detailed story of 
each field. 

New England is considered as a homogeneous economic unit be- 
cause of its location and its relation to the rest of the country and 
because of the distinctive character of its economic life. This holds 
true generally for the six States, with the exception of a portion of 
southwestern Connecticut, which is adjacent to the New York 
metropolitan area. This region is also a convenient unit from 
historical and political standpoints. The six States comprising 
New England have many fundamental characteristics in com- 
mon. As the birthplace of the factory system New England 
is the oldest industrial section of the United States. The indus- 
trial life of America is deeply rooted in New England soil. Up to 
the close of the Civil War this region was the Nation's main source 
of manufactured goods. It was the first region to reach the stage 
of industrial maturity where it possessed a surplus of capital avail- 
able for the industrial development of newer regions. These regions, 
in turn, have become competitors in the markets for New England's 
products. 

Because New England was the cradle of America's industrial de- 
velopment, most of the Nation's manufactures had their origin there 
and many processes and products of fundamental national importance 
were invented and developed in that section. It was the seat of early 
shipbuilding activity and the pivot of the Nation's sea commerce. 
For decades the textile industry was concentrated in New England 
mills, and its place in cotton manufacture was undisputed until re- 
cent years. As a producer of footwear New England has long held 
the place of national leadership. In the finer grades of metal manu- 
facture, especially of machinery, precision tools, and silver, New 
England industry still ranks high. Despite a national expansion 
that has pushed forward the industrial development of other 
regions relatively faster than that of New England, these States 
still hold a commanding position in many products of manufacture. 

The supremacy enjoyed by New England industries in the early 
years of national growth had its basis in the early application of 
factory methods to the production of articles for meeting the funda- 
mental needs of the country's population. This expressed itself in 
its outstanding Leadership in the manufacture of textiles and of foot- 
wear. 

Since the day when these primary needs were uppermost in the 
manufacturing activity of the country, fundamental changes have 
taken place in the markets Tor manufactured goods. New stand- 
aid- of Living within the reach of multitudes have changed the 
emphasis from provision for primary comforts to indulgence of 
a wide range of choices in which style, attractiveness, and personal 
appeal are determining factors rather than durability and basic 



NATTUAL CHARACTERISTICS AND RESOURCES 3 

quality. The era in which people spent most of their incomes to 
satisfy the primary needs of life lias given way to a new era in which 
expenditures are largely for articles of convenience and luxury. 
This is exemplified in the rise of great new industries which to-day 
hold a dominant place in American economic life, as expressed by the 
automobile, motion pictures, radio, and other marvelous facilities for 
travel and entertainment. These have all grown up since the estab- 
lishment of the dominant New England industries. Revolutionary 
changes in distribution and marketing methods have also taken place 
in recent years. 

The results of this survey point definitely to certain significant 
conclusions. In the last few years New England has been passing 
through a period of drastic adjustment, which has been accompanied 
by depression in some major lines; but a great deal of adaptation to 
new industrial conditions has already taken place. While certain 
industries, particularly cotton textiles, have been far from prosper- 
ous, the general industrial life of the region as a whole is sound and 
secure. Marked improvement is evidenced in the general condition 
of New England industry, particularly since 1927. The advance has 
been pronounced in textiles and shoes. Agriculture now holds a 
more important place and provides a greater real income to New 
England than it did 50 years ago — a triumph of selection, increased 
efficiency, and specialization. The region still possesses substantial 
wealth in its forests, its stone industries, and its fisheries. Underly- 
ing these material resources New England has great assets in the 
skill and technique of its workmen; in its experience in industrial 
organization and management; and in its reserves of accumulated 
capital and equipment. 



Part I.— NATURAL CHARACTERISTICS AND RESOURCES 
PHYSICAL BACKGROUND 

New England forms a part of the great industrial region of the 
northeastern United States, whose boundaries are outlined roughly 
by the Potomac, Ohio, and Mississippi Rivers, with the Atlantic 
Ocean on the east and Canada on the north. Since the greater part 
of the population, wealth, industry, and commerce of the United 
States is concentrated in this northeastern quarter of its area, the 
location of New England in the extreme northeast, fronting on 
the Atlantic Ocean, is much nearer and more accessible to the 
Nation's dominant activities than appears from casual observation 
of its place on the map. New England is not remote from the great 
mass of the country's population nor from the principal industrial 
areas, and for its coal and raw materials draws largely upon this 
northeastern region, while its advantages of water transportation 
give it favorable access to^other sources. 

From the geographic center of New England to the center of the 
Nation's land area in central Kansas the air-line distance exceeds 
1.500 miles. Between New England's center of population and that 
of the country as a whole in western Indiana the distance is only a 
little more than half as great, being 850 miles. From New Eng- 
land's center of manufacturing activity in eastern Massachusetts 
to the Nation's manufacturing center in northwestern Ohio the dis- 
tance is shortened to 650 miles — considerably less than half the dis- 
tance between their respective geographic centers. In relation to 
the Nation's population and industry New England thus occupies 
a distinctly favorable position. 

Within a radius of 300 miles from Boston, the metropolis of New 
England, are included New York, Philadelphia, and Montreal. Such 
a radius embraces more than one-fifth (22 per cent) of the popula- 
tion of the United States and a considerable portion of the popula- 
tion of Canada. A circle of 500 miles radius includes Buffalo, Pitts- 
burgh, Baltimore, Washington, and Norfolk, and embraces almost 
one-third (31 per cent) of the Nation's population. When the circle 
is extended to a radius of 850 miles, it takes in also Cleveland, Chi- 
cago. Milwaukee, Indianapolis, Louisville, Knoxville, and Charleston, 
and includes more than half the population of the United States. 
Within a radius of 1,100 miles from Boston dwell about two-thirds 
of the population of the whole country. 

The air-line distances and the shortest rail distances from Boston 
to important commercial centers of the eastern United States are as 
follows : 



Distance From Boston to Important Commercial) Centers 






Air-line; 

dl itance 


Rail dis- 
tance 


City 


Air-line 

distance 


Kail dis- 
tance 


'; '.rk 


Mile* 
188 
268 
358 
478 
550 


Miles 
23. r » 
326 
42:-! 
679 
682 


( Chicago 


Miles 

849 

033 

1,036 

1,350 


Miles 
1,034 


Philadelphia 


Atlanta 


1, III 


Ball [more 


St. Lour 


1,230 


irv)\ 


New Orleans 


1,007 


• d 











x.\Tri;.\i. CHARACTERISTICS and RfcSOTJHCES 5 

BOUNDARIES AND AREA 

Fronting to the east and south on the Atlantic Ocean and Long 
Island Sound, and having the Canadian Provinces of Quebec and 
New Brunswick for its northern and eastern boundaries, New England 
lias direct land connection with the rest of the United States only 
where its adjoins New York State on its western border. Here the 
waters of Lake Champlain interpose for one-third of the distance. 
For a portion of the distance also the Berkshire Hills of western 
Massachusetts interpose a physical barrier to easy communication 
with the West, and the broad Hudson River limits direct rail 
access to only a few points. Rail entry to New England by nat- 
ural passageways over its western boundary is restricted to three nar- 
row corridors. One of these is along Long Island Sound at the south- 
ern extremity of Connecticut; another is at the northern end of the 
Hudson River Valley around the upper end of the Berkshires; and 
the third is at the extreme northern end of Vermont across the foot 
of Lake Champlain. 

New England occupies only 2 per cent of the land surface of the 
United States. Its six States considered collectively would rank 
twentieth in size among the States of the entire country. The total 
area of New England is about equal to that of New York and half 
of Pennsylvania; it is about the same as Missouri or Washington, 
and is slightly larger than* Florida ; it is about one-half the size of 
California, and is only one-fourth as large as Texas. 

From the tip of northern Maine to the southernmost point of 
Connecticut the maximum diagonal length is about 475 miles. The 
extreme width east and west is about 320 miles. The State of 
Maine occupies about one-half the total area of New England. It 
is somewhat surprising to learn that the geographical center of New 
England is in Maine, about 40 miles northwest of Portland. From 
Portland to the northern tip of Maine the distance is greater than 
from Portland to New York City. 

About four-fifths of the New England population lives in its 
three southern States, which comprise less than one-fourth of its 
total area. The size of these three States can be visualized by the 
fact that their whole extent is included within a rectangle 200 miles 
east and west by 135 north and south. 

The high concentration of population and manufacturing in south- 
ern New England is indicated by the fact that its center of industrial 
activity is in eastern Massachusetts, near Framingham, within 20 
miles of Boston, and its center of population is near Ayer, about 30 
miles northwest of Boston. 

TOPOGRAPHY 

The contour map, 1 which faces page 1, indicates the great variety of 
surface features. The limited belts of green show the low portions 
along the coast and in the river valleys. The mountains and higher 
elevations are shown in red and brown. The other colors show 
intervening levels. 

1 As this map is considerably enlarged from a generalized contour map made several 
years ago, it contains a few slight inaccuracies, which, however, do not detract from its 
usefulness in showing comparative elevations in New England. 

61232°— .°>0— 2 



6 INDUSTRIAL STRUCTURE OK \K\V KNCI ,AK I) 

A study of this map shows that the low-lying shore regions below 
an elevation of 100 feet are generally very narrow. These are Jim 
ited to a narrow fringe along the shores of southern Maine, eastern 
Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, and the valley of the 
Connecticut River. Included in these low areas is the sandy pro- 
jection of eastern Massachusetts that forms Cape Cod, together with 
the adjacent islands of Nantucket and Marthas Vineyard. This nar- 
row strip of low coast in New England is quite in contrast to the 
wide coastal plain farther south, extending from New Jersey to 
Florida. 

Back of the low coastal regions the interior of New England rises 
to highlands ranging in elevation from 500 feet to mountainous 
ridges rising above 3,000 feet in some places. Approximately 
one-half of New England exceeds 1,000 feet in elevation. These 
higher areas include most of Massachusetts west of the Connecti- 
cut River Valley and a small portion of north-central Massachu- 
setts; they reach downward also into northwestern Connecticut and 
extend northward to include most of southern and central Vermont, 
as well as the western and northern portions of New Hampshire and 
the northwestern section of Maine. 

What may be termed the physical backbone of New England is the 
mountainous portion which stretches from the Canadian border in 
Maine to the White Mountains in New Hampshire and the Green 
Mountains in Vermont, reaching thence to the Berkshires, in Massa- 
chusetts and northern Connecticut. The northern and western por- 
tions are conspicuously rough and rocky, with outcropping ledges 
interspersed with numerous water courses and lakes. The southern 
and eastern portions form an upland generally sloping east and 
south from the mountain areas to the Atlantic. 

The ruggedness of its surface has been an important factor in the 
development of New T England. The topography has made possible 
water power, has influenced the routes of roads and railroads, and 
has limited the development of agriculture. The mountains and 
lakes have made New England known as a vacation land in summer 
and a place for winter sports. 

RIVERS AND WATERFALLS 

The rivers of New England, rising in the highlands of the interior, 
flow generally southward to the sea. Exceptions to this are the 
Charles River, which flows eastward into Boston Bay; the lower 
Merrimack, which after reaching the Massachusetts line flows east- 
ward; and the upper St. John River, in northern Maine, which flows 
northeast to the national boundary and thence eastward into New 
Brunswick. 

Because of the frequent and abrupt changes in elevation, many 
of the streams make sharp descents at numerous places, forming 
waterfalls where they pass over* rocky Ledges. These waterfalls are 
in many instances the result of movements of glacial ice which 
blocked the old channels of streams and forced them into new courses 
across rocky formations. Where the resulting waterfalls occurred 
near the coasl they became an important factor as a source of power 
and thus determined the early industrial growth. This is illustrated 
by uch early industrial centers as Biddeford, on the Saco River in 



NATURAL CHARACTERISTICS AND RESOURCES 7 

Maine; by Lowell, Lawrence, and Haverhill, on the Merrimack; and 
by Pawtucket, on the Blackstone River in Rhode Island. 

From the standpoint of drainage and power the more important 
rivers of New England are the Connecticut, the Housatonic, and the 
Thames, which flow into Long Island Sound; the Blackstone River, 
flowing into Narragansett Bay; the Taunton River, in southeastern 
Massachusetts; and the Charles and the Merrimack, in eastern Massa- 
chusetts and New Hampshire. In Maine the important rivers are the 
Saco, the Androscoggin, the Kennebec, and the Penobscot, flowing 
into the Atlantic ; also the Aroostook and the St. John, in northern 
Maine, which flow through Canadian territory. Although the north- 
ern portion is much more abundantly supplied with water power, 
the streams of southern New England have been much more fully 
developed. 

While the navigation afforded by these rivers is of little present im- 
portance to the interior, it was a substantial factor in the early 
growth of cities near the coast, giving them access to tidewater trans- 
portation. In the early days of smaller boats and of greater de- 
pendence upon water traffic, navigation of the coastal streams ex- 
tended considerably farther inland. Water-borne traffic now moves 
on the Connecticut River as far as Hartford ; on the Thames, to Nor- 
wich ; on the Charles, to Cambridge ; on the Merrimack, to Haverhill ; 
on the Kennebec, as far as Augusta ; and on the Penobscot, to Bangor. 
The principal importance of these streams in water traffic is now for 
transporting coal and other bulky materials, such as stone, sand, 
gravel, and lumber. 

COAST LINE AND HARBORS 

The excellent natural harbors provided by the numerous indenta- 
tions of the New England coast were in the days of the sailing ves- 
sel the foci of its important sea commerce. These natural harbors 
influenced the location and development of the region's industries 
by favoring the accumulation, at these points, of wealth from 
extensive sea ventures. These harbors gave preeminence to New 
England on the American coast in the same way as the contact of 
Great Britain with the sea enabled her to build up a far-reaching 
maritime trade. The advantage of its maritime position goes far 
to explain why more than three-fourths of the present population 
of New England lives within 50 miles of tidewater. 

With a total shore line of approximately 2,000 miles, fronting upon 
the rich fishing banks of the North Atlantic, the situation was favor- 
able for fishing as well as commerce. The shores of New England 
provided a great stage for these enterprises. It was thus no accident 
that the people of this region made their first great economic suc- 
cesses in fishing, whaling, and ocean trade. 

New England's favorable position on the sea, which enabled it to 
build up a large sea commerce in early days, was thus a determining 
factor in locating its centers of industrial development, because this 
development had its start in the wealth and capital accumulated from 
sea activities. At a later period the great mill sections were deter- 
mined by the water power of New England rivers and streams. 
When water-driven machinery was supplanted by steam the position 
of advantage in manufacturing was again shifted to points on or 



8 INDUSTRIAL STRUCTURE OF NEW ENGLAND 

near the coast, where coal could be transported cheaply by tidewater. 
Thus the topography of New England and its frontage on the sea 
have continuously determined and modified the location of its indus- 
trial activities. 

CLIMATE 

The climate of Xew England is characterized by frequent weather 
changes, long and cold winters, usually with considerable snowfall, 
comparatively short summers with occasional brief periods of high 
temperature, and usually very delightful fall weather. Periods of 
extreme heat last but a few days, and on the coast they are modified 
by sea breezes. The average number of days with oppressive 
humidity or with dense fog on the coast is small. 

Lacking the enervating heat and humidity of more southern 
regions, the year-round New England climate is stimulating to 
exertion, conducive to health and vitality, and favorable to indus- 
trial enterprise. Although winters in the northern and interior por- 
tions are rigorous, they are not too severe for human comfort ; in the 
southern portion they are moderate. The mean annual temperature 
in southern Xew England ranges between 47° and 49° F.; in most of 
the northern portions it ranges from 41° to 42° F., falling in the 
extreme north to 39°. 

The invigorating climate has played an important role in the in- 
dustrial development of Xew England. Its general healthfulness 
fosters a sturdy, rugged population, and its variability is a stimulus 
to human activity. Its temperateness in the summer gives ideal 
living conditions. 

The heavy snowfalls and the severe winter weather in the northern 
portions of Xew England are factors to be considered because of 
their retarding influence on traffic and communication. Y\ x inter 
weather, however, is not a serious hindrance to rail or highway traffic 
in the more densely populated sections of Xew England, and it does 
not hamper the activity of the ocean ports. 

SIGNIFICANCE TO INDUSTRIES 

Because this region lacks the enervating hot periods of some other 
sections, labor is maintained at full productivity throughout the year. 
Time is seldom lost on account of hot weather. The bracing air of 
Xew England generates ambition among the industrial population 
and promote- a -anguine attitude. The humidity of the coast regions 
is a distinct asset in certain industries, especially in the manufacture 
of textiles, where the moist air prevents the generation of static elec- 
tricity and maintains the fibers in a pliable condition for spinning 
and weaving. In this respect the Xew England coast has advantages 
similar to those of the regions of old England, where the textile 
industry has had its fullest development. 

Climate is an important factor in New England's most characteris- 
tic product — maple sugar and sirup. A favorable combination of 
climate and -oil gives preeminence to cranberry culture, to the grow- 
I* blueberries, and to tobacco growing in the Connecticut River 
Valley. In the growing of low-temperature crops also, such as 
potatoes in northern Xew England and turnips in eastern Massa- 
chusetts, climate is a determining factor, It has given Maine sweet 



NATURAL CHARACTERISTICS AND RESOURCES 9 

corn a wide reputation for fine quality. The New England climate 
and the air drainage in its valleys favor the production of apples of 
high quality. 

The growing season in the southern part of New England varies 
from 150 to 170 days, and in the northern portion from V20 to 130 
days. Along the coast the frost-free period is considerably longer 
than in the interior. In the northern part of Maine the growing 
season is shortened considerably by late spring frosts and early frosts 
in the fall ; the frost-free period averages about 105 days. In south- 
ern New 7 England the last killing frost of spring comes the latter 
part of April or early in May; and killing frosts in the fall occur 
from October 10 to October 20. In northern New England the 
danger from spring frosts is extended two w y eeks later, and killing 
frosts in the fall cOme in the latter part of September. 

ANNUAL PRECIPITATION 

New England is w r ell watered throughout the year. The annual 
precipitation from rain and snow in the three southern States ranges 
from 44 to 46 inches. It is somew T hat less than this in Vermont and 
New Hampshire, w 7 here it ranges from 35 to 40 inches. In Maine it 
ranges from 40 inches or less in the north up to 46 inches in other 
portions of the State. 

Moderate showers and occasional thunderstorms provide most of 
the summer precipitation. Frequency of rainfall throughout the 
growing season generally assures good pasturage and the maturity of 
crops. Hailstorms are of rare occurrence, but they occasionally 
cause some damage to tobacco in the Connecticut Valley. In north- 
ern New 7 England rainfall in the spring and fall comes mostly from 
storms that pass over the St. Law r renfce Valley or up the coast. 
These storms sometimes continue for 24 or 36 hours, with a moderate 
or heavy fall of rain. 

In southern New England precipitation is w 7 ell distributed through- 
out the year, but in the north there is somewhat less in winter and 
spring than during the rest of the year. In the interior and northern 
portions, w r here most of the winter precipitation is in the form of 
snow, the accumulation often reaches a depth of several feet. In these 
sections the ground is generally well covered from early November to 
March or early April. The annual snowfall varies from 30 to 40 
inches along the southern coast region to 70 inches along the coast of 
Maine, and even to 100 inches in the northern portions of New Eng- 
land. The atmosphere naturally has a greater moisture content along 
the coast than in the interior of New England. The average number 
of days with dense fog or oppressive humidity, however, is small. 
Foggy weather along the Maine coast is most common in the summer 
months, but there are few days of dense fog lasting for more than 
an hour except in the extreme eastern part. At Eastport, where 
there is more foggy w T eather than on any other portion of the Maine 
coast, the average number of days of fog during the summer months 
is 6 days in May and September, 7 days in June, 12 days in July, 
and 11 days in August. 



10 INDUSTRIAL STRUCTURE OF NEW ENGLAND 

RECREATIONAL ADVANTAGES 

The wonderful variety of mountain and valley, of forest, lake, 
and open country, of picturesque shore line and river courses in 
New England is enhanced by the changing seasons. The seclusion of 
forest, lake, and stream, the grandeur of rugged mountain peaks, and 
the ever-changing shore line w 7 here the breakers roll in from the At- 
lantic, form an endless variety which makes New England the great 
recreational region of the eastern United States. With the congestion 
of population in American cities and the extension of facilities for 
motor transportation to the general public, these recreational advan- 
tages are becoming more and more recognized as a distinct commercial 
asset of New 7 England. Each summer its population is swelled by 
increasing thousands of visitors from outside sections. In many 
localities the summer population is double or triple that of the win- 
ter season. Every year some of these visitors from other sections 
take up permanent summer homes in the region, and some become 
established in business or manufacturing, as permanent residents. 

The importance of these recreational advantages is indicated by 
the existence of nearly 500 private summer camps, which each year 
are filled with boys and girls from all parts of the East. There are 
nearly 400 golf courses in New England. Many a hunter is attracted 
by the presence of game in the northern forests, and the fishing in 
its streams and lakes lures other pleasure seekers. Carnivals of 
winter sports are held at a dozen places. Along the coast sum- 
mer communities are populated each year by visitors to Narragan- 
sett Bay, Buzzards Bay, Nantucket, Marthas Vineyard, Cape Cod, the 
North Shore, and hundreds of places along the coast of Maine. 

The diversity of its mountain scenery, the beauty of its lakes and 
valleys, the fascinating spell of the seashore, the historic associa- 
tions of New England villages, and landscapes enriched by three 
centuries of American history, are attractions of New England 
which draw increasing thousands of visitors to its borders each year. 
These, with well-kept highways, the provision of comforts for year- 
round outdoor life, and the charm and beauty of the countryside, 
have made New England widely known as a year-round playground. 



AGRICULTURE 

Note. — The material presented in the section on agriculture is based partly upon 
information gathered by Dr. R. J. McFall, of the Bureau of the Census, while professor of 
agricultural economics at the Massachusetts Agricultural College. 

Agriculture in New England is overshadowed by the region's 
manufacturing activities, yet the industries of the soil are of sub- 
stantial importance. Concentration of a large food-consuming pop- 
ulation in its industrial centers gives emphasis to the importance 
of food production far beyond the relative proportion of persons 
or acreage engaged. The further New England agriculture can go 
in supplying the needs of its own population, the more it reduces 
the necessity of spending the income of the region for food pro- 
duced in other sections. An important advantage enjoyed by New 
England agriculture is the existence of a large consuming popula- 
tion near at hand, which provides a ready market for its products 
almost at the producer's farm. 

In addition to its contribution to the food supplies of the region, 
New England agriculture provides an important consuming market 
for feeds and fertilizer and for farm implements and equipment. 
Besides this is the market afforded by the farm population for ordi- 
nary articles of human consumption. Maintenance of the prosperity 
of New England agriculture assures an important market for the 
varied products of the manufactured articles of this and other 
regions. 

Products of New England agriculture in 1925 exceeded in value 
the contribution of net revenue from any single manufacturing in- 
dustry of the region except cotton goods. Estimating the value of all 
farm production, including crops and animal products, on the basis 
of average yield and farm prices, the United States Department of 
Agriculture computed the value of the products of New England soil 
to be about $473,000,000 in 1925 and $476,000,000 in 1926. Animal 
products form a high proportion in these totals, representing more 
than 40 per cent of the value, while the value of all crops was less 
than 60 per cent. 

Farm property in the six New England States was reported as hav- 
ing in 1925 a total value of $1,091,545,000, with a farm population of 
657,755, living on 159,489 farms. The value of New England farm 
property as reported for that year was about two-thirds that of New 
York State or half that of Wisconsin. The New England farm 
population was about 125,000 more than that of California, 110,000 
less than that of New York State, and two-thirds the farm popula- 
tion of Iowa. 

The agriculture of New England is characterized by the produc- 
tion of articles mainly for consumption in near-by cities. It is thus 
governed by local market considerations and requirements rather 
than by the factors which determine the production in other agri.cul- 

11 



12 INDUSTRIAL STBTJCTURE OF NEW ENGLAND 

4 

tural regions of staple commodities for distant markets. A distin- 
guishing characteristic of New England agriculture is the diversity 
of its production. 

SPECIALIZATION 

Dairying is the most extensive agricultural activity throughout 
this region, directed to the production of fresh milk and cream for 
consumption in the New England market. This line of production 
engages more farmers than any other. .Aside from dairying, the 
source of greatest money income to New England farmers is the pro- 
duction of potatoes. This activity is concentrated largely in a single 
specialized region of northeastern Maine where a favorable com- 
bination of soil and climate makes the section one of the great potato- 
producing areas of the United States. 

Apple growing is a specialized industry of considerable commercial 
importance in several districts in the three northern States of New 
England and in Massachusetts, Maple products are also a source of 
substantial income on the northern farms of these States, particu- 
larly in Vermont. In the valley of the Connecticut River tobacco 
growing and the production of onions are important sources of in- 
come. Cranberries are an important source of revenue to the grow- 
ers in the Cape Cod region of southeastern Massachusetts. The high- 
land region of southeastern Maine, especially Washington County, 
derives a substantial income from the blueberries which grow abun- 
dantly on the rugged uncultivated land of that section. Sweet corn 
for canning also contributes considerable amounts to the revenue of 
farmers in southern Maine. 

Distributed about southern New England are various areas near 
the large cities which yield important incomes from the production 
of market-garden crops. Part-time farming on small tracts has 
had significant development in the vicinity of the large industrial 
centers. Poultry raising is of commercial importance in southern 
New England and in southeastern New Hampshire and Maine. 

In regions not given to crop specialization there is some general 
farming in which hay is an important crop. In northern New 
England many a farmer combines agriculture and dairying with 
forestry, supplementing the income from his dairy herd with sales 
from the farm woodlot, augmented often by maple products. Grain 
is grown to a limited extent throughout New England for farm 
consumption. 

CHARACTER OF SOILS 

In consequence of the glacial origin and of the rough and broken 
surface of New England, there is great diversity in types of soil, as 
well as in the elevation of farm lands. With the exception of a few 
specialized regions, such as the Aroostook Valley in northeastern 
Maine and the valley of the Connecticut Kiver in Massachusetts and 
Connecticut, very little uniformity of soil types exists anywhere in 
the six States. Along the low coast line stretches a narrow belt of 
sand, which in Massachusetts reaches out into the sea to form Cape 
Cod and the near-hy inlands of Nantucket and Marthas Vineyard* 
These are the only' vestiges of a coastal plain in Mew England. 



AGRIOULTUBB 13 

Practically all the tillable soils are of ample depth, are usually well 
drained, and are not subject to washing. In the heavier types of soil 
sufficient moisture is retained for growing crops, even during rather 
long dry periods. 

New England soils may be classified according to type, contour, 
and elevation in four distinct groups. These are, first, the moun- 
tainous and hilly regions of the higher elevations; second, the up- 
land valleys interspersed among the hill regions; third, the more 
level land of the lower elevations; and, finally, the lowland valleys 
and coast region. The general localities where these various types 
prevail may be observed by reference to the colored topographical 
map facing page 1. 

Among the mountainous and hilly regions there is generally a 
thin soil and such a prevalence of rock that tillage is not profitable 
under modern conditions. In early days much of this land, after 
clearing from the primitive forest, was given over to cropping in 
small, irregular fields, which yielded fairly good crops until the 
virgin fertility of the soil was exhausted. The difficulty of working 
this type of soil in competition with the richer land of the western 
farms is the principal reason for the abandonment of agriculture on 
much of this broken land, and for its consequent reversion to forest. 
Most of it is better adapted to timber growing than to farming, but 
portions of it are profitably utilized for farm pasturage as a support 
to the dairy industry. 

On the floors of the numerous upland valleys lying among the hilly 
regions there is generally a rather light and fine type of soil which 
is easily worked and which warms up quickly in the spring. These 
upland valleys range from small, narrow hollows among the hills 
and along stream beds to quite extensive tracts of fairly level land. 
Apple orchards thrive in these upland valleys where the air drain- 
age is good, and early specialty crops also grow well there. Near 
the large cities some of these valley soils are profitably utilized in 
the growing of market-garden crops. 

The soils of the low r er elevations are in areas of smoother contour, 
and are better suited to agriculture. Under proper care they provide 
excellent pasturage. They are mostly loams, varying from a gravelly 
or sandy texture to fine silt. In some sections they are favorably 
affected by the presence of chemicals in the bedrock, such as phos- 
phate material in Aroostook County of Maine, and lime in Vermont, 
western Massachusetts, and Connecticut. Some of these soils are 
admirably adapted to the growth of the heavier vegetables, such as 
potatoes, and of hay, grain, and forage crops. In all but the north- 
ern portion of New England corn matures well on these soils of the 
lower elevations. 

The coastal region of southeastern Massachusetts and areas back 
of it are dotted with marshes and beds of peat rich in accumulated 
vegetable matter, which are especially suited to cranberry growing. 
The moist atmosphere and even, cool temperature of the growing 
season in this district have combined to make it the principal 
cranberry producing area of the United States. The sandy soil at 
the base of Cape Cod is also peculiarly adapted to the growth of 
such crops as strawberries and asparagus. 



14 INDUSTRIAL STRUCTURE OF NEW ENGLAND 

IMPROVED FARM LAND 

Less than a quarter of the total land surface of New England is 
now in farms, and only a little over one-third of this portion is classi- 
fied as improved land used for producing crops and as plowable 
pasture. The improved crop and plowland is only 13.6 per cent of 
the total land area of New England, in comparison with 36.6 per cent 
for New York State, with 50.3 per cent for the East North Central 
States, and with 26.5 per cent for the United States as a whole. 

In 1925 there were 15,858,000 acres in the farms of New England, 
out of its total land surface of some 68,000,000 acres. The improved 
farm land, embracing the portion that is cropped or in plowable pas- 
ture, comprised only 5,395,140 acres. The land now suitable for 
tillage in New England is but slightly more than 1 per cent of the 
tillable land area of the entire United States, and it is but 5 per 
cent of the tillable land in the 14 States east and north of the Missis- 
sippi and Ohio Rivers. It is less than half the acreage of improved 
land in the neighboring State of New York. 

The relative importance of agriculture in the individual States of 
New England, as indicated by the proportion of workable farm land 
in the total area of the State, is shown by the following percentages: 
Vermont, 24; Connecticut, 20.7; Rhode Island, 16.1; Massachusetts, 
15.1; New Hampshire, 10.9; and Maine, 9.7. The proportion of 
improved farm land in each county of these States is shown 
graphically in Figure 1. 

REGIONAL PRODUCTION 

The Census of Agriculture for 1925 gives for each county the yield 
and the value of the principal crops of the previous years, and of the 
principal livestock products. The crops include corn harvested or 
cut for silage, wheat, oats threshed, barley, buckwheat, dry beans, 
hay, tobacco, potatoes, strawberries, sweet corn, and apples. The 
livestock products include, as dairy products, the milk produced, 
butter made on farms, butterfat sold, and the value of whole milk 
sold in 1924; they include also the value of wool and of eggs pro- 
duced and of chickens raised in 1924. 

These agricultural products had an aggregate value in the six 
New England States in 1924 somewhat in excess of $246,000,000. In 
each of the States of Maine, Vermont, Massachusetts, and Connecti- 
cut the total value exceeded $50,000,000. In New Hampshire it was 
somewhat less than half this figure, while in Rhode Island it was 
nearly $7.700/K)0. The relative production of the individual counties 
in New England, as shown by the value of these products in 1925, is 
indicated in Figure 2. 

It is recognized that these figures take only partial account of the 
specialized products which are of importance in certain sections of 
New England. Neither do they take account of the production on 
small tracts, not designated ;is farms, adjacent to villages and cities. 
In these hitter- places the production of vegetables, fruits, poultry, 
and dairy products, largely for home consumption, reaches a very 
considerable ralue. [f tne total figures for all products of agricul- 
ture and of livestock and poultry were obtainable by counties, the 



AGRICULTURE 



15 




Figure 1 



16 



INDUSTRIAL STRUCT U I IK 0¥ NEW ENGLAND 



VALUE OF PRINCIPAL CROPS 
AND 
LIVE STOCK PRODUCTS 
IN 
NEW ENGLAND COUNTIES 

1925 

EACH DOT= 4500,000 




STA71E TOTALS 
MAINE $54,372,000 

NEWHAMPSHIRE 
VERMONT 
MASSACHUSETTS 
CONNECTICUT 
RHODE ISLAND 



24,569,000 
50,789,000 
57,158,000 
51,51 1,000 
7.693.0 00 



NEW ENGLAND $246,092,000 



NEW EN GLAND SURVEY 

U. S. DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE 

Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce- 

Domestic Commerce Division 

(3Z65-+6) 



Figure 2 



AGRICULTURE 



17 



total values would be increased considerably. The map (fig. 2) 
shows in a general way, however, the relative agricultural productive- 
ness of the individual counties of New England. 

CHANGES AND TRENDS 

The period of maximum farm activity in New England, as indi- 
cated by the acreage, was about 1880. The census for that year gives 
the total land in farms as nearly 21,500,000 acres. The total re- 
ported for 1925 was 15,858,000 acres. The improved land in farms 
reported in 1880 was 13,148,000 acres, and by 1925 it had fallen to 
considerably less than half this amount — 5,395,000 acres. In the same 
period the improved farm acreage in the United States nearly 
doubled. Changes in the individual States of New England in this 
45-year interval, both in total land in farms and in improved land 
capable of cultivation, are shown in the following table. 

Changes in New England Farm Acreage, 1880-1925 



State 


Total land in farms 


Improved land in farms 
(crop and plowable pasture) 


• 


1880 


1925 


1880 


1925 


Maine _. ___ __. 


Acres 

6, 552, 578 
4, 882, 588 
3, 359, 079 

2, 453, 541 

3, 721, 173 
514, 813 


Acres 
5, 161, 428 
3, 925, 683 
2, 367, 629 
1,832,110 
2, 262, 064 
309, 013 


Acres 
3, 484, 908 
3, 286, 461 
2,128,311 
1, 642, 188 
2,308,112 
298, 486 


Acres 

1, 839, 283 


Vermont.-. _ _ ___ _ 


1, 401, 876 


Massachusetts _ . 


772, 519 


Connecticut ___ . _ . 


639, 341 


New Hampshire . _ _ 


632, 519 


Rhode Island _ - - 


109, 602 






TotaL- -. 


21, 483, 772 
536, 081, 835 


15, 857, 927 
924, 319, 352 


13,148,466 
284, 771, 042 


5, 395, 140 


United States . ___________ 


505, 027, 400 







Changes accompanying the reduction in farm acreage, as regards 
the number of persons engaged in agriculture and the number of 
farms, together with total acreage and improved farm acreage, are 
indicated for the census intervals since 1850 for New England as a 
whole by the figures of the next table. This is followed by tables 
showing the increase in value of farm property and the decrease in 
farm animals and in production of grains in New England. 

Changes in Basic Factors in New England Farming Activity, 1850-1925 



Year 


Persons 
engaged in 
agriculture 


Number of 
farms 


Total land in 
farms 


Improved 
land in farms 


1925 


i 657, 755 
221, 162 
280, 760 
287, 469 
304, 448 
301,815 
314, 810 
297, 294 
( 8 ) 


159, 489 
158,564 
188, 802 
191, 888 
189, 961 
207, 232 
180, 649 
183, 942 
167, 651 


Acres 

15, 857, 927 

16, 990, 642 

19, 714, 931 

20, 548, 999 
19, 755, 584 

21, 483, 772 
19, 569, 863 
20,110,922 
18, 367, 458 


Acres 
2 5, 395, 140 


1920 


6,114,601 


1910 •__ 


7, 254, 904 


1900 


8, 134, 403 


1890 


10, 738, 930 


1880 


13, 148, 466 


1870 


11,997,540 


1860 . 


12, 215, 771 


1850 


11,150,594 







1 Total farm population. 



2 Crop land and plowable pasture. 



3 No data. 



18 INDtfSfRiAL STRUCTURE OF NEW ENGLAND 

Increase in Value of Farm Property in New England, 1850 11)20 



Year 



1920 
1910 
1900 
1890 
1880. 
1870. 
1860 
1850 



All farm property 



$1, 173, 019, 594 
867, 248, 457 
639, 645, 900 
585,267,817 
671,846,058 
566, 353, 952 
560, 467, 417 
435,154,325 



Average 
farm in- 
vestment 



$7, 481 
4, 593 
3, 333 
3,081 
3,242 
3, 135 
3,047 
2, 596 



Value of farm 

lands and 
buildings 



$917, 225, 584 
718, 544, 808 
528, 267, 748 
489, 570, 178 
580, 681, 418 
468, 133, 979 
476, 303, 837 
372, 348, 543 




Decrease in Animals on New England Farms, 1850-1925 



Year 


Cattle 1 year 
and over 


Sheep 1 year 
and over 


Swine 


Mature 
horses 


Oxen 


Total work 
animals 


1925 

1920- 


987, 400 
1, 222, 963 
1, 168, 528 
1, 316, 544 
1, 411, 852 
1, 503, 452 
1, 358, 137 
1, 572, 776 
1, 469, 028 


122, 257 
191, 691 
306, 443 
563, 217 
936, 532 
1, 362, 234 
1, 450, 155 

1, 779, 670 

2, 257, 583 


194, 040 
383, 752 
396, 642 
362, 199 
407, 590 
362, 133 
241, 000 
326, 176 
361, 481 


255, 234 
292, 236 
343, 826 
365, 045 
368, 849 
324, 066 
259, 368 
258, 992 
212, 274 


0) 

0) 

0) 
2 65, 485 
111,461 
137, 581 
198, 742 
267, 960 
293, 285 


255, 234 
292, 236 


191<L_- 


343, 826 


1900. 


365, 045 


1890 

1880. 


480, 310 
461, 647 


1870 

I860-. - 


458, 110 
526, 952 


1850--.- 


505, 559 



1 Small number. 2 Steers 2 years and over. 

Decrease in Production of Grains in New England, 1850-1925 



Year 


Oats 


Corn 


Buckwheat 


Barley 


Wheat 


Rye 


1925 


Bushels 
6, 023, 120 
7, 099, 721 
7, 350, 601 

7, 643, 175 

8, 960, 323 
8, 839, 681 
9, 169, 504 

10, 895, 185 
8, 101, 268 


Bushels 
1, 815, 862 
5, 597, 723 
8, 238, 394 

7, 807, 920 
4, 596, 046 

8, 376, 308 
7, 347, 666 
9,164,505 

10, 175, 856 


Bushels 
366, 160 
456, 762 
602, 715 
807, 336 
890, 428 
1, 039, 343 
1, 189, 413 
990, 812 
716, 044 


Bushels 
198, 644 
343, 641 
428, 617 
704, 957 
871, 872 
697, 884 
1, 075, 059 
1, 199, 119 
414, 496 


Bushels 

118,670 

544, 786 

114,998 

.166,125 

289, 124 

1, 227, 037 

1, 000, 693 

1, 083, 193 

1, 090, 894 


Bushels 
40, 735 


1920--- 


149, 392 


1910. 


230, 458 


1900 


317, 964 


1890-.. 


403, 525 


1880. 


730, 215 


1870 


703, 379 


I860. . 


1, 425, 851 


1850 


1, 570, 589 







In the two generations that have passed since New England farms 
had their greatest acreage the type of rural activity in this section 
has undergone radical changes, both in methods of production and in 
nature of products. The changes, which have been necessary for 
survival, have on the whole resulted in substantial progress. While 
some branches of this industry had setbacks from the changed con- 
dition-, other branches have made substantia] gains. 

According to the best available estimates, the gross value of the 
products of New England farms is. now more than four times 
the value reported for 1ST'). Even when allowances are made for 
changes in price levels and for the increased outlay by farmers for 
i'ci'd and fertilizer, the net productivity of New England agriculture 
jjt t he present I inn- appears to be bet ween t wo ;md three t imes as great 
;r it w;i- 50 years ago. This increase in net production has come 
about mainly as the result of increased efficiency and of specialization 



AGRICULTUHK 19 

and concentration of effort on favorable localities and soils which are 
best adapted to specific products. 

The most important products to-day are potatoes, fruits, onions, 
market-garden crops, tobacco, cranberries, blueberries, maple prod- 
ucts, and particularly milk and cream. As a consequence of this 
specialization the volume of production from New England agri- 
culture has more than doubled, despite a great reduction in the 
number of farms, with about one-half the former acreage of improved 
farm land and with very few more dairy animals. 

In value of crop per acre of cultivated soil, four of the New 
England States — Maine, Massachusetts, Connecticut, and Rhode 
Island — were surpassed in 1919 (the latest date for which compara- 
tive figures are available) by only four other States — New Jersey, 
North Carolina, South Carolina, and Arizona. As a dairy region the 
relative importance of New England is indicated in a value of live- 
stock per acre of farm land amounting to $9.60, compared with 
an average of $8.38 per acre for the rest of the United States; while 
the value of animal products per acre in New England was $7.79, 
compared with $2.69 for the country as a whole. The New England 
average was exceeded only by that for the three Middle Atlantic 
States of New York, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania, which was 
$10.18 per acre; and this figure was surpassed by all three States 
of southern New England. 

PROBLEMS OF NEW ENGLAND AGRICULTURE 

New England agriculture shows unmistakable marks of competi- 
tion for labor, arising from the inducements offered by near-by 
factories. The constant drain of the farm population to urban cen- 
ters has made the provision of man power for the farms an acute 
problem. New England farmers find it difficult to compete with the 
factories, both in their scale of wages and in hours of labor. New 
England has also to face in its own markets keen competition from 
the agricultural products of other sections of the United States. The 
competition which was formerly felt from the agricultural West in 
the production of grain, beef, and wool has more recently entered the 
field of dairy products, poultry, and fruits. On the other hand, the 
increase in urban population resulting from the development of city 
industries provides excellent near-by markets for such products of 
New England farms as can be grown locally in successful competi- 
tion with more distant areas. 

Problems of production and organization are faced by New 
England agriculture, because of the small size of most of the farm- 
ing units, resulting from the broken surface of the land and the 
high percentage of soil that can not be used productively. Conse- 
quently it is difficult to introduce the large-scale mechanical opera- 
tions that are successful in regions more uniform in topography and 
soil. The lack of capital that accompanies the small unit operation 
also limits the outlay for farm machinery. Urban competition for 
labor, on the other hand, has forced New England agriculture to use 
the minimum of man power. The scattered farms and the resulting 
sparse population in many rural districts have also constituted a 
distinct handicap to organized efforts by farmers. 



20 INDUSTRIAL STRUCTURE OF NEW ENGLAND 

As an aid to the solution of New England's agricultural problems 
the improved transportation that has come in recent years with the 
automobile and improved highways has done much by removing the 
isolation of farm life and by encouraging organized efforts among the 
farmers. The extension of electric power and light in numerous 
farm communities of New England is also a factor in meeting the 
difficulties from labor shortage. Significant developments have 
taken place in numerous regions where families of immigrant stock 
have become established on the farms, providing thereby a labor 
supply for intensive agriculture. 

Despite the drains on the New England farm population, the por- 
tion of the old stock that has remained on the farms, augmented by 
increasing numbers of farmers of recent European origin, has been 
able to maintain a substantial net growth in agricultural production. 

Fuller utilization of different types of soil is now the subject of 
special studies in Connecticut and Vermont. Detailed farm surveys 
have been made in each State. The maintenance of standard grades 
of quality in marketing certain products, notably fruits and eggs, has 
made significant progress through the use of official labels. 

THE DAIRY INDUSTRY 

Commercial dairying in New England is generally carried on in 
conjunction with other types of farming whereby farm labor may 
be used to full advantage by distributing its cost over other pro- 
ductive activities. Comparison of the value of dairy products with 
the cost of feeds indicates that this industry by itself would not be 
profitably conducted at prevailing prices, except as one element in a 
combination of farm enterprises; and yet, the utilization of farm 
roughage and of working time that would be otherwise unproductive 
makes the combined farm activities modestly profitable, where no 
single activity could support itself. There are numerous instances 
of specialization, however, particularly near the industrial centers, 
where the whole effort is devoted to milk production, and where most 
of the feed is purchased, as well as the livestock for maintaining the 
dairy herd. The most frequent examples of this high specialization 
are in southern New England. 

New England is important as a breeder of dairy animals and its 
sales of purebred Jerseys, Holsteins, Ayrshires, and Guernseys to 
other parts of the United States and to foreign countries are a source 
of considerable income. 

MILK PRODUCTION 

The value of the total milk production of New England in 1925 
was esl imated by the New England Crop Reporting Service at $108,- 
217.000 and its volume at 468,103,000 gallons. The contribution of 
the individual States is shown in the following table. Upward 
of 57 per cent of the total quantity in 1925 was produced in the 
three northern States of Maine, New Hampshire, and Vermont; but 
the value of the remaining 43 per cent produced in the three southern 
Stateg was more than half (52 per* cent) of the total value, on ac- 
count of higher prices in the southern region. It is observed that 
the leading State in volume of production is Vermont, followed next 
by Massachusetts; hut the value of the Massachusetts product ex- 



AGRICULTURE 



21 



ceeded that of Vermont by more than $4,000,000. Connecticut pro- 
duced nearly 4,000,000 gallons less than Maine, but the value of its 
product was nearly one-half greater than that of Maine. 

Milk Production in New England States in 1925 



St a to 


Quantity 
in thou- 
sands of 
gallons 


Value in 

thousands 
of dollars 


State 


Quantity 

in thou- 
sands of 
gallons 


/ Value in 
thousands 
Of dollars 


Maine 


80, 147 
50, 107 
138. f>42 
10G, 388 


14, 937 
10,464 
26, 262 
30, 408 


Rhode Island 


16, 521 

76. 398 


4, 875 
21 271 


New 1 1 a mpsb ire 


Connecticut 


Vermont 






Massachusetts 


Total 


468, 103 


108,217 







In former years most of the milk produced in New England, par- 
ticularly that in the northern States, was made into butter and cheese, 
at first on the farms and later in central creameries. With the 
extension of the city demand for fluid milk, sweet cream, and ice 
cream, a rapidly increasing proportion has been marketed in the fresh 
state. The year-round production for manufacture is now limited 
chiefly to sections with the poorest transportation facilities for mar- 
keting fluid milk. In other sections there is some manufacture of the 
surplus during seasons of greatest production ; but the growing de- 
mand for sweet cream absorbs an increasing portion of the supply 
which is not marketed as fluid milk. Very little butter is now made 
on farms. 

Of the total milk production it is estimated that less than 20 per 
cent goes into the manufacture of butter, and only slight volumes 
are used for condensed milk and for cheese-making, probably not 
more than 2 per cent together. The volume of locally produced 
milk consumed in the manufacture of ice cream is unknown, because 
large quantities of cream, sweet butter, and condensed and evapo- 
rated milk are shipped in for this purpose from outside sources. The 
major portion of the New England production is sold as fluid milk 
and is consumed in its fresh state. 

The changes that have taken place in the production of milk in 
the individual States from 1889 to 1924, according to available census 
data, are shown in the following figures. This table shows that milk 
production has advanced in the midst of the industrial sections of 
southern New England just as truly as in the rural regions of the 
north. 

Milk Production in the New England States, 1889-1924 

[In thousands of gallons] 



State 


1889 


1899 


1909 


1919 


1924 


Vermont _. 


90, 712 

82, 572 
57, 970 
54, 414 
42, 633 
10, 611 


142, 042 
105, 572 
99, 586 
68, 952 
60, 724 
12, 924 


122, 919 
90, 438 

69, 785 
59, 829 
44, 461 
12, 178 


122, 096 

76, 317 

77, 677 
54, 894 
42, 556 
12, 099 


127, 957 


Massachusetts 


86, 575 


Maine 


71, 131 


Connecticut 


65, 699 


New Hampshire 


38, 206 


Rhode Island 


13, 504 






Total 


338, 912 


489, 800 


399, 610 


385, 639 


403, 072 



tfl232°— 30> 



22 INDUSTRIAL STRUCTURE OF NP^W ENGLAND 

DAIRYING REGIONS 

Considerable concentration of the dairy industry exists in north- 
western Vermont and in the upper Connecticut River Valley. Aside 
from these sections, dairying has had its greatest development in the 
three southern States of New England. The industry is relatively 
unimportant in northern Maine and New Hampshire, in the Cape 
Cod district of Massachusetts, and in southern Rhode Island. In 
the north the regional variations are largely the result of natural 
conditions, while in southern New England the development of 
dairying has been influenced largely by the proximity of good 
markets in the industrial sections. 

Northwestern Vermont, with unusually good pasturage, has condi- 
tions of rainfall and soil that are more favorable to the production 
of feed for animals than those prevailing in the region east of the 
White Mountains. Dairying in southern New England is favored 
by the greater density of farm population, as well as by the proximity 
of good markets. The greatest development has been in the most 
densely populated farming sections, which as a rule are near the 
industrial centers. The dairy farms in this region were started 
generations ago, and good marketing conditions have favored their 
growth. Consequently milk production per acre and per farm is 
greater in Massachusetts and Connecticut than in northern New 
England. 

Almost all the counties of the northern States produce more milk 
than can be consumed locally. Their surplus is shipped to Massa- 
chusetts, Rhode Island, and New York. Although Massachusetts is 
the second largest producing State in New England, its product does 
not meet its own requirements for fluid milk and cream, and it draws 
large supplies from the northern States, as well as from New York 
State, in addition to cream, at certain seasons, from States west of 
New York and from Canada. A small volume of milk also comes 
from Canada. Connecticut produces more fluid milk and cream 
throughout the year than the State requires. It makes considerable 
shipments to New York, Springfield, Boston, and Providence. The 
smaller cities of Massachusetts, and Providence, in Rhode Island, 
draw upon near-by farms in Massachusetts and Connecticut, as well 
as upon Vermont and Maine, to supplement local production. 

Each consuming community generally gets its supplies of fluid 
milk from the nearest available source. The small centers depend 
mainly upon local supplies, while the larger cities draw a consider- 
able proportion of their requirements from distant regions. For 
the metropolitan area of Boston milk comes mainly from northern 
New England. The smaller cities of Massachusetts, and Providence, 
in Rhode Island, obtain most of their supplies from local producers, 
but a portion comes from the north. The Springfield district in 
western Massachusetts draws its supplies from the Connecticut River 
Valley, reaching as far north as Brattleboro, in Vermont. 

MARKETING DAIRY PRODUCTS 

Although New England asa whole produces enough fluid milk and 
cream to meet its own requirements, in addition to supplies for ice 



AGRICULTURE 23 

cream, there is a considerable movement of fluid milk, as well as of 
cream, both into and out of the region. In seasons of surplus there 
is a regular interchange of milk and cream with outside sections. 
The result is a net inward movement annually of some 2,000,000 gal- 
lons of milk and 1,000,000 gallons of cream, which balances that 
portion of local production which is manufactured into butter. 

Western Connecticut and southwestern Massachusetts ship milk 
regularly to New York City, and some communities in western Ver- 
mont also ship a portion there. Offsetting this movement, some of 
the border regions of New York State ship milk to Boston and to 
Springfield, and to some extent into western Connecticut. From the 
Province of Quebec, just north of Vermont, there has also been some 
seasonal movement, mainly of cream into Massachusetts. All the 
milk and cream shipped into New England is consumed in its fluid 
form, except small surpluses which are carried for safety margins 
and small supplies used for ice cream, confectionery, and baking. 
It is estimated that a total amounting to somewhat over 25,000,000 
gallons of local milk is converted annually into cream or butter. 

Most of the milk from northern New England is collected at 
country shipping stations or creameries, where it is weighed, tested, 
and cooled, and then shipped, mainly in special refrigerated milk 
cars. Most of the cream is shipped in the same manner. The milk 
from individual farms is transported to central stations by trucks 
running on regular routes along the main road, or by the producers" 
oAvn conveyances. The large Boston milk dealers have their own 
country stations in the north, where they buy the total product of 
the producer, regardless of seasonal variations in quantity. A con- 
siderable number of local cooperative creameries in Vermont and a 
few private concerns sell a portion of their product to regular or to 
occasional buyers. These form a reserve source of supply in periods 
of shortage from the regular channels. Some of the chain-store 
organizations obtain their supplies from these sources. 

New England farmers have for many years had their cooperative 
agencies to assist in the marketing of milk. Most of these are repre- 
sented in the New England Milk Producers' Association. This 
association negotiates the price of milk with the large city dealers 
in Boston and in some of the smaller cities. The price established 
by this association, although influenced largely at times by operations 
of the smaller cooperative creameries, is the basic price to producers 
for most of New England outside Connecticut. 

Cooperative creameries have existed in northern New England for 
many years. Within the last decade or so numerous organizations 
have been formed, particularly in Vermont, which are equipped 
to sell their product either as butter or cream. The majority of these 
are active in the fluid-milk market, and some of them have regularly 
established sales connections in southern New England cities. 

The industrial portion of Connecticut is served by the Connecticut 
Milk Producers' Association. Very little milk enters Connecticut 
from other States, The market is in the hands of this association, 
which acts as a broker in the sale of milk for its members. Uni- 
formity of production is maintained throughout the year by imposi- 
tion of price penalties for excess or for shortage, It has done much to 



24 INDUSTRIAL STRUCTURE OF NEW ENGLAND 

remove one of the great difficulties in the marketing of New England 
dairy products — that arising from seasonal irregularity of production. 
The surplus production in the peak of the season" is a disturbing 
element in most of the markets outside Connecticut. It is most pro- 
nounced on the farms of northern New England, particularly in the 
good pasture region near Lake Champlain, where the volume pro- 
duced in early summer is several times the winter production. In 
certain sections, however, this situation has been overcome by plac- 
ing emphasis upon winter dairying. Southern New England, par- 
ticularly Connecticut, produces a more even supply than the northern 
section. 

POULTRY AND LIVESTOCK 

The total value of all livestock products in New England in 1925 
was estimated by the Department of Agriculture at $203,000,000. In- 
asmuch as this estimate does not include production which enters 
directly into home consumption and is not marketed commercially, 
it is believed that figures for the total value, if complete, would be 
considerably more than this. The following statement gives the 
estimated valuation for 1925 of the different kinds of livestock and 
poultry, exclusive of dairy animals. 

Poultry products : 

Eggs $31, 500, 000 

Chickens and fowls 20,000,000 

Ducks, turkeys, and geese 10,000,000 

Calves, steers, and other beef cattle 11,000,000 

Hogs and pork 4,156,000 

Sheep, lambs, and wool 729,000 

Horses 200, 000 

Total 77. 585, 000 

POULTRY AND EGGS 

The value of New England poultry products is considerably more 
than one-half the value of dairy products, as reported by the Bureau 
of the Census. Egg and poultry production is of considerable com- 
mercial importance in the more densely populated country districts 
of southern New England, and in southern New Hampshire and 
Maine. Although egg production is generally emphasized more than 
meat, broilers are raised extensively in special commercial plants and 
on farms, particularly in eastern Massachusetts, Rhode Island, and 
New Hampshire. Small flocks of hens are maintained on most farms 
throughout New England. Although back-yard flocks are not so 
common in the towns of southern New England as they were a few 
years ago, they still hold a considerable place in the industry. It is 
believed that with the inclusion of these small-town flocks the num- 
bers given in the agricultural census would be increased by about 
one-quarter. 

Production of eggs on New England farms in 1925 was reported 
as upward of 56,500,000 dozen, valued at $31,500,000. Eggs are sold 
hugely direct to the consumers or to local retailers. On account of 
the high proportion of sales direct to consumers, New England 
poult r\ men are able to command a premium price for eggs, and to 



AGRICULTURE 



25 



avoid the more expensive marketing processes of some other farm 
products. 

Most of the eggs produced on New England farms are consumed 
in the smaller urban centers and in the country, as is evidenced by 
the fact that the Boston market, which in 1925 handled a volume 
equal to the total New England egg production, obtained less than 
10 per cent of its supply from New England. A portion of the 
Connecticut product goes to New York City. In Connecticut there 
are egg cooperative associations which sell at wholesale the surplus 
products not absorbed by their local markets. A similar association 
was formerly operated in New Hampshire for the special wholesale 
market in Boston. 

The following table showing egg production and number of hens 
on farms in the various census years from 1880 to 1925 indicates the 
changes in New England poultry activities. It appears that the 
number of hens and the egg production has about doubled during the 
45-year period. Substantial falling off is noted in 1920, presumably 
on account of the scarcity and high cost of feed in the postwar 
period. 

Eggs Produced and Number of Hens on New England Farms, 1880-1925 



Year 


Eggs 


Hens 


Year 


Eggs 


Hens 


1925 


Dozen 
56, 589, 947 
37, 631, 896 
55, 078, 175 


8, 138, 168 
5, 803, 507 
7, 708, 636 


1900 

1890 

1880 


Dozen 
50, 686, 580 
35, 538, 234 
26, 802, 766 


6, 606, 246 


1920 


6, 685, 066 


1910- _ 


4, 088, 743 









The relative importance of the poultry industry in the different 
New England States, according to census data for the year 1925, 
is shown in the following table. 

Comparative Importance of Poultry Industry in New England States in 1925 



State 


Chickens on farms 
Jan. 1 


Eggs produced 


Chickens raised 




Number 


Value 


Dozen 


Value 


Number 


Value 


Massachusetts. . 


2, 029, 819 
1, 698, 900 
1, 900, 008 
1, 207, 034 
941, 014 
361, 393 


$3, 611, 587 
2, 565, 340 
2, 470, 012 
1, 689, 847 
1, 185, 677 
610, 755 


14, 324, 666 
11,774,725 
13, 612, 813 
8, 181, 291 
6, 371, 751 
2, 274, 701 


$7, 592, 071 
5, 887, 365 
5, 717, 381 

33, 599, 769 
2, 548, 699 
1, 205, 591 


3, 731, 769 
2, 670, 099 
2, 837, 654 
2, 441, 812 
1, 339, 275 
519, 211 


$5, 261, 794 


Connecticut... ... 


3, 417, 727 


Maine 


2, 922, 784 


New Hampshire 


2, 856, 921 


Vermont 


1, 433, 023 


Rhode Island .-. 


726, 894 







Duck raising has been developed on a commercial scale in eastern 
Massachusetts in a district south of Boston, centering in the town 
of Wrentham. About 400,000 ducks are said to be produced yearly. 
The large producers are organized in a cooperative association which 
markets a large portion of the production in the metropolitan market 
through one Boston dealer. A considerable portion is disposed of 
through direct sale, as duck dinners and as sandwich fillings at road- 
side stands near the farms. Aside from this commercial development 



20 INDUSTRIAL STRUCTURE OF NEW ENGLAND 

in eastern Massachusetts, neither ducks nor geese are important on 
New England farms. 

The raising of turkeys, which was once an extensive activity in 
Vermont and Rhode Island, is still carried on to some extent in 
Vermont and to a limited extent in all the States. No statistics are 
available as to the total production. 

HOG AND PORK PRODUCTION 

The production of pork is not of great importance in New Eng- 
land, because of the lack of feed resources. Hogs are raised to a 
limited extent on dairy farms of northern New England, to utilize 
the surplus skim milk, and are finished 'for market with grain feeds. 
In southern New England hogs are raised to some extent near the 
large urban centers, where they are fed refuse food collected from the 
cities, with a small amount of grain. A considerable portion is 
slaughtered for home consumption on the farm, thereby reducing the 
dependence of the farm population upon purchased meat. The total 
number of hogs reported on New England farms on January 1, 1925, 
was 177,406, , distributed by States as follows: Maine, 54,435; New 
Hampshire, 15,928; Vermont, 43,864; Massachusetts, 57,821; Rhode 
Island, 4,175; and Connecticut, 1,183. These figures are probably 
considerably less than the totals for the summer crop. 

SHEEP, LAMBS, AND WOOL 

The 1925 Census of Agriculture gives a total of 178,712 sheep 
and lambs in the six New England States. Over one-half of 
these, 84,680 sheep and 17,021 lambs, were in the State of Maine; 
nearly one-third were in Vermont and New Hampshire, with 34,670 
and 16,055 sheep, and 7,144 and 3,464 lambs, respectively; Massa- 
chusetts had 10,114 sheep and 2,556 lambs; Connecticut, 604 sheep 
and 126 lambs; and Ehode Island, 1,897 sheep and 381 lambs. 
Somewhat larger estimates are made by the New England Crop 
Reporting Service, with totals of 174,000 sheep on January 1, 1925, 
and 181,000 sheep a year later. 

It is estimated that about 14,000 mature sheep and 90,000 lambs 
are slaughtered annually, their value being estimated at $385,000 
in the Census of Agriculture of 1925. Wool production in 1924 
amounted to 857,789 pounds, having a census value of $340,167. 

In earlier days the sheep industry of New England was of out- 
standing importance. The first agricultural census, that of 1840, 
reported a total of 3,820,307 sheep in the six States. The raising of 
breeding stock was then a leading industry, particularly in Vermont, 
whose sheep were famous the world over as wool producers. The 
opening of vast grazing and pasture lands in other parts of the 
world within the last half century, together with the lessened local 
importance of wool to meet the requirements for textile manufac- 
ture, has depressed the sheep industry in the more populous agricul- 
tural regions. Most of the present sheep industry of New England 
centers m mum 11 flocks on the rough hill farms, in conjunction with 
other production, where they contribute their share of the farm 
money income. 



AGRICULTURE 



27 



HORSES 

Fifty years ago the breeding of horses was important in New 
England, particularly in Vermont, where the famous Morgan breed 
was developed. At the present time most of the horses required by 
the agricultural sections of New England, as well as by the cities 
for trucking, are purchased from outside sources. Although farm 
tractors are used to a limited extent in some of the more level regions, 
horsepower is still the main reliance in New England agriculture. 
In the intensive farming section of northeastern Maine, in particular, 
many carloads of western horses are sold in years of agricultural 
prosperity. 

FEED CONSUMPTION 

It has been estimated that approximately $80,000,000 is paid annu- 
ally for supplies of feed shipped into New England from outside 
sources. While hay, ensilage, and other roughage are produced lo- 
cally, most of the grain and other feeds consumed by cattle, poultry, 
hogs, and horses is the product of farms in the American and Cana- 
dian West. Although it is difficult to determine the exact amount 
of feed produced in New England or purchased outside, the follow- 
ing table gives fair estimates of the approximate local production 
and the net shipments into the region. The total includes the 
amounts used for human consumption, but most of the net ship- 
ments of grain into the region, as well as the supplies produced lo- 
cally, are consumed by New England livestock. These estimates 
are believed to be fairly accurate for the present "time. 

Feeds Available in New England in 1924 

[Net tons] 



Feed 


Produced 

in New 
England 


Shipped 
in 


Total 


Total grain 


151, 089 


972, 230 


1, 123, 319 






Oats .- 


89, 810 
45, 659 
3,204 
12, 416 


419, 658 
438, 863 
49,500 
64,209 


509,468 


Corn . .- -. 


484, 522 


Wheat . 


52, 704 


Other 


76, 625 






Cottonseed. -- 




31, 747 

18,000 

964, 067 


31, 747 


Linseed - _ - - 




18,000 


Other mill products _. 




964, 067 









These feed requirements are supplied by a well-organized system 
of private and cooperative merchandising agencies. Special feed 
stores are maintained in districts where the retailing of feed is im- 
portant. Many general stores in agricultural sections sell poultry 
and dairy feed, in addition to groceries and other family supplies. 
Grain and mill feeds are carried also by many special dealers who 
buy and sell hay. 

Manufacturers of feeds find outlets for their products in New 
England either through feed brokers or through their own sales 
organizations which sell directly to the retailers. Some manufac- 
turers deal on a wholesale basis and have also their own chains of 
retail stores. A number of manufacturers also operate feed mills in 



28 INDUSTRIAL STRUCTURE OF NEW ENGLAND 

New England, either as local concerns or as branches of national 
houses. 

Cooperation in the purchase of feed by New England farmers is 
quite highly developed, and local purchasing associations have 
existed there for many years. One large-scale cooperative concern 
has built up within the last decade a wholesale business extending 
throughout New England. This organization operates its own mills 
and distributes its products through local associations and agents in 
the rural communities. It sells on advance orders for cash, with 
delivery from the car door on arrival, thus avoiding storage and 
warehousing as well as credit charges. The business of a former 
State cooperative association in Maine is now operated by a leading 
private grain dealer. In some sections of New England the Grange 
is an important factor in obtaining feed supplies. High standards 
of quality are maintained and assured throughout New England by 
a well-supervised inspection service of the State. 

COMMERCIAL FRUITS 

The prominent position of fruit growing in New England agri- 
culture is indicated by the fact that apples, cranberries, peaches, and 
pears produced in 1925 had an estimated total value of upward of 
$19,000,000. In this total apples were the major item, with $13,500,- 
000; production of cranberries amounted to more than $4,000,000; 
peaches, to more than $1,250,000; and pears, to considerably less than 
$500,000. 

The income from these various fruits is quite widely distributed 
among the different States and its total in recent years has exceeded 
that from any other cash crop except potatoes. Orchard fruits are 
grown in each State, as are most of the other small fruits, although 
the commercial production is in some cases confined to certain spe- 
cialized localities. Cranberries are commercially important only in 
southeastern Massachusetts. Blueberries grow wild in each of the 
States and are harvested commercially in Maine, where the canning 
of this fruit is an important industry in its two southeastern counties. 
Plums, cherries, and grapes are grown commercially only to a limited 
extent, and this culture is confined to southern New England. 

APPLES 

The estimated value of the 1925 apple crop bv States was as fol- 
lows: Massachusetts, $4,740,000; Maine, $3,008,000; Connecticut, 
$2,269,000; Vermont, $1,543,000; New Hampshire, $1,476,000; Rhode 
Island. $508,000. Maine has been the leading apple-producing State 
of New England, but is being rivaled by Massachusetts because of a 
greater increase in the recent planting of young stock in the latter 
State. While in Maine there were 2,420,000 apple trees of bearing 
ajre in 1925, in contrast to 1,460,000 in Massachusetts, there were in 
Maine only 432,000 apple trees below bearing age, as compared with 
700.000 i n ' Massaeh uset ts. 

Approximately one-half of the crop grown in these two States 
is classed as commercial. In the other Slates a somewhat higher 
proportion falls in this class. In recent years the small farm orchard 
has diminished in importance and ihn larger commercial plantings 



AGTJICtJLTTItF. 



29 



are becoming more prominent. In the early days of fruit growing 
in America a great number of varieties originated in New England, 
or were brought in from Europe. The older orchards of New 
England are principally in small farm lots, and they contain a wide 
range of varieties, some of which are of little commercial value. 

While there has been no great increase in the total apple produc- 
tion of this region since 1890 — in fact, there has been a decline in the 
total number of trees — the development of commercial orchards from 
new plantings is playing an increasingly important part, and the 
older orchards are rapidly passing out of commercial production. 
The following table gives the number of bearing trees and nonhealing 
trees, by counties, together with production and value in 1924 
and 1925. 

Apple Trees in New England Counties in 1925, With Production and Value 
of Crop in 1924 and 1925 



Counties 


Apple 
trees of 
bearing 
age, 1925 


Apple 

trees not of 

bearing 

age, 1925 


Production in bushels 


Total value 


1924 


1925 


1924 


1925 


New England. . 


5, 935, 000 


2, 005, 000 


10, 762, 000 


10, 304, 000 


$12, 311, 000 


$13, 544, 000 




Maine 


2, 420, 000 


432, 000 


3, 241, 000 


3, 305, 000 


2, 787, 000 


3, 008, 000 




Androscoggin 


258,000 
71,000 
125,000 
222,000 
62,000 
286,000 
83,000 
75,000 
305, 000 
255,000 
48,000 
42,000 
202,000 
222,000 
42,000 
122,000 


29,600 

4,000 
17,000 
47, 500 

8,200 
41,500 
15,700 
18,000 
49,000 
53,400 

6,000 
15,200 
19,200 
77,000 

3,100 
27,600 


364,000 
62,000 
235, 000 
215,000 
73,000 
330, 000 
134,000 
112,000 
474,000 
283, 000 
50,000 
70,000 
176, 000 
312,000 
57,000 
294, 000 


364,000 
65,000 
210, 000 
235, 000 
75,000 
300,000 
120, 000 
100,000 
560, 000 
295, 000 
45,000 
65,000 
190,000 
325,000 
58,000 
298,000 


313, 040 
53, 320 
202, 100 
184, 900 
62, 780 
283, 800 
115, 240 
96, 320 
407, 640 
243, 380 
43,000 
60,200 
151, 360 
268, 320 
49, 020 
252, 840 


331 240 


Aroostook 


59, 150 
191 100 


Cumberland - 


Franklin 


213, 850 
68, 250 
273, 000 
109, 200 
91,000 
509, 600 
268, 450 
40, 950 
59 150 


Hancock 


Kennebec 


Knox _ _ 


Lincoln _ _ 


Oxford 


Penobscot 


Piscataquis 

Sagadahoc _ _ 


Somerset 


172, 900 
295, 750 
52, 780 
271 180 


Waldo . 


Washington _ 


York._ 






New Hampshire 


621,000 


238,000 


1, 462, 000 


1, 230, 000 


1, 652, 000 


1, 476, 000 




Belknap _ 


38,700 
23,500 
45,700 
6,600 
44,900 

173, 100 
95,000 

120,200 
42,100 
31,200 


12, 500 
5,000 
15,600 
2,500 
15, 400 
86,400 
28,000 
52,700 
10,600 
9,300 


78,400 
39,500 
93,200 
7,800 
53, 900 
448, 500 
236, 200 
329, 100 
123, 700 
51,700 


69,700 
43,100 
79,700 
7,700 
52,200 
387,000 
191, 700 
282, 400 
76,600 
39,900 


88, 592 

44, 635 

105, 316 

8,814 

60, 907 
506, 805 
266, 906 
371, 883 
139, 781 

58, 421 


83, 640 
51,720 


Carroll 


Cheshire 


95, 640 
9,240 


Coos 


Grafton 


62, 640 


Hillsborough . 


464, 400 


Merrimack 


230, 040 
338, 880 


Rockingham _____ __ 


Strafford 


91,920 


Sullivan 


47, 880 






Vermont. _ 


565,000 


180,000 


895,000 


935,000 


1, 235, 000 


1, 543, 000 






Addison 


65,300 
30,600 
15,400 
46,700 
5,300 
29,600 
19, 300 
16,500 
43, 900 
17, 100 
86,400 
28,000 
103, 100 
57,800 


23,100 
7,500 
7,700 
9,500 
900 
6,700 
3,700 
3,700 
23,700 
7,800 
19,200 
13, 300 
27,200 
26,000 


108, 100 
51,000 
21,700 

101, 100 
8,800 
47.300 
20', 800 
18, 700 
46,700 
16,700 

191, 000 
24, 400 

167,000 
71,700 


94,300 
54,600 
27,500 
86,800 
9,300 
43,100 
24, 400 
22,100 
92,800 
20,000 

183, 000 
29,300 

160, 400 
87,400 


149, 178 
70, 380 
29,946 

139, 518 
12,144 
65, 274 
28,704 
25,806 
64, 446 
23,046 

263, 580 
33, 672 

230, 460 
98, 946 


155, 595 


Bennington 


90, 090 


Caledonia 


45, 375 


Chittenden _ 


143, 220 


Essex __ 


15, 345 


Franklin 


71, 115 


Grand Isle 


40, 260 


Lamoille 


36, 465 


Orange _ 


153, 120 




33,000 


Rutland 


301, 950 


Washington 


48, 345 


Windham 


264, 660 


Windsor 


144, 210 







30 INDUSTRIAL STRUCTURE OF NEW ENGLAND 

Apple Trees in New England Counties in 1925, etc. — Continued 



Counties 


Apple 
trees of 
bearing 
age, 1925 


Apple 

trees not of 

bearing 

age, 1925 


Production in bushels 


Total value 


1924 


1925 


1924 


1925 


Massachusetts 


1, 460, 000 


760,000 


3, 360, 000 


3, 160, 000 


$4, 133, 000 


$4, 740, 000 




Barnstable 


8,700 
73,700 
69,700 
1,400 
101, 300 
181, 300 
88,900 
130, 800 
376, 790 
36,400 
55,800 
10 
335,200 


11,900 
29, 300 
32,300 
500 
50,500 
69,100 
29,300 
64,200 

248, 280 

21,600 

28,500 

20 

174, 500 


9,800 
158, 300 
67,100 
1,000 
216, 800 
495, 900 
203, 300 
476, 900 
951, 490 
45, 900 
48,800 
10 
684, 700 


7,200 
176, 400 
79,100 
1,100 
238,000 
463, 800 ' 
158, 100 
443, 700 
886, 080 
47,100 
64,100 
20 
595, 300 


12,054 

194, 709 

82, 533 

1,230 

266, 664 

609,957 

250, 059 

586, 587 

1, 170, 333 

56, 457 

60,024 

12 

842, 181 


10,800 
264,600 


Berkshire 


Bristol 


118, 650 


Dukes__ 


1,650 


Essex 


357,000 


Franklin 


696,700 


Hampden 


237, 150 


Hampshire 


665,550 


Middlesex 


1, 329, 120 


Norfolk 


70, 650 


Plymouth 


96, 150 


Suffolk 


30 


Worcester 


892, 950 






Rhode Island 


166,000 


57,000 


324,000 


299,000 


447,000 


508,000 






Bristol 


6,000 
15, 300 

9,800 
102, 400 
32,500 


2,700 
8,400 
5,000 
35, 600 
5,300 


7,500 
31,900 
13,000 
242, 100 
29,500 


7,400 
29, 700 
13,600 
217,000 
31,300 


10,350 
44,022 
17, 940 
334, 098 
40 710 


12, 580 


Kent 


50,490 


Newport 


23, 120 


Providence..- 


368, 900 


Washington.. 


53, 210 






Connecticut 


703, 000 


338, 000 


1, 480, 000 


1, 375, 000 


2, 057, 000 


2, 269, 000 






Fairfield 


112,400 
115, 600 
122, 500 
43,500 
121, 300 
78,600 
50,100 
59,000 


79,200 
58, 400 
35,900 
27, 800 
67,000 
20, 100 
23,500 
26,100 


230, 200 
229, 200 
202, 500 
96, 900 
307, 500 
146, 000 
130, 900 
136, 800 


214,000 
202, 000 
212, 000 
87,000 
310,000 
112, 000 
115,000 
123, 000 


319, 978 
318, 588 
281, 475 
134, 691 
427, 425 
202, 940 
181, 951 
190, 152 


353, 100 


Hartford 


333, 300 


Litchfield 


349, 800 


Middlesex 


143, 550 


New Haven 


511,500 


New London 


184, 800 


Tolland.- 


189, 750 


W r indham.__ 


202, 950 







MAINE 

Production of apples in Maine is confined to the southern third 
of the State. High-quality fruit is produced and marketed by the 
better apple growers of this State, and some of it is exported to Eng- 
land. Its principal market, however, is Boston. Of 291 carloads 
of Maine apples, whose marketing during the season of 1925-26 was 
traced to the 10 leading city markets of the country, Boston received 
181 carloads, Chicago 63, and New York City 31, while small ship- 
ments were made to Atlanta, Baltimore, Cincinnati, Cleveland, 
Minneapolis, St. Paul, and Washington. The principal apple- 
producing sections of Maine are in Oxford, Androscoggin, Kennebec, 
and Waldo Counties, but several other counties are of considerable 
importance. 

NEW HAMPSHIRE 

Commercial orcharding has been increasing in New Hampshire 
and in Vermont during the last few years. In New Hampshire the 
two southeastern counties of Hillsborough and Rockingham, with 
Merrimack County adjoining them on the north, form the principal 
apple-growing district, containing over 60 per cent of the trees of 
bearing age and 70 per cent of the young tree's. Shipments of the 
1925-26 crop from New Hampshire includes 98 carloads to Boston, 
39 to New York City. 8 to Cincinnati, and 1 to Philadelphia. 



AGRICULTURE 31 

VERMONT 

Apple growing in Vermont is surpassed in value by the potato 
Cfdp and by maple products. It is important, however, in the south- 
ern and Western portions of the State, where the younger orchards 
are principally in large commercial tracts. The largest apple orchard 
in the eastern United States is said to be in this section. The larger 
orchards are in Chittenden, Addison, Rutland, and Bennington Coun- 
ties, along the western boundary of the State, the first two of these 
bordering Lake Champlain. There are numerous small orchards 
also in Windham and Grand Island Counties. The Vermont apple 
crop is marketed mainly in New York City. Of the crop for the 
season 1925-26, a total of 254 carloads from this State was shipped to 
New York, while Chicago received 5, Atlanta 1, and only 1 carload 
was shipped to Boston. 

CONNECTICUT 

In Connecticut the production of apples is fairly well distributed, 
but it is most important in the counties west of the Connecticut River. 
A large proportion of the commercial crop of this State is produced 
by a few large growers. There has been a considerable amount of 
recent planting throughout the State. The crop is marketed locally 
or is transported by trucks to the New York metropolitan area. 

RHODE ISLAND 

In Rhode Island the principal apple-growing region is in Provi- 
dence County, and most of the production of the State comes from a 
relatively small number of commercial orchards. The product is 
consumed in the local markets, and no carload movements from this 
State appear in the 1925-26 records of outside market shipments. 

MASSACHUSETTS 

Apple growing in Massachusetts is carried on extensively in the 
Nashoba district, west and north of Boston, which includes portions 
of Middlesex and Worcester Counties. There are numerous small 
orchards in this district, some of them on fairly level land, while 
others are on rolling land, where high production is obtained by the 
use of intensive orcharding methods. There is one orchard of con- 
siderable extent in this region. g a 

The principal production elsewhere in the State is in Franklin 
County, mainly from small orchards in irregular hillside pkntmgs; 
but there are some excellent commercial orchards south of Franklin 
County on the hillsides and rolling land on both sides of the Con- 
necticut Valley, in Hampshire and Hampden Counties Essex 
County, in northeastern Massachusetts, also has many apple trees, 
but these are principally in old, irregular orchards whose production 
is declining. There are scattered orchards elsewhere throughout the 
State, both of old trees and of newly planted stock. For the State 
as a whole there was an increase of 122 per cent in the young non- 
bearing trees from 1910 to 1920, while the number of bearing trees 
decreased 10 per cent in this period. From 1920 to 1925 the total 
number of trees increased despite the loss of some older orchards. 



32 INDUSTRIAL STRUCTURE OF NEW ENGLAND 

The bulk of the Massachusetts apple crop is marketed within the 
State and very little is shipped by railway. A portion is marketed 
in the locality where it is grown, but the greater part is transported 
by truck to the larger city markets. Various methods of sale are 
employed, the most common one for the State as a whole being 
through commission dealers. About 34 per cent of the State's 1924 
production was marketed in this manner, with about 12 per cent 
direct to the retailer, 18 per cent to country buyers, and about 11 per 
cent to wholesalers, while upward of 10 per cent was sold from door 
to door. A considerable volume is sold from the roadside stands, 
and only a slight proportion is sold through cooperative organiza- 
tions. The degree to which these various methods of marketing are 
employed varies considerably in different sections of the State. 

On account of nearness to market a considerable portion of the 
Massachusetts crop is sold ungraded, but the best growers pack their 
fruit in grades. The apples for local consumption are packed chiefly 
in open-top wooden boxes containing about a bushel each. The larger 
commercial shippers in the western part of the State generally pack 
their fruit in barrels. 

PEACHES 

The commercial growing of peaches is confined mainly to a small 
region of Connecticut, in New Haven and Middlesex Counties, where 
the industry was developed quite extensively by one large grower 
some 30 years ago. The crop from this district is marketed in the 
adjacent cities, and in the New York metropolitan area. Although 
there are small plantings of peaches in other parts of New England, 
they are not of great commercial importance. 

CRANBERRIES 

Cranberries are grown commercially only in eastern Massachusetts, 
which produces approximately 60 per cent of the total cranberry 
crop of the United States. The only other important cranberry- 
producing regions outside New England are Long Island, New 
Jersey, and Wisconsin. In Bristol, Plymouth, and Barnstable 
Counties, of southeastern Massachusetts, there are about 13,900 acres 
devoted to the production of this crop. The average annual yield 
for the four years ended in 1925 was 377,000 barrels, and the value 
of the crop in 1925 was $4,076,000. 

Production is confined to the peaty bogs in the Cape Cod district. 
The conditions for commercial production, in addition to a deep bed 
of moisture-holding peat, are a cool climate, near-by supplies of sand 
for surfacing, and facilities for flooding the cranberry plants during 
the winter. These conditions are combined in many of the low-lying 
sections of southeastern Massachusetts and the adjacent islands of 
Nantucket and Marthas Vineyard. 

The expansion of the acreage of cranberry production to its full 
cm parity has been held in check by the requirements for large outlays 
of capital for developing the bogs, in order to meet the cost of clear- 
ing off the original vegetation and debris and applying a covering 
layer of sand. The cost of planting and of installing the equipment 



AGRICULTURE 33 

for flooding often makes a total expense of $7r>() or more per acre. 
The present tendency is toward the improvement of old bogs and the 
planting of new ones. 

NUMBER AND SIZE OF HOLDINGS 

Much of the production is now in the hands of large individual 
holders and corporations whose activities are confined to this one 
industry. 

Although there are upward of 2,100 individual holdings of cran- 
berry bogs, nearly one-half the total acreage, and much more than 
half the total production, is concentrated in the hands of a relatively 
small number of individuals and corporations. There are holdings 
as large as 250 acres, but many small growers operate either small 
bogs or separate sections of the larger bogs, some of the holdings 
being as small as one-eighth of an acre. While some of the smaller 
holdings have gone into disuse through neglect, because of difficulty 
in obtaining labor, the production has tended upward as a result of 
the increased producing capacity of the commercial holdings and of 
favorable weather conditions of recent years. Efficient marketing 
methods have increased the income of the growers during the past 
20 years ; prices have had an irregular trend upward. 

MARKETING 

The greater portion of the crop is marketed through a single 
cooperative association, which has developed a high degree of effi- 
ciency. Some of the large-scale growers do their own marketing, 
and there are also local buyers who purchase the crops of the inde 
pendent small growers. A small proportion of the crop is canned, 
but the greater portion is marketed fresh during the fall and winter 
months. In earlier years the entire output was handled by local 
buyers or shipped to commission houses. Over 50 per cent of the 
1925 crop was marketed cooperatively, while 42 per cent was handled 
by independent distributors, and 4y 2 per cent was sold for canning. 

In the Cranberry Growers' Cooperative Association the Massachu- 
setts producers are united with those in New Jersey and Wisconsin 
to form an exchange which acts as a national distributing agency. 
This agency has increased the market by stimulating the consumption 
of cranberries through a longer portion of the year, by extending the 
market to new regions and by increasing the demand through adver- 
tising and systematic merchandising policies. Careful grading by 
the association for the wholesale trade w T ith wdiich it deals, with desig- 
nation of different brands according to variety and quality and with 
facilities for personal inspection by the consumer, are also important 
features in the success of the association's policy. The Massachusetts 
cooperative distributes to almost every State in the Union, largely 
as a result of efforts to meet the demand in all markets as evenly 
as possible. 

PRODUCTION AND PRICES 

Annual production and prices from 1923 to 1927, inclusive, and 
car-lot shipments by the producing States from 1920 to 1926 are 
shown in the following tables. 



34 INDUSTRIAL STRUCTURE OF NEW ENGLAND 

Cranberry Production and December 1 Price, by States, 1928 11^7 



State 


Production (barrels) 


Price per barrel received by 
producers Dec. 1 




1923 


1924 


1925 


1926 


1927 


1923 


1924 


1925 


1926 


1927 


M assachuset ts 

New Jersey 


410, 000 
205, 000 
37,000 


325, 000 
215, 000 
42, 000 


429, 000 
115,000 
25,000 


430, 000 

210, 000 

80,000 

16,600 

7,000 


370, 000 
75, 000 
24,000 
20,000 
6,000 


$6. 50 
8.00 
9.70 


$9.90 
8.75 
9.20 


$11. 25 
10.75 
12.32 


$7.75 
7.00 
8.00 
7.80 
7.50 


$12. 50 
11.00 


Wisconsin _._ . _ 


13. 50 


Washington _ . 


12.00 


Oregon 














10.50 


















United States 


652, 000 


582, 000 


569, 000 


743, 600 


495, 000 


7.15 


9.42 


11.20 


7.56 


12.28 



Car-Lot Shipments of Cranberries by State of Origin, 1920-1926 



State 


Crop-movement season 


1920 


1921 


1922 


1923 


1924 


1925 


1926 


Massachusetts. ._ . ... 


966 
452 

82 
2 


644 
637 

68 
4 


999 

789 

223 

5 


1,324 

713 

140 

6 


1,045 

806 

150 

12 


1,457 
427 
73 
40 


3,762 
797 
309 


New Jersey 

Wisconsin. . 


Other States 


34 






Total 


1,502 


1,353 


2,016 


2,183 


2,013 


1,997 


4,902 











Source: U. S. Department of Agriculture Yearbook, 1927. 



BLUEBERRIES 



The commercial marketing of blueberries is an important activity 
in southeastern Maine, particularly in Washington County. This 
portion of the State has a soil and a climate particularly adapted to 
their growth. While no figures are available as to the total pro- 
duction, authorities have estimated that this crop brings close to a 
million dollars a year to the people of the region, where the fruit is 
canned commercially. In this section of Maine there were about 
fifteen canning establishments which put up the blueberrv crop in 
1926. 

The method of production on a commercial scale is simple but 
systematic. The bushes grow in abundance on the cleared rocky soil 
which was formerly occupied by timber. The brush on this land is 
burned off about every three years, and then the blueberry bushes 
take possession of the soil, yielding a crop in the second and third 
years after the burning. It is difficult to estimate the actual acreage 
devoted to commercial production, because much of it has never 
been measured. The principal labor connected with this crop is in 
harvesting, which is done by hand with the aid of small rakes similar 
to those used in the harvesting of cranberries. Many families in the 
sparse population of the producing region depend upon the harvest- 
ing of blueberries for their year's income. Experiments in the cul- 
ture of unproved varieties of blueberries are now in progress on 
Cape Cod. 

The canned product from this section lias a wide market through- 
out the country, a large portion of it being consumed by bakeries and 
restaurants for making pies. Outside this principal producing area 



AGRICULTURE 



35 



blueberries are harvested to a slight extent in other regions of north- 
ern New England and shipped to the city markets for consumption 
as fresh fruit. In 1928 shipments of nine carloads of fresh blue- 
berries were made to the Boston market, coming mainly from a 
Finnish community near Fitchburg, Mass. 

OTHER SMALL FRUITS 

The growing of strawberries is of considerable importance in some 
sections of New England. The region of principal production is in 
Bristol County, Mass., but strawberries, as well as raspberries., black- 
berries, and currants, are grown as part of the market-gardening 
industry in various other regions. The production of these fruits in 
1919 had an estimated value exceeding $2,000,000, of which over 
$1,500,000 was for strawberries. The relative importance of these 
cultivated small fruits in New England in that year is shown in the 
following table. 

Other Cultivated Small Fruits in New England in 1919 



Small fruit 


Acreage 


Production 


Value 


Strawberries 


3,353 

1,679 

1,000 

506 

504 


Quarts 

6, 319, 419 

1, 370, 210 

790, 102 

146, 566 

142, 175 


$1, 562, 569 


Raspberries . 


412, 223 


Blackberries and dewberries _ 


176, 400 


Other berries _ . ... 


27, 289 


Currants. 


26, 351 






Total .__ 


7,042 


8, 768, 472 


2, 204, 832 







The small fruits are marketed mainly in the large cities near the 
producing regions. Those produced in eastern Massachusetts go to 
the Boston and Providence markets, where they are sold both for 
local consumption and for reshipment by truck to neighboring cities. 
Many of the growers haul their own product directly to the city 
markets, but some of the larger growers have special salesmen or sell 
through commission houses. 

COMMERCIAL VEGETABLES 

The vegetables produced commercially in New England are grown 
principally in certain specialized areas having particularly favorable 
soil conditions, where attention is concentrated largely upon a single 
crop. These areas thus have both the advantages and the disadvan- 
tages resulting from dependence upon a single source of money 
income. 

POTATOES 

Of the vegetables that are grown commercially in New England, 
potatoes overshadow all the others, both in acreage and in value. 
This is the leading cash crop, as indicated by its total income to the 
region; its value in 1925 exceeded that of all the hay produced on 
the farms of the six States. The potato crop of this section is im- 
portant nationally as well as locally, for it ordinarily contributes 
more than one-tenth of the whole main-crop yield of the United 
States. Maine alone contributed more than one-tenth of the national 
production, both in 1925 and 1926. 



36 



INDUSTRIAL STRUCTURE OF NEW ENGLAND 



PRODUCING AREAS AND PRODUCTION 

While potatoes are grown in all farming districts of New England 
for home consumption and for local markets near the cities, their 
commercial production is of chief importance in northeastern Maine, 
principally in Aroostook County, which is the center of this indus- 
try. This single county in 1925 produced more potatoes than any 
State of New England outside of Maine, and this State produced 
over 80 per cent of the New England total. Vermont and Connecti- 
cut produced more than 2,000,000 bushels each, Massachusetts nearly 
2,000,000 bushels, and New Hampshire approximately 1,600,000 
bushels. Hartford County, in Connecticut, produced more than 
$1,000,000 worth of potatoes in that year. The production of certi- 
fied seed potatoes is an important branch of this industry in each of 
the three northern States. The importance of each State in potato 
production in 1924, 1925, and 1926 is shown in the following table. 

Potato Production in New England, 1924-1926 



State 


Acreage 


Production in thousands 
of bushels 


Value in thousands of 
dollars 




1924 


1925 


1926 


1924 


1925 


1926 


1924 


1925 


1926 


Maine. . . , 


140, 000 
21,000 
15,000 
15, 000 
11,000 
2,000 


135,000 
19, 000 
14,000 
15, 000 
11, 000 
2,000 


127, 000 
20,000 
13,000 
14, 000 
11,000 
3,000 


44, 100 
3,360 
2,250 
1,950 
1,870 
280 


33, 750 
2,375 
1,960 
2,025 
1,595 
280 


36, 830 
3,100 
2,015 
2,170 
1,815 
450 


18, 963 
2,856 
2,160 
1.950 
1,571 
266 


68, 340 
5,644 
5, 145 
5,063 
3,748 
686 


46, 984 


Vermont 


4,340 


Massachusetts 


3,627 


Connecticut _ 


3,906 


New Hampshire 

Rhode Island .. 


3,086 
810 






Total 


204, 000 
3, 348, 000 


196,000 
3, 092, 000 


188, 000 
3, 163, 000 


53, 810 
323, 243 


41, 985 
323, 465 


46, 380 
357, 800 


27, 766 
266, 047 


88, 626 
605, 327 


64, 753 


United States 


499, 602 







Source: New England Crop Reporting Service and U. S. Department of Agriculture. 

The center of New England potato growing is an elongated strip 
of gravelly loam with a length of about 60 miles, extending north 
from Houlton along the eastern edge of Aroostook County and 
along the St. John River to Fort Kent, and eastward from Ash- 
land to Fort Fairfield, and having a maximum width of 25 or 30 miles. 
The potato-growing region extends southward and Westward, also, 
into Penobscot and Somerset Counties, each of which produced 
more than $1,000,000 worth of potatoes in 1925. 

The soil of this region is stony, but its lightness makes it espe- 
cially adapted to potato growing. The low temperature prevail- 
ing throughout the growing season, and the well-distributed rainfall 
of northern New England provide ideal growing conditions, which 
are of equal importance to that of soil. Only a small portion of 
the total land suitable for potato growing in the Aroostook section 
18 under cultivation, and not more than a third of the crop land is 
planted in potatoes in any one year. Production could be readily 
increased in this and adjoining regions when warranted by market 
conditions. 

Although potatoes have been grown in considerable quantities in 
northeastern Maine for the, last 60 years, the commercial importance 
of this crop has increased greatly within the last 30 years, largely 



AGRICULTURE 37 

as a result of the building of the Bangor & Aroostook Railroad, 
which opened this country to rail transportation. This railroad now 
handles from 70 to 75 per cent of the annual potato shipments. The 
production in 1895 was something above 10,000,000 bushels, but it 
increased rapidly after 1901, reaching in 1914 over 40,500,000 bush- 
els; this has been exceeded only by the crop of 1924. Production 
fluctuates considerably from year to year, both on account of weather 
and crop conditions, and also because of variation in acreage planted. 
In consequence of the natural advantages of the region and tne good 
farming methods practiced, there has been a steady increase in yield 
per acre. It is now about three times that of the average for the 
whole country; it was estimated in 1926 at 290 bushels per acre. 
This is the result of intensive cropping, with a very liberal use of 
commercial fertilizers, and thorough spraying of the growing plants 
to check disease and insects. 

MARKETING 

Of the total production of Maine potatoes in 1925 and 1926, ap- 
proximately 75 per cent was shipped out of the producing region, 
about 8 per cent consumed locally, between 6 and 7 per cent re- 
quired for the next year's seed, and a little more than 4 per cent fed 
to animals or used for making starch. Between 5 and 7 per cent 
was allowed for shrinkage. The largest part of the crop is thus 
shipped commercially for table consumption. In former years a 
considerable portion of the crop was consumed in the manufacture 
of starch, and there are numerous starch factories in the potato- 
growing and shipping sections. Only the rejected low-grade pota- 
toes are now used for this purpose, excepting possibly in years of 
extremely low prices, when some of the better stock is so consumed. 

Most of the growers sell their crop at harvest time to resident 
local buyers, who make a specialty of marketing the crop, acting 
as brokers having connection with dealers in the larger points of 
consumption. Some of the potato buyers are also large-scale pro- 
ducers, growing several hundred acres individually. Some years 
ago a cooperative association for marketing the crop was or- 
ganized, in which a large proportion of the potato growers were 
members. This association was discontinued after a few seasons of 
activity, although several local associations which were part of this 
cooperative organization are still doing business. Since 1925 the 
American Fruit Growers' Exchange has handled a considerable 
part of the crop. One of the national chain-grocery organizations 
has extensive agencies for buying, storing, and shipping potatoes 
from Aroostook County. Potatoes are generally collected for 
grading at the warehouses along the railroad sidings, where they 
are either shipped immediately or stored in bins. Shipments are 
made by rail, both in bags and in bulk. Most of the crop moves to 
market during the cold months. Kefrigerator cars are generally 
used, and these are heated during cold weather. 

The crop of Maine potatoes is marketed in a wide territory, the 
extent of which depends largely upon the size of the crop and the pro- 
duction in other sections of the United States. The crop of 1924-25, 

61232°— 30 4 



38 INDUSTRIAL STRUCTURE OF NEW ENGLAND 

with total shipments of 43,070 carloads, found markets in every State 
east of the Mississippi and in five States west of it, in addition to 
Canada, Cuba, and the British Isles. Between September 12 and 
March 26 of that season, when records were collected for 30,783 cars, 
direct shipments, amounting to over 1,000 carloads, were made to each 
of five States as follows : Massachusetts, 9,605 ; New York State, 8,198 ; 
Pennsylvania, 2,302; Connecticut, 1,947; Rhode Island, 1,320. Four 
other States received shipments exceeding 500 carloads each, namely, 
Maine, 944; Virginia, 942; Florida, 762; Georgia, 625. Each of the 
following States received over 300 carloads: New Hampshire, 451; 
South Carolina, 435; North Carolina, 355; Maryland, 302; Texas, 
302. Besides these, Ohio received 148 carloads ; Alabama, 81 ; West 
Virginia, 60; Tennessee, 57; District of Columbia, 52; Delaware, 27; 
Indiana, 24; Kentucky, 23; Illinois, 21; Missouri, 18; Mississippi, 20; 
Oklahoma, 17; and other destinations, 36. 

A considerable portion of the Maine crop is shipped for seed to 
other sections, notably to Long Island and to the South Atlantic and 
Gulf States as seed for the early crop, which, in turn, is shipped to 
the northern markets for consumption. 

The production of certified seed potatoes is important in Maine, 
also in northern Vermont and in New Hampshire. A total of nearly 
2.500.000 bushels was produced by these three States as certified seed 
in 1926. of which Maine produced 2,295,000 bushels, Vermont 154,400 
bushels, and New Hampshire approximately 29,000 bushels. In the 
preceding season Maine shipped 1,667 carloads of certified seed pota- 
toes to 16 States besides the District of Columbia. Each New Eng- 
land State and each State fronting on the Atlantic seaboard was rep- 
resented in these shipments of seed potatoes, as well as Indiana in the 
interior. Shipments from Vermont are made largely to Connecticut 
and New York State, Long Island being the largest purchaser. Some 
shipments are made to New Jersey, and a few sales are made in 
Virginia and Pennsylvania. The other States of New England use 
small portions of certified seed as foundation stock. On the other 
hand, the potato growers of northern New England bring in con- 
siderable shipments of seed potatoes from New Brunswick, as a means 
of maintaining the quality of their own foundation seed stock. 

ONIONS 

The commercial growing of onions, aside from the production in 
market-gardening operations, is confined principally to the upper 
part of the Connecticut River Valley within the State of Massachu- 
setts. Although onions were formerly grown extensively in the east- 
ern part of the State, notably about the town of Dan vers, in Essex 
County, general market gardening has taken the place of this crop in 
the areas adjacent to metropolitan Boston. The level lands of the 
valley north of the Holyoke Range now constitute the principal 
onion-growing district. 

The commercial onion crop of New England in 1924 had an esti- 
mated value of $L232,000, and in 1925 of $1,778,000, based upon De- 
cember prices. This industry was seriously affected by the postwar 
agricultural depression, when prices declined to low levels under com- 
petitive conditions then prevailing. Considerable reducton of acre- 



AGRICULTURE 



39 



age and production took place up to 1925, but since then both have 
increased. 

Heretofore the greater part of the onion crop has been raised 
from seed, but within the last few years about half the crop has been 
produced from sets, which mature much earlier in the season. The 
experiment station at Amherst is now attempting to develop a milder 
type of onion, adapted to local growing conditions and to the de- 
mands of the New England market. 

Figures of acreage, production, and price per bushel for onions 
grown in Massachusetts are shown in the following table. 



Onion Orop in Massachusetts, 1925-1927 



Year 


Acreage 


Produc- 
tion in 
thousands 
of bushels 


Price per 
bushel 


Car-lot 

shipments 


1925 


3,920 
4,420 
4,550 


1,533 
1,746 
1, 342 


$1.08 
.62 
.74 


2,856 


1926 


3,586 


1927_- 


0) 







1 Data not available. 

Onion growing in this region is a combination of American farm- 
ing methods and Old World peasant farming. On account of the 
large quantity of hand labor required for weeding and harvesting 
the crop, the actual work of production is largely in the hands of 
Polish and Lithuanian families. Men, women, and children all take 
part in the laborious handwork. These thrifty people of immigrant 
stock are rapidly coming into ownership of much of the land on 
which in former years they worked for the native American own- 
ers for wages or grew the crop on shares. Modern machinery and 
commercial fertilizers are used extensively along with the hand 
labor. 

The crop is marketed largely through a limited number of resi- 
dent buyers. The crops produced from sets, maturing in August, 
are transported by truck direct from the fields to the railways. 
Much of the late crop maturing in September is placed in local 
storage houses for shipment during the winter season. The market 
for the onion crop covers a fairly wide territory in the neighboring 
States but is not nearly so extensive as that for the New England 
potato crop. 

SWEET CORN AND OTHER VEGETABLES FOR CANNING 

Sweet corn. — The growing of sweet corn for canning has attained 
the rank of a specialized commercial crop, holding a place of impor- 
tance in northern New England corresponding to that of onions in 
Massachusetts. The principal production of sweet corn for canning 
is in the State of Maine, whose acreage, production, and total value in 
1925 was approximately 80 per cent of the New England total. In 
that year there were 19,720 acres in New England, and the total 
value of product was $1,539,000. The acreage in Maine was 15,630 
and value of crop, $1,312,000; acreage in Vermont was 2,620 and 
value of crop, $131,000; acreage in New Hampshire was 1,470 and 
value of crop, $96,000. 



40 



[INDUSTRIAL STBUCTURE OF NEW ENGLAND 



Nearly one-half of the total acreage and value of the crop in Maine 
was in the three counties of Oxford, Somerset, and Kennebec. Other 
important producing counties in Maine were Cumberland, with 1,720 
acres and crop valued at $135,140; Androscoggin, 1,430 acres and 
crop valued at $110,648; Penobscot, 1,480 acres and crop valued at 
$116,719; Waldo, 1,220 acres and crop valued at $105,291; Franklin, 
1,270 acres and crop valued at $124,724; and York, 560 acres and 
crop valued at $44,164. Besides these there were 280 acres in Lin- 
coln and Knox Counties, with a crop valued at $26,367, and 10 acres 
in Piscataquis County. 

In Vermont, Chittenden County had more than twice as much 
sweet-corn acreage as any other county in the State, with 840 acres 
and a crop valued at $45,224. The other counties, in order of im- 
portance, were Franklin, Grand Isle, Orange, Windham, Washington, 
and Windsor. In New Hampshire the principal counties are Rock- 
ingham, with 460 acres and a crop valued at $28,750 ; Merrimack, 410 
acres and crop valued at $25,625; and Carroll, 330 acres and crop 
valued at $23,425. The other New Hampshire counties in order are 
Stratford, with 80 acres; Belknap, with 60 acres; Grafton, with 50 
acres ; and Cheshire and Sullivan, with 40 acres each. 

The high quality of the sweet corn produced in northern New 
England, where the cool climate produces an especially fine flavor, 
has been an important factor in the development of this industry. 
The canned product is well liked in the market where it is known, 
and it usually commands a premium in price. It has to meet compe- 
tition, however, from the large-scale production of the farms of New 
York, Wisconsin, and other States, and this competition is a factor 
in keeping down the acreage in New England. Most of the corn 
in New England is grown in relatively small fields of a few acres, 
scattered about a large area; production in the West is in larger 
fields and canning operations are carried on in larger units and at a 
lower cost. 

Sweet-Corn Acreage, Production, and Price Per Ton, by States, 1924-1927 



Slate and year 


Acreage 


Production 
in tons 


Price per 
ton 


Maine: 

L924 . 


13, 390 

15, 630 

14, 650 
8, 260 

1,200 

1,470 

1,050 

780 

302, 790 
393,910 
317,310 
213,830 


36, 200 

45, 300 

46, 900 
23, 100 

3, 400 
3. 800 
2,400 
1,800 

527, 800 

1,014, 100 

816,000 

395, 800 


$29. 10 


1926 


29.76 


1926 - "- 


28. 72 


L927 


22. 30 


; lampshire: 
1924 


24. 40 


1926 


25. 00 


1926 


23. 65 




21.60 




-Hates: 
1924 


14.17 
15.04 


1926 _.._. 


13.23 
12.13 








Peas.- The production of peas for canning has become of some 
importance in Maine, especially in Oxford, Somerset, and Waldo 
Counties, where it has been on the increase in the last few years. 
The vnhic of this crop was $63,000 in 11)24 and $1 12,000 in 1925. 
Considerable expansion appears feasible in conjunction with the 



AGmcri/rrnr, 



41 



growing of swee< corn, as the cool climate of this region is an im- 
portant factor in quality production of both crops. Difficulties 

encountered with the green pea louse have curtailed production in 
the last year or two. 

Green-Pea Acreage, Production, and Price Per Ton in Maine, 1024-1027 



Year 


Acreage 


Production 

in Ions 


Price per 
ton 


1924 


1, 030 

1,770 

1, HO 

690 


900 
L,600 

000 
600 


C70 

70 

70 
70 


1925 


1926 


1927 


. 



Tomatoes.— The growing of tomatoes has been of some local im- 
portance in a small area of southern Connecticut, centering about tin- 
town of Guilford, where there is a cannery that supplies a consider- 
able market with its product. 

DRY BEANS 

Production of dry beans as a cash crop is of some importance in 
Maine and in Vermont, although unimportant in the other New 
England States. Its total value for New England was estimated at 
$544,000 in 1924 and at $478,000 in 1925. In the latter year the value 
of Maine's crop was $280,000 and that of Vermont's crop was $198,000. 
Each of these States had about 4,000 acres in production. The crop 
in Maine is grown in small acreages, scattered throughout the State, 
but in Vermont a specialized region in Grand Isle County with rela- 
tively large acreages produces about 60 per cent of the State's output. 

MARKET-GARDEN CROPS 

The importance of market gardening in terms of money value to 
the producer is hard to ascertain, and the acreage and production are 
subject to rather broad estimates. The census of 1925 gives for all 
New England a total of nearly 48,000 acres devoted to market- 
garden products, but this apparently includes sweet corn grown for 
canning as well as that for fresh consumption. In the total figures 
Massachusetts was in the lead with 18,428 acres, followed by Maine 
with 14,226 acres; Connecticut, 7,863; New Hampshire, 3,026; Ver- 
mont, 2,670; and Rhode Island, 1,896. The acreage in each State for 
each of the seven vegetables included in the census figures, together 
with strawberries, is shown in the following table. 

Acreage in Market-Garden Crops in New England States in 1925 



Crop 


New 
England 


Maine 


New 
Hamp- 
shire 


Vermont 


Massa- 
chusetts 


Rhode 
Island 


Connect- 
icut 


Cabbage... _ ... 


4,918 

407 

1,158 

3,936 

30, 817 

3,455 

102 


590 
33 
67 
64 
12, 574 
180 
4 


254 
16 
40 

52 

2,182 

123 

7 


216 
19 
23 
86 
2,039 
96 
11 


2,571 

144 

800 

3,422 

8,462 

1,618 

38 


212 
28 
55 
42 
1,200 

260 
11 


1,075 


Cantaloupes and muskmelons-. 
Lettuce __ 


167 
173 


Onions (dry) 


270 


Sweet corn 


4,360 


Tomatoes 


1,178 


Watermelons 


31 






Total 


44, 793 
3,397 


13, 512 

714 


2,674 
352 


2,490 
261 


17, 055 
1,373 


1,808 
88 


7,254 


Strawberries 


609 







Source: U. S. Census of Agriculture, 1925. 



42 INDUSTRIAL fcTRUCTUKfc OF NEW KNULA NO 

AREAS OF SPECIALIZATION 

The highest development of market gardening is in the vicinity of 
the large industrial centers. The most important specialized mar- 
ket-gardening regions are an area in eastern Massachusetts, north of 
Boston, and a similar area southeast of Providence, in Rhode Island. 
In these two districts the industry has been highly developed by 
farmers of native New England parentage, whose operations are 
carried on extensively in fairly large-sized units. Operations are 
conducted also on a smaller scale by Italians and others of foreign 
stock. 

The area adjacent to metropolitan Boston extends from Box- 
boro to Danvers, dipping down to include parts of the towns 
and cities adjacent to the northwestern border of the metropolitan 
area* The Providence area extends in a belt down through the cen- 
ter of Bristol County, in Massachusetts, to include the eastern edge 
of Rhode Island. Tnere are several small market-gardening dis- 
tricts in northeastern Massachusetts which supply adjacent cities. 
Southwest of Worcester is the producing area which supplies that 
city. In the neighborhood of Fitchburg there are market-gardening 
activities of considerable importance, largely operated by families 
of Finnish stock, whose operations are mainly on a small scale. 
vSimilar local producing areas exist adjacent to Springfield, Pittsfield, 
and the larger cities of Connecticut. In the lower Connecticut River 
Valley, and in some other scattered areas which have the advantage 
of peculiarly good soil conditions, market-gardening is carried on 
by local farmers, who do not produce for any particular city but 
ship to various markets. 

Formerly the industry was located nearer to the consuming cen- 
ters, but in the last two decades the introduction of the motor truck 
has made more remote producing regions accessible to the centers 
of consumption. Expansion of residential areas of the cities through 
real-estate developments also has preempted much of the former 
gardening areas, so that the industry has been forced out into the 
surrounding country. The increase in land prices near the cities has 
made these changes profitable to the farmer owners, who are probably 
the only farming class which has profited materially from this source. 

Akin to the intensified methods used in market gardening is the 
production of vegetables and flowers under glass. This is an indus- 
try whose importance is quite comparable with that of the outdoor 
production of garden crops. The total value of greenhouse products 
in 1 i > 1 1> was about three-quarters as much as that of vegetables grown 
in the open air, exclusive of potatoes. A recent study at Amherst 
Agricultural College showed that in 1927 there were 152 acres of 
vegetables under glass in Massachusetts, and the gross value of the 
crops was about $6,000,000. Vegetable forcing had its start in the 
vicinity of Boston. 

SPECIALTY CROPS 

There are two important products of New England rural life — 
maple products and tobacco — which do not admit of ready classifi- 
cation. These are therefore discussed separately from fruits and 
regetabl 



AGRICULTURE 43 

MAPLE SUGAR AND SIRUP 

New England's most distinctive rural product, made from the sap 
of its maple trees, ranks fourth or fifth among the individual sources 
of farm income, with an importance in money value next to that of 
cranberries. Maple products in 1925 had a reported value of 
$3,150,000. Of this amount more than four-fifths came from the 
sale of maple sirup and slightly less than one-fifth from maple sugar. 
The yield in that year was 2,169,000 pounds of maple sugar and 
1,224,000 gallons of sirup. 

The principal production is in the State of Vermont, which pro- 
duces nearly 75 per cent of the value of the New England product. 
Although in 1909 Vermont was surpassed in the value of its maple 
products by New York State and Ohio (and New York State was 
nearly as important in 1919), the relative importance of Vermont as 
the leading State in the industry has increased in recent years. Con- 
siderable quantities of maple sugar and sirup are produced also in 
New Hampshire, Maine, and Massachusetts, and a small quantity 
in Connecticut. The greater proportion of the sugar is produced in 
the counties of northern Vermont, while the production of sirup is 
more widely distributed throughout the maple-producing sections. 
An increasing proportion of the total crop is marketed in the form 
of sirup. 

A large portion of the maple sirup for table consumption is dis- 
tributed through the grocery trade. Most of the product is handled 
by large dealers, who buy and market much of the Canadian output 
as well as the American. In the past, a considerable proportion of 
the output has found a market outside of direct human consump- 
tion as a sweetening medium for chewing tobacco. Limited results 
have been obtained through market organization of this industry, but 
in one section of Vermont a cooperative association has for some 
years marketed the output of its members. Although improved 
methods of production have been put into effect in recent years, with 
a resulting improvement in quality of the product, much might be 
done in developing more fully the market possibilities of this indus- 
try. As the product of a permanent and distinctive native resource 
of the region, it merits the fullest possible development. 

TOBACCO 

Among the money crops of New England agriculture, the value 
of tobacco holds second or third place, being surpassed by the income 
from potatoes, and sometimes by that from the apple crop. Tobacco 
is distinctly a regional product, confined to a small area of the 
Connecticut River Valley, extending northward from Hartford to 
the limits of northern Massachusetts, with small producing areas 
both north and south of these limits. There is also a limited pro- 
duction in the Housatonic Valley of Connecticut. From year to 
year the value of the product in these areas fluctuates widely, depend- 
ing upon the market price. 

As early as 1859 this region produced upward of 9,000,000 pounds 
of tobacco, and by 1879 the amount had increased to nearly 20,000,000 
pounds. From 1910 to 1920 the production increased materially, 



44 



INDUSTRIAL STRUCTUKK OF NKW KNULAND 



but since then has fallen off. During the last decade the crop has 
averaged about 50,000,000 pounds, although there have been sharp 
fluctuations from year to year. 

ACREAGE AND PRODUCTION 

Figures of acreage and production from 1921 to 1927, and of yield 
per acre and prices from 1923 to 1927 are shown for Massachusetts 
and Connecticut and for the entire United States in the following 
tables. 

New England Tobacco Acreage and Production, by States, 1921-1927 





Acreage 


Production in thousands of pounds 


State 


Average, 
1921-1924 


1925 


1926 


1927 


Average, 
1921-1924 


1925 


1926 


1927 


Massachusetts 

Connecticut 


9,120 
29, 280 

1, 692, 420 


8,600 
29, 600 

1, 757, 300 


6,500 
21, 900 

1, 656, 400 


7,100 
23, 600 

1, 610, 200 


11, 750 
38, 812 

1, 291, 922 


10, 690 
40, 019 

1, 376, 628 


9,412 
29, 346 

1, 297, 889 


8,683 

28, 886 


All other United 

States ._ 


1, 237, 832 







Tobacco Yield Per Acre and Estimated Price Per Pound, by States, Decem- 
ber 1, 192&-1927 



State 


Yield per acre 


Estimated price, cents per pound 


1923 


1924 


1925 


1926 


1927 


1923 


1924 


1925 


1926 


1927 


.\Ia><achusetts 

« 'onnecticut 


Pounds 

1,410 

1,388 

807 


Pounds 

1,340 

1,370 

734 


Pounds 

1,243 

1,352 

783 


Pounds 
1,448 
1,340 

784 


Pounds 

1,223 

1,224 

769 


43.8 
46.5 
19.9 


26.8 
32.3 
20.7 


16.0 
19.0 
18.2 


35.0 
35.6 
18.2 


37.0 
36.0 


United States 


21.5 



The growing of tobacco involves a number of operations quite 
apart from the usual processes of agriculture. Harvesting, drying, 
and curing of the matured crop all require careful handwork, in 
which a large part of the labor is performed by Polish immigrants, 
who have recently come to play an increasing part in tobacco growing 
as proprietors of the land and crop which they cultivate. 

The principal production of the Connecticut Valley tobacco is sold 
for cigar wrappers, The poorer qualities are used for binders and 
lor cigar fillers. This district does not compete in producing the 
cheaper grades used for making cigarettes. Most of the tobacco is 
grown in the open air. but in recent years a considerable and increas- 
ing amount of shade-grown tobacco has been produced. There were 
some 6,800 acres of tobacco grown under cloth in 1924. The peculiar 
quality of the soils has much to do with the quality of the product. 
Much of the lighter soil in the vallej, some of which was considered 
almost worthless for other crops, is now devoted to the intensive 
production of tobacco. Commercial fertilizers are used extensively. 



AGRICULTUEB 45 



MARKETING 



Up to a few years ago marketing of the tobacco crop in this region 
was solely in the hands of a special group of dealers, who bought the 
product from the farmer. In determining the price offered they gave 
secondary attention to quality and grades. After the close of the 
World War, county marketing associations were established to take 
over the packing and selling operations for the growers, and a selling 
federation was formed. Under this arrangement the local associa- 
tions were able to obtain limited loans on the tobacco in their packing- 
houses, but full payment was not obtained by the growers until at 
least a year after the crop was harvested. 

This plan was succeeded by a single, centralized association, which 
held contracts for 60 per cent of the sun-grown acreage. Inability 
to better the market price, in consequence of increasing stocks on 
hand with no curtailment of production, forced the association to 
abandon its contracts for future crops. The poor returns of the 
tobacco growers in the last few years, however, have led to consider- 
able curtailment of this industry, and some of the growers have 
turned their attention to production of other income-bearing crops 
in its place. 

COMMERCIAL FERTILIZERS 

New England uses a comparatively large volume of commercial 
fertilizers. This is due not so much to the depletion of soil fertil- 
ity as to the intensive cropping which makes the addition of com- 
mercial fertilizer necessary for high yields. Fertilizers are used 
more generally on the naturally rich soils than on the poorer 
lands of the hills, where there is real depletion. The heaviest appli- 
cations of fertilizer are on the recently cleared potato fields of Maine, 
the rich soil of the Connecticut Valley, where onions and tobacco are 
raised intensively, the market-garden areas near the cities, and the 
better orchards. Very few of the hillside pastures get the fertilizer 
which they might use to advantage. 

RELATIVE CONSUMPTION 

The following table of comparisons gives a general idea of the 
importance of agricultural chemicals in New England. It will be 
noted that for the acreage of crops which are normally sold from the 
land the use of fertilizer is particularly high in this section. The 
large area of pasturage and feeding crops brings clown to second 
place New England's rank in the use of fertilizer per acre of total 
improved land or of total crop acreage. The concentration of nitro- 
gen in the fertilizer in average use is moderately high, that of phos- 
phoric acid low, and that of potash the highest found in the country. 



46 



INDUSTRIAL STRUCTURE OF NEW ENGLAND 



Estimated Application of Fertilizer and Concentration in Plant Food in 
New England and Other Sections of the United States in 1923 





Total 
fertilizer 
tonnage 


Pounds applied per acre on 
the basis of — 


Approximate concentration in 
plant food 


Geographic section 


All im- 
proved 
land in 
farms 


Total 
area in 
crops 
with 
acreage 
reports 


Acreage 

in crops 

normally 

sold 


Nitrogen 


Phos- 
phoric 
acid 


Potash 


New England .._ 

South Atlantic . ... 


351, 709 
3, 670, 476 
839, 001 
856, 260 
615, 414 
82, 819 
259, 785 
60, 500 
3,900 


115.0 

151.0 

63.0 

39.0 

14.0 

7.0 

8.0 

.7 

.3 


165.0 

230.0 

99.0 

54.0 

20.0 

13.0 

10.0 

1.0 

.5 


1,341 
533 
442 

157 
105 
43 
18 
4 
1 


Per cent 
3.92 
3.06 
1.22 
2.47 

.76 
8.19 
2.46 

.68 


Per cent 
6.85 

10.15 

10.49 
8.00 

13.93 
5.17 
8.00 

15.79 


Per cent 
4.59 
3. 16 


Middle Atlantic ._ 


3 29 


East South Central 


3.00 


East North Central 


2.77 


Pacific ._ ... . ... 


3.39 


West South Central 


3.00 


West North Central. .. 


.50 


Mountain _. 













Source: Sidney B. Haskell, 
(Based upon 1923 data.) 



"Fertilizer Use in the United States," The Annals, January 1925, p. 265 



The tonnage of commercial fertilizer used annually in each of the 
States and in the whole region from 1922 to 1927 is shown in the 
following table. For Massachusetts and Maine the 'data are based 
upon actual records of sales, computed in connection with the col- 
lection of a tonnage tax. The estimates for the other States are made 
by State officials conversant with the actual local situation. While 
there w T as a decrease in the period of the postwar depression, the 
tonnage is now gradually increasing. 

Fertilizer Consumption by States, 1922-1927 



State 


Fiscal 

year 

ending — 


1927 


1926 


1925 


1924 


1923 


1922 


Total New England 




374, 397 


363, 920 


371, 160 


364, 404 


350, 709 


349, 486 




Dec. 31 
June 30 
June 30 
June 30 
Mar. 31 
June 30 






194, 000 
19,000 
15, 663 
71, 734 
9, 000 
65,000 


192,000 
16, 000 
18, 000 
58, 920 
9,000 
70,000 


185, 000 
16, 000 
18, 000 
62, 656 
9,504 
80,000 


182, 000 

16, 000 

17, 000 
61, 968 

8,800 
78, 636 


168, 000 
17, 000 
18,000 
63, 709 
9, 000 
75, 000 


172, 000 


New Hampshire 


15, 000 


Vermont .. 


16, 000 


Massachusetts l _ _ 


65, 986 


Rhode Island 


8,500 


Connecticut _ _ 


72, 000 







i From State records. 

-our''-: American Fertilizer Handbook, 1928, p. 22. 

TYPES AND SOURCES 

These tonnage figures apply to the fertilizer as sold. In 1924, 
223,935 tons of fertilizer were shipped into New England and 94,871 
ion- shipped out. making a net inward movement of 129,564 tons. 1 
With certain reservations it may be said that the remainder is manu- 
factured wdthin New England. (See p. 561.) Farmers are buying 
[ess of the low-analysis fertilizers containing a high proportion of 
inert filler-. There is a considerable actual manufacture of commer- 



tenuil Trade of New 
Department of Commerce. 



England, 



p. 8. Domestic Commerce Series No. 22, 



AGKIOTJIiTURB 47 

cial fertilizer from raw materials as well as much mixing by estab- 
lishments in New England. The fish residue, with decreasing pro- 
portions of tankage from the slaughter houses, furnishes a large ton- 
nage of fertilizer ingredients. Lime is the only agricultural mineral 
obtained locally, and there are no nitrogen fixation plants in the dis- 
trict, but there is a considerable production of sulphate of ammonia 
from gas plants. In the past there has been a considerable sale of 
horse manure near the cities, but this, of course, is now of little 
importance. 

MERCHANDISING OF FERTILIZERS 

The merchandising of fertilizers is highly seasonal. Solicitation for 
the next season's orders begins in November and lasts into the spring. 
It is accomplished by a variety of special agencies. The leading fer- 
tilizer producers and distributors, both national and local, have 
agents who canvass the farmers in the special crop sections. These 
agents take orders from the farmers in advance of shipment. As a 
rule, these concerns employ leading local farmers, or other repre- 
sentatives, to whom the fertilizer is shipped. They attend to the 
unloading of the cars and to the distribution of the goods. Most 
of the sales through these local agents are made on extended credit, 
w T hich is handled by the manufacturers. As a rule, the larger coopera- 
tive purchasing concerns which handle feed sell fertilizer on the 
same basis. This is usually a matter of cash payment for car-door 
delivery on goods ordered in advance. 

In communities where there is no particular concentration of ferti- 
lizer purchases no direct solicitation is done among the farmers by 
the commercial agencies. Fertilizers are carried in local stores with 
feed or seed or are handled by farmer agents. Near the cities there 
is a considerable sale to suburban dwellers for use in vegetable and 
flower gardens. This is usually handled by stores which specialize 
in the sale of seeds and other garden materials. 

Each of the States maintains an inspection service for fertilizers. 
Only brands registered and conforming to State fertilizer laws may 
be sold. 



FOREST RESOURCES 

The significance of forestry in the economic life of New England, 
and the desirability of the fullest practical development of its timber 
resources, is apparent from the fact that two-thirds of the entire land 
surface of New England is in forest or is potential forest land. This 
proportion is more than twice that of the forest area for the entire 
United States, and it exceeds that of any European country except 
Finland and Sweden. In Maine 78 per cent of the total land area 
is in forests; the proportion ranges in different counties from a 
minimum of 43 per cent to a maximum of 91 per cent. Even in the 
densely populated State of Massachusetts there are townships within 
50 miles of Worcester with over 90 per cent of their area in forests. 
The forest area of New Hampshire covers more than two-thirds of 
the State ; in the other New England States the proportion in forest 
ranges from 40 to 50 per cent of the land surface. 

The United States Forest Service in 1920 classed as forest approxi- 
mately 26,000,000 acres of New England land, representing 5.7 per 
cent of the total forest acreage of the Nation. Some 15,000,000 acres 
of this total were in Maine, representing 58 per cent of the New Eng- 
land total ; nearly 4,000,000 acres were in New Hampshire, comprising 
15 per cent ; in Vermont there were 2,800 ; 000, amounting to 11 per cent ; 
and in Massachusetts, 2,241,000 acres, representing 9 per cent of the 
New England total. In Connecticut there were 1,451,000 acres in 
forest, and in Rhode Island 280,000 acres. Of the total forest acreage 
of New England 85 per cent is located in the three northern States, 
and only 15 per cent in the three southern States. 

The forest area of this section has been on the increase for some 
time and it is still increasing, chiefly at the expense of lands that 
were formerly cultivated. Since the Civil War there has been a 
steady reversion of farm land to forests. It is estimated that the 
New England States as a whole now have a forest area which is 
probably 15 per cent greater than it was 60 years ago. In New 
Hampshire the decrease in the improved farm land in the last 60 
years amounted to 1,664,000 acres, representing a falling off of 71 
per cent. 

IMPORTANCE OF FORESTS 

A considerable portion of the forest area of New England con- 
sists of farm wood lots. More of the total farm area is in these 
wood lots than in improved farm land. The woodlands on privately 
owned farms in New England, including natural or improved wood 
Jots and young growth on cut-over land, amounted in 1925 to 7,300,000 
■■. which is nearly one-half the total area in farms in the six 
States. Much of the pocky and hilly farm land of New England 
can be employed in systematic forestry more profitably than in agri- 
culture. Mn-l of the land that has reverted to forestry in the last 
is 



FOREST RESOURCES 49 

two generations is of this type, and it is still undergoing the process 
of natural reforestation. 

Forestry in New England goes hand in hand with diversified agri- 
culture. It has an especially important place in sections where the 
range of profitable farm crops is limited. On many a farm of north- 
ern New England a substantial part of the income is from the sale of 
forest products, supplemented by maple products and the income 
from the dairy herd. The support of forestry as a farm activity is 
Ithus an aid in maintaining the prosperity of the rural sections of 
New England. The more profitable the wood lot becomes, the 
easier it is to sustain other farm activities. 

The various industries of New England which depend upon wood 
(see p. 481) for their raw materials have a natural advantage over in- 
dustries which must obtain their raw material from outside sources. 
The industries dependent upon wood have a large capital investment 
in this region. Although they tend to shift slowly and reluctantly to 
new locations, yet their permanent retention here depends largely 
upon the availability of near-by materials in present locations. The 
wood-using establishments which are scattered about New England, 
particularly in the northern part, often provide the only local manu- 
facturing activity. Many of them get their supplies from their im- 
mediate neighborhoods. The continued industrial life of such com- 
munities thus depends largely upon the maintenance of adequate 
forest materials. The cost of transporting these materials from out- 
side sources makes it increasingly important to produce them near by. 

The importance of the activities which depend upon wood for raw 
material is indicated by the fact that in 1925 they together provided 
a market for upward of $240,000,000 worth of raw materials used 
in manufacturing, including fuel and supplies, and they paid more 
than $90,000,000 in wages to upward of 76,000 wage earners. The 
products of the wood-using industries of New England had an 
aggregate value in 1925 exceeding $425,000,000. 

This region consumes about one-half the pulpwood of the whole 
country, and manufactures more than one-half the wood pulp. 
Maine leads all the other States of the Union in the amount of wood 
pulp produced, and New Hampshire occupies fifth place. The pulp 
and paper mills of New England consume nearly 2,000,000 cords of 
palp wood annually. The value of this material in 1926 was nearly 
$34,000,000, and the w r ood pulp which they produced in that year 
had a value exceeding $63,000,000. In the outlay for materials and 
in the income brought to the people of New England the paper and 
pulp industries contributed considerably more than one-half of the 
total for all the wood-using industries of New England. 

Other important activities depending upon wood resources are 
the manufacture of furniture, packing boxes, planing-mill products, 
toys, and various other turned and carved wood products. 

This region in recent years has become more and more dependent 
upon other sections for lumber used in construction. Maine is the 
only State which is now able to meet all its timber requirements from 
its own forests. Increasing quantities of lumber are brought in each 
year from the Southern States, from the Pacific Northwest, and 
from Canada. The New England States pay out more than $10,000,- 
000 a year in freight bills on lumber shipped in from other parts 
of the United States, and nearly $1,000,000 on imported lumber. 



50 INDUSTRIAL STRUCTURE OF NEW ENGLAND 

New England's proximity to the great lumber-consuming regions 
of the Eastern and Central States gives it a favorable position to 
compete in their future lumber markets, when the supplies of virgin 
timber from distant sources become more inaccessible and more 
costly. The future products of New England's large acreage of 
forest land thus have in prospect a ready and profitable market near 
at hand. 

The conservation of New England forests has important economic 
significance in its bearing upon water power. Since large portions 
of this region are mountainous or hilly, a forest cover is necessary 
to protect the water supply and to maintain the regularity of stream 
flow, in order to provide a maximum volume for hydroelectric power 
and for domestic supplies. The principal power-producing rivers 
of New England — the Penobscot, Kennebec, Androscoggin, Merri- 
mack, and Connecticut — all have their origin in mountain forests 
where the standing timber is an aid in providing natural reservoirs. 

Full realization of the economic advantage afforded by the recrea- 
tional attractions of this section depends, likewise, upon the mainte- 
nance of New England forests, which have a beneficial influence on 
climate that should not be ignored. Maintenance of wild life and 
the opportunity afforded for hunting and fishing provide not only 
recreational attractions to tourists but they bring direct revenue 
from hunting and fishing licenses and from the expenditures of 
campers and tourists. 

PRESENT STAND OF TIMBER 

The present stand of saw timber in New England is about one- 
eighth of the original stock, and now comprises only 2 1 / 4z per cent 
of the estimated saw timber of the entire United States. There are 
less than 2,000,000 acres of virgin timberland remaining in New 
England. The rest of the forest has been cut over within the past 
two or three generations. More than three-fourths of this stand 
is estimated to be softwood — principally spruce and fir, these repre- 
senting 62 per cent of all the softwood. White pine and Norway 
pine comprise about 25 per cent, and the remaining 13 per cent of 
softwoods consists of hemlock, cedar, and other minor species. 
Hardwoods comprise less than one-fourth of all the standing saw tim- 
ber in New England. Most of this consists of birch, beech, and 
maple, which are estimated to comprise about 72 per cent of the 
total hardwood. Oak makes up 13 per cent, and the remaining 15 
per cent consists of miscellaneous species. 

Softwoods have been cut off much more generally than hardwoods. 
This is principally because softwoods have a wider commercial value, 
both for lumber and for the manufacture of paper. It is partly a 
matter of transportation also. Softwood logs and bolts can be floated 
readily down the streams to the mills, while it is difficult to float 
hardwood logs. There are extensive areas, particularly in the in- 
terior of Maine, where the softwood timber has been cut off and the 
hardwood timber remains standing. Much of this hardwood has been 
left uncut because of its remoteness from easy transportation. 

In the absence of any recent complete survey of New England 
timber resources, it is difficult to determine the present stand in the 



FOREST RESOURCES 51 

individual States. The high variability in species and the general 
conditions of different areas make any rough estimate quite wide of 
the mark. The United States Forest Service in 1920 made an estimate 
of the saw timber and pulpwood in the six New England States, 
which is summarized by species in the following statement. About 
half of this lumber is of pulpwood species, consisting of spruce, fir, 
hemlock, and poplar. 

Million 
Softwoods : board feet 

Spruce and fir 23,971 

White pine *__ 9, 816 

Cedar _ 2,789 

Hemlock 1, 804 

Pitch pine 100 

Total softwoods 38,480 

Hardwoods : 

Yellow birch 2, 933 

Maple __ 2,897 

Beech 1, 635 

Oak 1 1,510 

Paper birch 678 

Poplar 374 

Ash 215 

Other hardwoods 1, 077 

Total hardwoods 11,319 

Total hardwoods and softwoods- 49, 799 

TYPES OF TIMBERLAND 

The forests of New England may be grouped into several large 
divisions or types, according to predominant species. These are the 
spruce-fir type, the mixed spruce and hardwood type, the northern 
hardwood type, the white-pine type, the paper-birch and aspen type, 
and the scrub-oak type. The spruce-fir type is confined chiefly to 
northern New England and is most common in northern Maine, New 
Hampshire, and Vermont. It extends down through the Green 
Mountains into western Massachusetts, where it is found in the 
higher elevations of the Berkshires. It occurs on widely varied 
topography, from practically flat land to some of the steepest slopes. 
The northern hardwoods, consisting of yellow birch, hard maple, and 
beech, occur in proportions varying from practically none to nearly 
pure hardwood stands. White pine, gray birch, and hemlock are of 
common occurrence throughout central New England. In the Cape 
Cod region of Massachusetts and in some other sections there is a 
type of forest frequently known as the scrub-oak type, which owes its 
existence almost entirely to repeated fires, which have destroyed all 
the better species. 

In the early cuttings of the spruce-fir forests only the large spruce 
and white pine were cut, down to a breast-high diameter limit of 12 to 
14 inches. This partial opening of the stand permitted increased 
growth of the remaining trees, so that a second cut was usually pos- 
sible on the same area in about 20 years. This second cutting was 
ordinarily made to a lower diameter limit — approximately 10 inches 
breast-high dimension. The practice of utilizing pulpwood in 



52 INDUSTRIAL STRUCTURE OF NEW ENGLAND 

recent years has led to increasingly heavy cuttings, which frequently 
remove all spruce and fir down to a breast-high diameter limit of 
5 or 6 inches. Consequently it is probable that future stands of 
softwood on such areas will be of an approximately even age. Simi- 
lar even-age stands also come on abandoned farm lands or windfalls 
and in some cases after fires. 

LUMBER CONSUMPTION 

The exploitation of the timber resources of New England has 
passed through a number of stages. Sawmill activities have been 
characteristic and important industries in the region from the ear- 
liest times. The first sawmill in the United States was erected in 
southern Maine in 1623. Cutting of the virgin white pine for lumber 
was the first extensive activity in New England forests. This 
reached its peak about 1840, and the virgin pine was practically all 
gone by 1870. Spruce lumber became important soon after 1840. 
This in turn gave way to the cutting of spruce and other softwood for 
pulp and paper manufacture, which commenced about 1890 and 
reached its greatest activity about 1910. 

In recent years there has been a marked falling off in the pro- 
duction of spruce and fir lumber in New England, dropping from 
slightly more than 700 million board feet in 1915 to 228 million 
board feet in 1924. The cut of pine lumber between 1906 and 1909 
was close to 1,000 million board feet, and it fell to between one-third 
and one-half of this amount from 1920 to 1924. There has been a 
similar drop in the production of hardwood lumber. This produc- 
tion amounted to between 400 and 500 million board feet from 1906 
to 1909 ; from 1920 to 1924 it was between 150 and 250 million board 
feet. At the present time New England produces considerably less 
than one-half of the amount of lumber which the region consumes. 
Its total lumber cut in 1924 was 944 million board feet and its total 
consumption was 2,130 million. 

The year of maximum production of New England lumber was 
1907, when it amounted to 3,170 million board feet. The increased 
production at that time resulted from the introduction of portable 
sawmills, which made small scattered lots available, as well as from 
the increase in second-growth timber on farms that had reverted to 
forests. Increasing scarcity of better grades of lumber throughout 
the country caused an advance in prices which provided an attractive 
market for this product. The drain on the saw timber of this region 
in 1020 was estimated to be nearly three and one-half times as great 
as the replacement from the annual growth. The actual lumber pro- 
duction in 1918 was less than one-half as much as in 1907. The cut 
of softwood in this earlier year comprised 7.6 per cent of the soft- 
wood for the whole country; by 1918 it had fallen to 4.3 per cent. 

Out of a total New England consumption of 2,130 million feet of 
lumber annually, about L,250 million feet is shipped in from other 
regions. This includes, roughly, 500 million feet imported chiefly 
from Canada, 500 million shipped in from the South, and about 250 
million from the far West. Under present economic conditions lum- 
ber can be transported by water from these distant virgin regions and 
laid down at New England ports at a lower cost than lumber of 



FOREST RESOURCES 53 

equivalent quality from near-by New England forests. Lumber 
shipped in from other sections has often been marketed at haphazard 
prices, in consequence of the financial pressure for the liquidation of 
stumpage holdings in the Western States. This situation, however, 
can not be considered a permanent one, since it is the outgrowth of 
temporary conditions that must change before many years. 

FOREST PROTECTION AND MAINTENANCE 

The particular problem of forestry in the northeastern TJnited 
States is to maintain continuous production on forest land and to 
produce full crops of timber. More attention has been*given to these 
objects in this region than in other forest areas of the country. It 
finds expression in (1) the care of forests by private holders, (2) 
protection against fire hazards, (3) measures for the control of 
disease and insects, (4) the acquisition of forest tracts by public 
agencies, and (5) efforts toward reforestation by holders of large 
tracts and by States and municipalities. 

Most of the New England soil is well adapted to the growth of 
timber, and natural reforestation from the new growth takes place 
generally where fire is kept out. A fairly good reproduction of 
spruce and fir usually takes place to form the basis for a new stand 
of timber. A very large proportion of the New England forest land 
is now covered with growing timber which has not yet reached 
merchantable size. Throughout the white-pine region the forest is 
restored naturally. The large amount of natural young growth now 
coming on, especially in the pine regions, calls for intelligent and 
conservative utilization and the avoidance of premature cutting. 

The new stands of timber that have followed cutting are not al- 
ways composed of desirable species and sometimes are not of sufficient 
density. Such stands are not adequate to produce the highest yields 
of which the land is capable. Where timber cutting is not followed 
by fire, however, some kind of forest growth usually covers the cut- 
over lands within a reasonable time. Repeated careless cutting is 
likely to bring about steady deterioration by reversion to poor stands 
of inferior species. 

PROTECTION FROM FIRE 

To keep forest lands productive the first essential is fire control. 
A single fire in a cut-over area frequently results in converting it 
into a barren waste, and repeated fires are almost certain to do so. In 
the northeastern States nearly one-fourth of the total forest area has 
been destroyed by forest fires. Concerted efforts on the part of 
public agencies, private owners of timber, and the general public 
are necessary to remove the fire hazard as the first step toward 
putting timber growing on a safe basis. 

Losses from fire in the principal forest regions of New England 
are held in check by organized detection and suppression forces with 
the cooperation of the Federal Government and the support of a 
strong traditional feeling of individual local responsibility. Al- 
though the present fire-control systems are generally well organized 
and are efficiently conducted, experts are of the opinion that the funds 

61232°— 30 5 



54 



INDUSTRIAL STRUCTURE OF NEW ENGLAND 



available are still inadequate to provide the full protection that is 
needed to make the forests commercially insurable risks. 

Experience has shown that fire-control systems should center in a 
strong State department of forestry which has ample authority and 
funds to develop a State-wide organization for prevention and sup- 
pression of forest fires. In northern Maine the forestry district com- 
prises some 10,000,000 acres and has been created by law ; within this 
area the responsibility for all fire-control activities is centered in the 
State forester. Funds for this purpose are raised by special tax on 
all property within the district. In the unorganized towns of north- 
ern New Hampshire the State also assumes primary responsibility 
for all fire-control activities on privately owned lands. 

The following table shows the average forest area burned annually 
in the individual States of the northeastern area from 1916 to 1923, 
inclusive, with the percentage relation to the total forest area. 

Average Forest Area Burned Annually, 1916 to 1923, Inclusive 



State 


Area 
burned 


Per cent 

of total 

forest area 


State 


Area 
burned 


Per cent 

of total 

forest area 


Maine. 


Acres 
24, 997 
4,815 
1,155 
16, 824 
3,537 


0.17 
.12 
.04 

.75 
1.26 


Connecticut _ 


Acres 
27, 581 
11,908 
65, 759 

171, 479 


1.09 


New Hampshire 


New York (Adirondacks) 

New Jersey 


. 10 


Vermont _. 


3.28 


M assachusetts _._ 


Pennsylvania 


1.43 


Rhode Island 











It is observed that the loss from fire is exceedingly low in Vermont. 
It is also low in New Hampshire and Maine. Authorities hold that 
an adequate fire-protective system should keep the area burned each 
year within one-tenth of 1 per cent of the total forest area. These 
latter two New England States are slightly above this point. Massa- 
chusetts is materially above it, and in Connecticut and Rhode Island 
the percentages are the highest in New England. The highest pro- 
portion of forest area burned is in the more thickly settled portions 
near the industrial centers. 



PROTECTION FROM OTHER ENEMIES 

The ravages of disease and insects, particularly the white-pine 
blister rust, the white-pine weevil, the spruce bud worm, and the 
gypsy moth, have made necessary the employment of strong measures 
to control these enemies of forest growth. In some sections of New 
England they have worker! considerable damage, but effective efforts 
are being made to hold them in check and to prevent their spread to 
i in infested areas. 

FOREST PLANTING 

Nearly 80,000 acres of New England land had been planted to 
forest by private agencies up to the end of 1925. The greater por- 
tion of these plantings was made by private individuals and indus- 
trial organizations, and Stales. One-half the total New England 
plantings was in Massachusetts, upward of one-seventh in Connecti- 
cut . about one-eighth in Maine, approximately one-ninth each in 



FOREST RESOURCES 



55 



Vermont and New Hampshire, and a small amount in Rhode Island. 
Although the extent of forest plantings at the present time is not 
great in proportion to the area of New England land that could 
be devoted to productive forestry, the movement is going forward 
with increasing interest. These plantings are important as demon- 
strations of the results of forestry management, and as a means for 
a positive attitude toward forestry among private landowners. 

The area of the forest plantings in each State by various agencies 
is shown in the following table. Considerable attention has been 
given recently to the establishment of town and community forests. 

Forest Planting in New England States to End of 1925 



Agency- 


Maine 


New 
Hamp- 
shire 


Massa- 
chu- 
setts 


Con- 
necti- 
cut 


Ver- 
mont 


Rhode 
Island 


New 
Eng- 
land 
total 


Individuals 


Acres 

500 

9,500 


Acres 
3,800 
2,500 
1,200 
1,200 
100 
43 


Acres 
14,000 

4,000 
18,000 

4,000 


Acres 
4,060 
4,850 
1,100 
1,220 
30 


Acres 
4,474 
1,605 
1,900 
826 
489 


Acres 
340 

60~ 


Acres 

27, 174 


Industrial organizations 


22, 455 


States . _ ___ 


22,000 


Municipalities 




7,246 


Schools, colleges, and other 




679 


United States Forest Service 




43 
















Total 


10,000 


8,843 


40,000 


11, 260 


9,294 


400 


79, 597 







The species most largely planted are white pine, Norway pine, 
and spruce. Seedlings are obtained from the State forestry depart- 
ments, which maintain nurseries and sell, at small cost, young trees 
for private planting. Some of the larger owners of timberland main- 
tain their own nurseries to provide stock for planting cut-over lands, 

A limited amount of stock for planting is now provided by the 
State nurseries. The reforesting of New England's timberland on 
any extensive scale requires cheap planting stock available to farmers, 
and other landowners, at a cost sufficiently low to justify the outlay. 
Cooperation, in a limited way, by the Federal Government is given 
under the provision of the Clark-McNary Act, but a greatly increased 
volume of available planting material is needed to support a justi- 
fiable policy of forest expansion in the several States. 

LOCAL FORESTRY ORGANIZATIONS 

In addition to forestry departments with foresters maintained in 
each of the New England States, there are a number of other agencies 
which are doing much to promote constructive forestry in New 
England. The United States Government maintains the North- 
eastern Forest Experiment Station at Amherst, Mass., whose field, in 
addition to New England, includes New York. The Harvard Forest, 
at Petersham, Mass., is devoted to the study and application of prac- 
tical forestry methods in New England. Schools of forestry are 
maintained also at Yale University, at the University of Maine, and 
at the University of New Hampshire. 

There are also strong State forestry associations in New Hamp- 
shire, Vermont, Massachusetts, and Connecticut. The Society for 
the Protection of New Hampshire Forests has purchased for public 
use several tracts of forests in the White Mountains and elsewhere, 



56 



INDUSTRIAL STRUCTURE OF NKW ENGLAND 



The Connecticut Forestry Association has been active in raising 
money to purchase forests for presentation to the State. In Maine, 
Bates College owns large tracts of forest land. In Vermont Middle- 
bury College is practicing forestry on its Battell Forest tract. 

OWNERSHIP OF FOREST LAND 

About 90 per cent of the forest lands of New England are privately 
owned. The woodlands on privately owned farms in New England, 
including natural or planted woodlands and cut-over lands with 
young growth, in 1925 amounted to 7,300,000 acres. This is nearly 
one-half the total farm area in the six States, and exceeds the acreage 
of improved farm land. 

PUBLIC HOLDINGS 

Upward of 1,000,000 acres of New England forest lands are owned 
by public agencies. More than four-fifths of this is in the three 
northern States, and one-half of this northern portion is represented 
by the White Mountain National Forest, in New Hampshire and 
Maine, whose total area is being increased, by purchases, up to an 
ultimate limit of 1,000,000 acres. The principal holdings of State- 
owned land are in Maine, but most of these are not in productive 
forests. In the extent of actual State forests, Massachusetts leads, 
with 97,000 acres so designated, in addition to 12,000 acres of park 
lands and 48,000 acres in other nonforest land. The State forests of 
Vermont comprise 30,500 acres, those of New Hampshire about 20,500, 
and those of Connecticut 20,000 acres. 

Besides the State and National holdings of forest land, various 
municipalities and counties have set aside upward of 85,000 acres in 
forest tracts. The greater portion of this is in Massachusetts, 
but very considerable acreages have been set aside by Connecticut, 
New Hampshire, and Vermont. The following table shows the 
acreage of forest land owned by the different public agencies in each 
of the New England States at the end of 1925. 

Publicly Owned Lands in New England States, December 31, 1925 



Ownership 


Maine 


New- 
Hamp- 
shire 


Mas- 
sachu- 
setts 


Con- 
necti- 
cut 


Ver- 
mont 


Rhode 
Island 


New 
England 


National forests 


Acres 

32, 256 

100 

330,000 

25 

835 


Acres 

408, 949 

20, 538 

575 

~i6,~612" 


Acres 


Acres 


Acres 


Acres 


Acres 
441, 205 


State forests 


97,000 
48, 000 
12, 000 
52, 603 


20,666 
2, 000 
7,000 

15, 543 


30, 504 
713 
160 

5, 963 


""ioi" 


168, 142 


Other Stat.' land. 


381, 288 


State parks 

Municipal and county forests and parks 


19, 185 
85, 660 


'1 otal public lands 


363, 216 


440, 674 


209,603 


44, 543 


37, 340 


104 


1,095,480 






FORE 


STRY 


POL] 


[CIES 











The fullest development and utilization of the forest resources of 
\ew England require a long-time coordinated policy based upon a 
comprehensive study of its foresl hind and of the wood resources, 
from the standpoint of potential production and utilization, with a 
program for developing permanent industries of the soft that will 



FOREST RESOURCES 57 

utilize the products of the forest most profitably. In particular, the 

development of industries using the hardwoods of northern New 
England could be extended to provide a profitable immediate market 
for forest products. Recent efforts have been directed to the bringing 
about of a common point of view between commercial interests and 
the forest owners, aiming at the setting up of a constructive common 
program that will conserve the future development of the New Eng- 
land forests, and will at the same time provide for their present 
commercial utilization. Education of the farmer in the practice 
of forestry on his wood lots is of vital importance in an adequate 
forestry program. 

Taxation of forest lands is one of the most baffling problems. The 
long period of time during which a growing forest provides no money 
return makes existing tax policies unsuitable, and discourages the 
establishment of forestry on a commercial basis. In this field the 
method of paying the tax is more important than the amount. The 
return from taxation can be maintained by a graduated system 
based on yield rather than by a uniform tax paid each year. Much 
of the premature cutting of New England timber stands has been 
forced upon the owners by the present annual tax requirements. This 
reduces not only the yield but the quality of the timber. The tax 
burden is serious in the maintenance of cut-over lands. 

The United States Forest Service has been engaged for some time 
in special research to determine the proper basis for taxing forest 
land. The results of its work should be of value as a guide in 
fixing constructive taxation policies. Certain of the New England 
States have been giving special attention to the revision of their 
tax laws as applied to forest holdings. The effective working out of 
these policies is needed to put New England forestry on a sound 
permanent basis in line with other productive enterprises. 



MINERAL RESOURCES 1 

New England makes a substantial contribution 2 to the national 
output of certain important minerals, although the value of its total 
mineral production appears insignificant in comparison with the 
great ore and fuel producing districts of the United States. New 
England contributes approximately 1 per cent of the value of the 
total mineral production of the country. There are none of the im- 
portant fuel minerals (see p. 115) of commercial importance in the 
region — no coal, oil, or natural gas — although a considerable area in 
Rhode Island and southeastern Massachusetts contains some low- 
grade anthracite, which has been mined to a slight extent. Neither 
does this region possess deposits of iron or other metals of commercial 
importance. In the early history of the country shallow mines were 
operated for the extraction of iron, copper, lead, gold, and silver, 
in different parts of New England, and there has been an occasional 
small output of copper and zinc in recent years. For its supply of 
the important metallic and fuel minerals New England is now wholly 
dependent upon other sections. 

The highly complex and diverse geologic structure of New Eng- 
land contains a great variety of mineral deposits, but few of these 
are commercially important. In more recent times mining opera- 
tions have been carried on for mica, feldspar, talc, graphite, asbestos, 
and semiprecious gems, in addition to the commercial rock prod- 
ucts — granite, marble, limestone, and slate. These rock products are 
the important commercial minerals of the New England section. 

VALUE OF MINERAL PRODUCTION 

The mineral production of New England in 1925 represented, in 
terms of value, 50.7 per cent of the national output of mica, 46.1 per 
cent of the feldspar, 44.9 per cent of the granite, 38.4 per cent of the 
marble, 36.3 per cent of the slate, 26.5 per cent of the talc, 20.7 per 
cent of the trap rock, 12.7 per cent of the lime, and about 10 per cent 
of the mineral water of the United States. The production of feld- 
spar and of talc each had a value exceeding $500,000, and that of 
mica more than $250,000. Other miscellaneous products, including 
silica, fuller's earth, whetstones, and other minerals, comprised an 
additional $750,000. 

The value of the total mineral production of this region, as re- 
ported by the Bureau of Mines for 1927, exceeded $48,500,000. Pro- 
duction of stone comprises about three-fourths of this total. The 
remainder is made up almost wholly of clay and clay products, lime, 
sand, and gravel. In the total mineral production of New England 
in 1!;^7. Massachusetts and Vermont together contributed nearly two- 
third- [Massachusetts 33.6 per cent, Vermont 30.3 per cent). The 
order of the other States was Connecticut, 15 per cent; Maine, 11.3 

nowledgmenl li made to the Bureau of Mines tor statistics us<m| in this section. 
2 s«-<- also Stone and Earth Manufactures" in section on manufactures, p. 515 of this 

r<-porf 

68 



MINI-'.KM, RESOURCES 



59 



per cent; Xrw Hampshire, 7.1 per cent; Rhode Island, 2.7 per cent. 
The three States oi northern New England contributed not quite 
one-half (4S.T per cent) of the total, and the three southern States 
slightly more than one-half (51.3 per cent). 

PRODUCTION BY STATES 

The annual production and value of minerals in each of the six 
States, as reported by the Bureau of Mines for 1925, 1926, and 1927, 
are shown in the following tables. 

Mineral Production of Massachusetts, 1925-1927 



Product 



Briquets, fuel short tons.. 

Clay products 

Clay, raw short tons.. 

Coke do 

Fuller's earth do 

Iron, pig long tons.. 

Lime short tons.. 

Manganese ore long tons.. 

Manganiferous ore do 

Mineral waters gallons sold_. 

Sand and gravel short tons.. 

Sand-lime brick thousands. _ 

Silica (quartz) short tons. . 

Stone do 

Miscellaneous 7 



Total value, eliminating 
duplications 



Quantity Value 



2,270 
535, 302 

0) 



197, 732 

0) 
0) 

( 5 ) 

3, 349, 091 

(13) 


2, 209, 560 



$3, 789, 164 
2 31, 538 

(12) 



2, 610, 279 
0) 

0) 

( 5 ) 

3, 116, 323 

(13) 
0) 

> 6, 640, 333 
5, 443, 850 



16, 831, 529 



1926 



Quantity Value 



1,950 
573, 748 

0) 

23, 130 
202, 065 



0) 

( 5 ) 

2, 969, 172 

(13) 

0) 

2, 089, 340 



$3,971,586 
2 28, 973 

(12) 

0) 

(12) 

2, 653, 746 



0) 

( 5 ) 

3, 276, 787 

(13) 

0) 

6 6, 216, 793 
6, 284, 324 



16, 786, 577 



Quantity Value 



(12) 



1,626 
744, 091 

0) 
129, 039 
189, 343 



0) 

( 5 ) 

646, 335 

(13) 
0) 

629, 890 



(12) 

* $2,398, 474 
2 23, 240 

2 6, 008, 556 
0) 

(12) 

2, 325, 031 



0) 

( 5 ) 

2, 495, 696 

(13) 

0) 
e 7, 291, 969 
4, 343, 124 



16, 295, 373 



1 Value included under "Miscellaneous." 

2 Value not included in total value for State. 

3 Figures obtained through cooperation with Bureau of the Census. 

4 Exclusive of pottery, value for which is included under "Miscellaneous." 
fi No canvass. 

6 Exclusive of sandstone, value for which is included under "Miscellaneous." 
> Includes minerals indicated by " l ," " 4 ," and " 6 " above. 

Mineral Production of Vermont, 1925-1927 



Product 


1925 


1926 


1927 


Quantity 


Value 


Quantity 


Value 


Quantity 


Value 


C lay products 




i $98, 564 
3 9, 444 




(12) 

3 $11, 364 

66, 248 

41 

677, 944 

(«) 

( 5 ) 

25, 535 

( 2 ) 

1,227 

4, 267, 041 

9, 244, 465 

514, 527 

158, 133 




(12) 


Clay, raw short tons.. 

Copper .pounds.. 


1,733 


2,027 

473, 200 

2 

56, 378 

( 4 ) 

14, 970 
141, 554 

( 2 ) 

1,965 


(2 3) 

208, 224 


(2 3) 

$27, 278 


Gold troy ounces. . 








Lime short tons. . 

Mineral waters gallons sold.. 

Ore (copper) _ .short tons. . 


66, 245 

( 4 ) 


788, 936 
( 4 ) 


61,024 
( 4 ) 

4,363 
171, 250 
( 2 ) 
821 


683, 440 

( 4 ) 

( 5 ) 


Sand and gravel __do 

Scythestones do 

Silver troy ounces. . 


192, 227 

( 2 ) 


35, 608 

( 2 ) 


39, 143 
( 2 ) 

465 


Slate 




3, 963, 025 

6 8, 958, 846 

533, 603 

30, 351 


4,108,911 


Stone short tons. . 

Talc do.... 

Miscellaneous 7 


6 283, 030 
54, 883 


330, 230 
53, 510 


321, 970 
54,688 


9,216,116 
503, 716 
136, 872 












Total value, eliminating 
duplications 




14, 408, 933 




14, 955, 161 




14, 702, 891 













1 Figures obtained through cooperation with Bureau of the Census. 

2 Value included under "Miscellaneous." 

3 Value not included in total value for State. 

4 No canvass. 

5 Not valued as ore; value of recoverable metal content included under the metals. 

6 Exclusive of sandstone, value for which is included under "Miscellaneous." 

7 Includes minerals indicated by "3" and " 6 " above. 



60 INDUSTRIAL STRUCTURE OF STEW ENGLAND 

MlNEEAL PBODUCTION OF CONNECTICUT, 11)25 11)27 



Product 



Clay products 

Clay, raw ..short tons.. 

Feldspar (crude) long tons.. 

Lime short tons.. 

Mica: 

Scrap. do 

Sheet pounds. _ 

Mineral waters gallons sold.. 

Sand and gravel short tons.. 

Sand-lime brick thousands.. 

Silica (quartz) short tons.. 

Stone do 

Miscellaneous 7 



Total value, eliminating 
duplications 



1925 



Quantity Value 



416 
10, 426 

58, 449 

w 

(<) 

0) 
1, 065, 132 

(14) 

595 
1, 830, 210 



2 $2,509,727 
3 6, 503 
71, 201 
672, 821 

(*) 
(*) 

( 5 ) 
463, 807 

0') 
3,960 
2, 655, 339 
378, 599 



6, 755, 454 



1926 



Quantity Value 



794 
11,436 

61, 742 



0) 

( 5 ) 

1,059,556 

(14) 

246 
6 2, 069, 920 



2 $3,291,298 
3 9, 491 
87, 844 
695, 495 



0) 

( 5 ) 

451, 069 

4 ) 

1,678 
5 2,680, '" 

487, 108 



7, 695, 341 



Quantity Value 



621 
6,123 
53,304 

(*) 

0) 

( 5 ) 

667, 983 

(14) 



2, 295, 360 



1 2 $2,652,640 
3 6, 225 
43,319 
608, 550 

0) 
0) 
( 5 ) 
485, 169 

(14) 



3, 202, 040 
307, 382 



7, 299, 100 



i Figures obtained through cooperation with Bureau of the Census. 

2 Exclusive of pottery, value for which is included under " Miscellaneous. " 

3 Value not included in total value for State. 

4 Value included under "Miscellaneous. " 

5 No canvass. 

6 Exclusive of limestone, value for which is included under " Miscellaneous. " 

7 Includes mineral indicated by " 2 ", " 4 ", and " 6 " above. 

Mineral Production of Maine, 1925-1927 



Product 


1925 


1926 


1927 


Quantity 


Value 


Quantity 


Value 


Quantity 


Value 


Clav products 




i $625, 969 

(2 3) 

256, 731 

(*) 
1,291,812 




(12) 
(2 3) 

$306, 695 

0) 
1, 615, 776 




> $680, 739 


Clay, raw short tons.. 

Feldspar (crude) long tons.. 

Gems and precious stones 


(2 3) 

28,404 


(2 3) 

33, 897 


266 
34, 328 


3 3, 392 
299, 386 
( 4 ) 


Lime _ .short tons . . 

Lithium minerals do 


115, 571 


128, 120 


116, 566 
( 2 ) 
500 

( 2 ) 
( 2 ) 

(«) 
(0 

584, 395 
( 2 ) 


1, 230, 356 

( 2 ) 


Marl, calcareous.. _ ...do 






( 2 ) 


( 2 ) 


4,250 


Mica: 

Scrap do 


( 2 ) 
( 2 ) 

0) 

( 2 ) 

407, 700 
( 2 ) 


( 2 ) 

( 2 ) 

0) 

( 2 ) 
155, 014 

( 2 ) 
004, 0(52 
s 2, 870, 442 

38, 942 


( 2 ) 


Sheet pounds. . 






( 2 ) 


Mineral waters gallons sold-. 

Peat short tons. . 


( 4 ) 


( 4 ) 




Sand and gravel do 

B i lica (q uartz) do 

Slate. . 


491, 200 

328 


220, 931 
1,050 

602, 184 

2, 300, 593 

022, 294 


251, 448 
( 2 ) 
549, 952 


Stone short tons. _ 

Miscellaneous 6 


5 361, 570 


311,830 


355, 800 


2, 447, (544 
11, 920 












Total value, eliminating 
duplications. 




5, 838, 718 




5, 785, 619 




5, 095, 000 













1 Figures obtained through cooperation with Bureau of the Census. 
i Value Included under "Miscellaneous." 

Value not Included in total value for state. 
■ No canvass. 

i Exclusive of unclassified stone, value for which is included under " Miscellaneous." 
I Include minerals indicated by "*'" and " 5 " above. 



MINERAL RESOURCES 61 

Mineral Pboduction of New Hampshire, L925-1927 



Product 


1925 


1926 


1927 


Quantity 


Value 


Quantity 


Value 


Quantity 


Value 


Clay products 




i $828, 541 
100 

278, 736 
( 2 ) 

47, 525 
198, 858 
2,908 
( 3 ) 
316, 248 
( 2 ) 
( 2 ) 
* 1, 712, 138 
79, 783 




i $881, 997 
130 
287, 596 
( 2 ) 

38, 213 
235, 890 
3, 563 
( 3 ) 

731, 639 

( 2 ) 

1,053 

1, 908, 284 

56, 280 




i $811,626 
455 


Diatomite 


short tons.. 


2 

38, 366 
( 2 ) 

1,953 
1, 120, 857 


2 
33, 271 

( 2 ) 

1,738 
1,371,890 


7 
27, 449 
( 2 ) 

1,284 
720, 219 


Feldspar (crude) 


..long tons.. 


' 223, 077 

( 2 ) 

22, 900 

78, 849 
1, 025 


Qarnet, abrasive. .. 
Mica: 

Scrap 

Sheet 

Millstones 


. short tons.. 

do.... 

pounds.. 


Mineral waters 

Sand and gravel 

Scythestones 

Silica (quartz) 

Stone 

Miscellaneous 5 


gallons sold., 
.short tons.. 

do.... 

do.... 

.do.... 


( 3 ) 

424, 330 

( 2 ) 

( 2 ) 

* 130, 120 


( 3 ) 
708, 098 

( 2 ) 
277 
148, 250 


( 8 ) 

863, 618 

( 2 ) 

( 2 ) 

4 178, 300 


( 3 ) 

653, 214 
( 2 ) 
( 2 ) 
4 1, 584, 262 
71,688 




eliminating 










Total value, 
duplications 




3, 464, 837 




4, 144, 645 




3, 447, 000 















1 Figures obtained through cooperation with Bureau of the Census. 

2 Value included under ''Miscellaneous." 

3 No canvass. 

4 Exclusive of unclassified stone, value for which is included under "Miscellaneous.' 

5 Includes minerals indicated by " 2 " and " 4 " above. 



Mineral Production of Rhode Island, 1925-1927 



Product 


1925 


1926 


1927 


Quantity 


Value 


Quantity 


Value 


Quantity 


Value 


Olay products 




(12) 
(13) 

0) 

(0 

( 4 ) 

$45, 157 
s 724, 428 
1, 803, 150 




(12) 
(13) 
0) 

$42, 535 

( 4 ) 

90, 538 
6 895, 718 
1, 446, 495 




(12) 


Coke short tons. . 

Graphite, amorphous do 

Lime do 

Mineral waters gallons sold.. 

Sand and gravel short tons.. 

Stone do 

Miscellaneous 6 


(13) 
0) 

0) 
(«) 

131, 535 
s 153, 230 


(13) 

0) 

2,857 
0) 
381, 856 
5 252, 280 


(13) 

0) 

2,937 
( 4 ) 
271, 065 
5 153, 400 


(13) 

(0 

$43, 342 

( 4 ) 

303, 639 
s 734, 164 
1, 360, 219 












Total value, eliminating 
duplications 




1, 151, 857 




1, 339, 398 




1, 311, 000 













1 Value included under "Miscellaneous." 

2 Figures obtained through cooperation with Bureau of the Census. 

3 Value not included in total value for State. 

4 No canvass. 

s Exclusive of limestone, value for which is included under "Miscellaneous." 
r > Includes minerals indicated by <<1 " and " 5 " above. 

STONE PRODUCTION 

Although most of the stone industries of New England are con- 
centrated in a few localities, yet they are of considerable importance 
in certain areas within each State. The greater part of the New 
England stone industry is in the interior of the region. Large quan- 
tities of stone, however, are quarried along the coast of Maine; on 
the Massachusetts coast at Cape Ann, Quincy, and New Bedford ; on 
the coast of Rhode Island at Westerly; and along the Sound in 
Connecticut. These tidewater quarries have a particular advan- 
tage in cheap and easy water transportation to points along the 
Atlantic and Gulf coasts. 



62 INDUSTRIAL STRUCTURE OF NEW ENGLAND 

GRANITE 

Granite is the most widely distributed of the New England minerals 
which have any commercial importance. Massachusetts now slightly 
surpasses Vermont in value of production, which is followed in order 
by Maine and New Hampshire. There are important quarries also 
in Rhode Island and Connecticut. In Massachusetts, with minor 
exceptions, the granite quarries lie in the eastern portion of the 
State, principally along the coast from New Bedford to Cape Ann. 
The granite quarries of Vermont are located in the eastern half of 
the State, extending from the Canadian line to Brattleboro. In 
Maine they are concentrated along the coast and on the adjacent 
islands, with a few quarries as far as 55 miles inland. In New 
Hampshire the granite quarries are located on the slopes of the 
White Mountains and also about Concord and near the State bound- 
aries of Vermont and Massachusetts. Almost all the quarries in 
Rhode Island are along the Sound, extending westward to the State 
line. In the State of Connecticut the quarries are principally along 
the coast, a few border Rhode Island, and others are located in the 
western part of the State and along the Connecticut River. 

MARBLE 

The leading marble deposits of New England are concentrated in 
Vermont, west of the Green Mountains, in Bennington, Rutland, 
Crittenden, and Addison Counties ; and also at Swanton, in Franklin 
County, and on Isle la Motte, in Grand Isle County. Less important 
deposits are located on the east side of the Green Mountains, in 
Washington and Orange Counties. In Massachusetts there are mar- 
ble deposits in Berkshire and Hampden Counties, but the marble 
quarried in this State represents a very small portion of the New 
England total. There are marble deposits also in Litchfield County, 
Conn., which are not significant in the present production. 

SLATE 

New England production of slate comprises an important part of 
the United States total. The output of Vermont and Maine in 1926 
together constituted 36 per cent of the value of the national product 
and amounted to nearly $5,000,000. The Vermont slate deposits ap- 
pear in four distinct districts. The most important district, which 
furnishes the well-known purple slates, extends for a distance of 26 
miles along the New York State line southeast from the town of 
Sudbury, in Rutland County, to Rupert, in Bennington County. An- 
other district extends northward along the Connecticut River for 
more than two-thirds the length of the State; while the third extends 
from the Canadian line to about the middle of the State, along the 
east flank of the Green Mountains. The fourth district, which 
is as yet undeveloped, covers only '2 or 3 square miles near Lake 
Champlain, in the township of Benson, in Rutland County. The 
slate now produced in Maine comes from Monson, in Piscataquis 
( lountjr. 



MTNERATi RESOTTRCES 63 

LIMESTONE AND LIME 

Limestone deposits occur in each of the New England States except 
New Hampshire, and the production of lime is an important indus- 
try in certain sections, particularly in western Massachusetts and 
along the Maine coast. The limestone belt of western Massachusetts 
extends northward into western Vermont and southeastward into 
Connecticut. In some localities the deposits are made up of fcalcitic 
limestone and in others of dolomitic or magnesium limestone. There 
are other deposits in Worcester and Middlesex Counties of Massa- 
chusetts and also in Providence County in Rhode Island. The prin- 
cipal limestone deposits of Maine are in Knox County, with Rock- 
land as the principal center of commercial production. The im- 
portant lime-producing sections in Massachusetts are in Berkshire 
County; in Maine, Knox County; in Vermont, Addison, Chittenden, 
Franklin, Rutland, and Windsor Counties; in Connecticut, Fairfield 
and Litchfield Counties; and in Rhode Island, Providence County. 

CLAY, SAND, AND GRAVEL 

Clay. — Deposits of clay occur in all the New England States. In 
Massachusetts they occur in all parts of the State ; clay suitable for 
making fire brick is found in Bristol and Duke Counties. In Con- 
necticut there are abundant supplies, with clay suitable for making 
fire brick in Litchfield County and kaolin for porcelain in Fairfield, 
Hartford, and Litchfield Counties. Rhode Island has clay deposits in 
Bristol and Providence Counties and pottery clay in Newport County. 
Clay deposits occur in all sections of Maine. New Hampshire has 
clay deposits in most parts of the State, with pottery clay obtainable 
in Cheshire County. In Vermont clay suitable for fire brick occurs 
in Rutland County and kaolin in Addison, Bennington, and Rut- 
land Counties. 

Sand and gravel. — Supplies of sand and gravel suitable for build- 
ing and other purposes occur generally throughout New England 
in adequate quantities for all local requirements. 

FELDSPAR 

Feldspar is an important mineral in the manufacture of pottery, 
chinaware, porcelain, enamel ware, and enameled brick and tile. 
Nearly half the crude feldspar produced in the United States in 1925 
came from New England. North Carolina is the leading single 
State ; New Hampshire ranks second, Maine, third, and Connecticut 
fifth. The value of this product from the three New England States 
in 1925 was $607,000, and this value was exceeded considerably by the 
production of the following year. The granite pegmatites, in which 
occur deposits of feldspar, quartz, mica, and gem minerals, occur in 
New England in a belt extending northward through Connecticut, 
Massachusetts, New Hampshire, and southwestern Maine. The gen- 
eral color of granite is determined by the color of the feldspar which 
it contains. Connecticut has important feldspar deposits extending 
south and west of Hartford for about 20 miles in Middlesex and 
Hartford Counties. In New Hampshire the important sources of 



64 lXDl'STIMAL STKUCTURE OF NEW ENGLAND 

high-grade feldspar are the mica mines north of Keene, in Cheshire 
County. Most of the feldspar deposits in Maine are relatively near 
the coast, in Androscoggin, Oxford, and Sagadahoc Counties. 

MICA 

The production of mica muscovite in New England is confined 
principally to New Hampshire, although Connecticut and Maine pro- 
duce small amounts. Nearly all the mica produced in the United 
States comes from New Hampshire and North Carolina. North 
Carolina at present surpasses New Hampshire in quantity produced 
and in some years has led in the value of the product, but since 1924 
New Hampshire has held leadership in value. The total reported 
New England production in 1925 had a value of approximately 
$250,000. In that year New Hampshire contributed 62 per cent of 
the total domestic sheet-mica production of the United States, and 
in 1924, 51 per cent. The value showed substantial increase in 192(>. 
The most important mica deposits in New Hampshire lie in the belt 
extending northward from Keene through the middle of Cheshire 
County into Sullivan County, and from the northwestern part of 
Merrimack County northeast to about the center of Grafton County. 
Mining operations were begun in New Hampshire in 1803, and this 
was the only producing State until 1868, when the North Carolina 
deposits were opened. Since that time North Carolina has held the 
leadership in quantity produced. 

The principal uses of New England mica are in the electrical 
industries ; in the glazing of stoves and furnaces, for lamp chimneys, 
and for diaphragms in phonographic and similar instruments. 
Ground mica finds use in the preparation of roofing, as a decorative 
material for wall paper and other decorations, in the making of 
special paints, and, occasionally, as a facing for concrete to simulate 
granite. Finely ground mica is used in lubricants and as a rubber 
filler. 

TALC 

Vermont is the only New England State producing large quanti- 
ties of talc and soapstone. Mining of these began over a century 
ago, but grinding of talc did not commence until about 1902; since 
that time, up to 1921, there was a gradual increase in production. 
This State held the leadership of the United States in quantity pro- 
duced from 1917 through 1923. Prior to 1917 and since 1923 New 
York lias ranked first in quantity. Because of the higher grade of 
the product of New York, that State has always held the leadership 
in the value of product. Vermont was the second largest producer 
of talc in 1925 and 1920, the total value of its product in 1925 being 
upward of $533,000 and representing 26.5 per cent of the total value 
for* the United States. There was some falling off in value in the 
following year. 

The Largest known talc reserves of any producing State in the 
[Jnion are -aid to be in Vermont. In this State one company has 
blocked out with diamond drills reserves exceeding 2,800,000 tons, 
nwd another company in a published report estimates that it has 
reserves of about 4,250,000 tons. The present talc-producing centers 
of Vermont are at Johnson, in Lamoille County; at Rochester and 



MINERAL RESOURCES 65 

near Chester, in Windsor County; at cast Granville, in Addison 
County; at Waterbury, in Washington County; and at Windham, in 
Windham County. Soapstone is produced only at Chester. 

The greater part of the talc produced in Vermont is sold for use 
as a filler in the manufacture of paper goods. A portion is used in 
making prepared roofing, rubber tires and other rubber products, 
as a lubricant in oils and greases and for foundry facings, also in 
fire clay products, and in making twine and cordage. Vermont talc 
is used to some extent in the manufacture of paint and of wall plaster, 
and in the finishing of textiles. 

OTHER PRODUCTS 

Asbestos. — Deposits of asbestos occur" in the vicinity of Belvidere 
Mountain in Vermont. These appear to be a southern extension of 
the asbestos area in Quebec. The production of asbestos, however, 
has never become commercially important anywhere in New England. 

Graphite. — Natural graphite, whose chief uses are in the manu- 
facture of foundry facings, pigments and paints, crucibles, pencils 
and crayons, and commutator brushes, is produced in Rhode Island 
by one of the few establishments in the entire United States engaged 
in this line of manufacture. The deposits are not large, and they 
occur with the deposits of graphitic coal. Production of amorphous 
graphite was reported in 1925 from Rhode Island, Michigan, and 
Nevada, in which Rhode Island was the principal producer. 

Abrasives. — In the production of natural abrasive materials New 
England contributes w r hetstones, millstones, and garnet. While 
these do not make up an imposing total, yet in the production of 
garnet, which has important industrial uses in the finishing of glass, 
Merrimack County, N. H., contributed, with Warren County, N. Y., 
to a total value of $713,000. 

Peat. — Numerous deposits of peat occur in swamps throughout New 
England, particularly in the eastern and central parts of Massachu- 
setts, in eastern Maine, in the northern part of New Hampshire, and 
in the Champlain Valley of Vermont. These peat deposits at pres- 
ent have little commercial importance, but they are potential sources 
of material for fuel or for industrial uses. 

Mineral maters. — The production of mineral waters in New Eng- 
land (exclusive of Vermont) in 1923, the latest date for which figures 
are available, had a value of $628,000, representing 9.7 per cent of the 
United States total. This was a substantial increase over the New 
England total (exclusive of New Hampshire) for 1920, which w T as 
$513,000, representing 10.5 per cent of the United States total. In 
1920 Maine contributed about 59 per cent of the total value of New 
England production, although Massachusetts and Connecticut to- 
gether contributed 68 per cent of the total quantity. 



FISHERIES 

Note. — Most of the section on Fisheries was prepared, by O. E. Sette, of the Bureau of 
Fisheries. 

The fishing industries possess an importance for New England be- 
yond that of the mere wealth invested or the annual income which 
results to-day from this activity. Fishing was the earliest form of 
New England industry. It was an important factor in establishing 
the economic life of the early settlers, and was the basis for building 
the extensive ocean commercial life of New England in the last cen- 
tury, which, in turn, was the foundation of its present industrial life. 

The fisheries, together with the related wholesale trade in fishery 
products and the industries of fish canning and preserving, in 1924 
gave employment to 24,513 persons. Of this number 15,983 were fish- 
ermen, 6,608 were engaged in canning and preserving, and 1,922 were 
employed in the wholesale fish trade. The product of the fisheries 
proper in that year exceeded 406,822,000 pounds, valued at $18,- 
818,000. Compared with the total of the United States (exclusive 
of Alaska) this is about 15 per cent of the persons engaged in the 
industry and about 20 per cent of the value of the fish catch. New 
England thus makes a substantial contribution to the protein food 
supply of the country. In this the section compares favorably with 
other geographical sections of like size, as may be seen in the next 
table. The output of New England surpasses in value that of any 
other section except the Pacific Coast States. 

The fish industry of New England affords a market for large 
quantities of salt, ice, gasoline and oil, rubber clothing, nets, lines and 
cordage, paint and various vessel supplies, and shipping containers 
and packing cases. The canneries use many cans, large quantities of 
cottonseed and olive oil, and considerable quantities of parchment 
paper for wrapping the fish. 

Moreover, New England is almost the sole domestic source of some 
of our best-known staple food fish. This group of States produces 91 
per cent of the total United States cod catch, practically all the had- 
dock. 86 per cent of the mackerel, 98 per cent of the swordfish, 87 per 
cent of the lobsters, and considerable, though smaller, percentages of 
other important sea foods. 

66 



FISHERIES 67 

Statistical Summary of Fisheries of the United States 



Section 



Persons 
engaged > 



New England States (1924) 

Middle Atlantic States (1926). __. 

Chesapeake States (1925) 

South Atlantic States (1927) 

Gulf States (1927) 

Pacific Coast States (1927) 

Mississippi River division (1922) 
Lake States (1927) 

Total 



24,513 
14,335 

39, 091 
14, 805 
20, 784 
3 22, 270 
19, 122 
3 8, 162 



163,082 



Products 2 



Quantity Value 



Thousands 

of pounds 

406, 822 

168,012 
333, 208 
260, 669 
200, 072 
651, 197 
105, 734 
* 87, 659 



2, 213, 371 



Thousands 
of dollars 
18,818 
12,456 
13, 948 
5, 696 
10, 167 
22, 306 
4, 504 
7,032 



94, 927 



1 Includes fishermen and persons employed on transporters, those in the wholesale fish trade, and in the 
fish canning and preserving industries. 

2 Includes products of the fisheries only. 

3 Statistics of 1922. 

4 Figures are for 1927 except those for shellfish, etc., which are for 1922. 

Source: U. S. Bureau of Fisheries. 

Lying in the region which includes the richest fisheries in the world, 
New England, situated just above the fortieth parallel of north 
latitude, has all the essentials for a prosperous fishing industry. In 
addition, the broken coast line provides harbors for the fishermen 
and favorable waters for fish and fishing. Moreover, the New Eng- 
land fisheries are not limited to the coast line. The ocean floor 
slopes so gently from the shores that there are extensive areas of 
relatively shallow waters far from the coast line itself. These shal- 
lows — mostly less than 60 fathoms, or 360 feet deep — are, without 
exception, good fishing grounds. 

PRINCIPAL FISHING AREAS 

There are over 20 of these " fishing banks " varying from 40 to 
36,000 square miles in area and affording over 63,000 square miles of 
fishing grounds in addition to the waters immediately along the coast. 
While the fishermen reach all these banks, as well as the waters of 
the Gulf of St. Lawrence and the Newfoundland coast, and the 
waters south to the Carolinas, by far the greatest portion of the 
catch is taken within a sailing distance of about 200 miles from 
New England ports. The location of the banks is shown in Figure 
3, and their relative productiveness and the principal species are 
shown in Figure 4. 



68 INDUSTRIAL STRUCTURE OF NEW ENGLAND 

Principal Fishing Grounds in the North Atlantic Ocean 



Name 


Locality 


Approx- 
imate 
area 


Depth 

of 
water 


Catch by 

American 

vessels, 

1927 


Principal species 










Thou- 








Square 


Fath- 


sands of 








miles 


oms 


pounds 




Grand Bank 


Southeast of New- 
foundland. 


36,000 


25-60 


1,128 


Most important fishing ground 
in the world; principal fish, 
cod, hake, halibut, and cusk. 


Green Bank 


Between Grand and 
St. Pierre. 


1,450 


33-60 


188 


Feeding ground in winter; 
chiefly a halibut ground. 


St. Pierre Bank 


Off center of south- 
ern coast of New- 
foundland. 


4,800 


22-53 


750 


An important halibut ground; 
few cod. 


Gulf of St. Law- 






0) 


63 


Ground of value and importance; 


rence. 










cod, haddock, and mackerel. 


Misaine Bank 


Northward of the 
western two-thirds 


1,700 


40-60 




Cod and other fish less abun- 






dant than in near-by regions; 




of B anquereau. 








cod, haddock, hake, cusk, 
pollock, and hah but. 


B anquereau 




3,000 


16-50 


1,646 


One of the most important 












grounds; cod, hake, and cusk. 


Canso Bank 


Southeast of Cape 
Canso. 


425 


30-«0 




Cod, haddock, hake, cusk, and 






pollock. 


The Gully 


Between Banquereau 


1,200 


66-145 


69 


Chiefly a halibut ground. 




and Sable Island. * 










Western Bank 




6,320 


10-80 


8,163 


One of the most important of 












the western Atlantic; cod, had- 












dock, pollock, cusk, hake, and 












halibut. 


LeHave Bank 2 


Northeastward of 
Browns Bank. 


2,365 


46-85 


7,097 


Cod, haddock, and halibut, 
principal fish; hake, cusk, and 
pollock. 


Rose way Bank 


Northward of west- 
ern part of LeHave 
Bank. 


175 


31-48 


39 


Cod, haddock, and cusk prin- 
cipal fish; hake, pollock, and 
halibut. 


German Bank 


Westward from Cape 




65-100 




One of the most important in 




Sable. 








the Bay of Fundy; mainly 
cod, hake, cusk, and haddock; 
few halibut and pollock. 


Seal Island Ground 


Northward of Browns 
Bank. 


1,250 


15-70 


97 


Mainly cod, haddock, and pol- 
lock; halibut, cusk, and hake; 
occasionally herring and mack- 
erel. 

Cod, haddock, pollock, hake, 


Browns Bank 


Northeast of Georges 


1,375 


20-75 


12, 192 




Bank. 








and halibut. 


Jeffreys Ledge 


Northeast from Cape 




27-35 


6,383 


Cod, haddock, hake, pollock, 




Ann. 








cusk, halibut, and macherel. 


Cashes Bank 


East from Cape Ann_ 


140 


15-85 


1,056 


Cod, haddock, hake, cusk 
mostly; pollock and mackerel. 


Fippenies Bank 


do 


40 


36-75 


215 


Cod, hake, pollock, and cusk; 












few haddock. 


Platts Bank 


Northeast from Cape 
Ann. 


50 


29-65 


1,252 


Cod, haddock, hake, pollock, 
and cusk; few halibut. 


Stellwagen Bank.- 


Between Cape Ann 
and Cape Cod. 


85 


12-25 


1,836 


Cod, haddock, hake, pollock, 
cusk, and mackerel. 


Georges Bank 


Eastward of Cape 
Cod and Nan- 
tucket Shoals. 


8,500 


2-50 


38, 923 


Largest, and second in impor- 
tance only to GrandBanks; cod, 
haddock, hake, halibut, cusk, 
and pollock; few mackerel. 


South Channel 


Between Nantucket 
Shoals and Georges 
Bank. 


1,300 


20-75 


121, 700 


The most important haddock 
grounds; cod, hake, pollock, 
cusk, and halibut. 


Nantucket Shoals 


Bast to south of Nan- 
tucket Island. 


1,200 


3-25 


8,477 


Cod, haddock, pollock, hake, and 
mackerel. 


shore, general 








56, 754 


Herring, mackerel, flounders, 










and miscellaneous. 



Less than W'. 
'The figures given include the 
proper. 

Source : i 8. Bur< 



areas of certain ridges to the eastward of LeHave Bank 



i Fisheries. 
TYPES 



OF FISHING 



Ai present there is greal differentiation in the fishing industry 
among the ports of New England. Boston is the leading fresh-fist 
port of this region, if nol of the whole country. It has a large trade 
in the distribution of fresh fish over a considerable portion of the 







i . . I 


1 








_L 














ir- 




N D 


n 








4* 

f-jr 




tf- 




A-**S & 


s 




/ ^ 


...■::f'"'*'*i*: 

\ 

) 

S 

\ 
\ 


if 




4C* 




$ h 

creen\. 

BANK f 


. 


/j 


/ v., V 
& v. 

i/| | G M A y D B A 


i 

• 


46' 










1 




.v /r ..-•'' 


- 45" 




*9T 




'V 


*— 


V.:.^ W /* 


> 














v <^.,. x e vr f o u .\ r> l . 


t A Lf 
















\^ 3GOOO 








iV 










\ 




. U* 




43' 










X^,,, 


/ 


-43* 




42' 














_ %r 




«' 












•T.VANdeBOCERT 


- 4T 

* 








i 




'»U 




54' 




53* S3* SI* S 


O' 41>' 4C 












61232* 


—30. (Face p. 68) 








■'*• It 



61232°— 30. (Face p. 6 



FISHERIES 



69 



eastern United States. South Boston is now the center of the deep- 
sea fresh-fish industry. The old T Wharf is a center for boats 
engaged in the inshore fishing, while East Boston cures fish and 
manufactures fish residue, and, in addition, large quantities of deep- 
sea fish are landed there. 

The Cape Cod district now handles only inshore fish, and special- 
izes in shellfish. The shallow waters around Nantucket are the 
source of flounders, many of which are shipped to the New York 
market. The waters extending from Marthas Vineyard to the west- 
ern part of Long Island Sound produce various kinds of inshore fish, 
and the Sound ports specialize in the oyster industry. 

Gloucester, the center of the salt-fish industry and the second im- 
portant port for the landing of deep-sea fish in New England, has re- 
cently become important as a center for the canning of deep-sea 
fish. Very recently it has developed an important business in the 
distribution of fresh and frozen fillets. 

Herring fishing is important on the Maine coast, and these fish are 
canned, smoked, and pickled in the ports of that State. An im- 
portant phase of this industry, sardine canning, has developed in 
and near Eastport. Lobster fishing is important on the Maine 
coast and in the neighboring waters near the Maritime Provinces of 
Canada. The shipment of live lobsters is important at Portland. 

The trend of the fishing industry during the last generation is 
shown by figures of total yield, which have been taken at irregular 
intervals during the past four decades. The following table sum- 
marizes these statistics. It shows a decline in the volume of the 
catch and in the number of men employed in the industry, but an 
increase in the investment and in the value of the annual production. 

Summary of New England Fishing Industry, 1880-1924 





Persons 
engaged 


Investment, 

in thousands 

of dollars 


Products 


Year 


Thousands 
of pounds 


Value, in 
thousands 
of dollars 


1880 


37, 043 
37, 381 
37, 310 

36, 536 
35, 631 
39, 250 

37, 339 
22, 157 
30, 767 
24,513 


19,903 
20, 381 
20, 134 
20, 095 
19, 637 
20,008 
22, 531 
11,969 
40, 597 
28, 562 




12, 503 


1887 


520, 214 
572, 908 
653, 170 
393, 458 
534, 075 
480, 284 
530, 029 
470, 995 
406, 822 


9,913 


1888 


9,860 


1889 


10, 551 


1898 


9,682 


1902 


12, 406 


1905 


14, 184 


1908 


15, 139 


1919 


19, 887 


1924 


18, 818 







Source: Report of Commissioner of Fisheries, 1926, p. 301. 

HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT 



Fishing made its appearance in New England waters before any 

permanent settlements were established. In the northern waters, 

now worked by Boston fishermen, British and French vessels caught 

fish a century before the landing of the Mayflower. Fish formed an 

(51232°— 30 6 



70 INDUSTRIAL STRUCTURE OF NEW ENGLAND 

important part of the diet of the first settlers, and the industry was 
prominent among the activities of the colonists. 

Just before the Revolution the fisheries employed 10,000 men. It 
has been estimated that there were then 665 vessels carrying 4,400 
men engaged in the cod fisheries alone. The cod was at that time the 
only deep-sea fish caught or eaten to any extent. The early catching 
of edible fish was concentrated particularly along the shores of Cape 
Cod, where men who fished in the summer worked in the salt factories 
during the winter. 

The whaling industry was important in the early days — indeed, the 
first ship to fly the Stars and Stripes in European waters was a 
whaler from New Bedford. Whaling made such progress that in the 
middle of the last century the value of its products exceeded that of 
all other fisheries combined. From 1835 to 1860 the whaling fleet of 
New England averaged more than 600 vessels a year and brought in 
products worth about $8,000,000 a year. In 1857 New Bedford, 
which was the leader in this industry, had 329 vessels valued at 
$12,000,000, and over 10,000 seamen were engaged in whaling. By the 
outbreak of the Civil War this branch of the industry was beginning 
to disappear. 

Gloucester gradually came to the fore in the early part of the nine- 
teenth century, and in 1859 it had a fleet of 300 schooners employing 
over 3,500 hands. The mackerel industry came into being in that 
period, the first trip for catching and salting that fish being in 1818. 
Halibut were caught at Georges Bank as early as 1819, and about 
1830 halibut fishing became a regularly developed phase of the 
fishing industry. 

The herring industry of the Maine coast was firmly estalished by 
the middle of the last century, although herring had been used to 
a certain extent in earlier times. The menhaden fishing also assumed 
considerable importance in the middle of the last century. A number 
of factories along the coast were engaged in steam-cooking these fish 
for their oil, which was used for paint as early as 1812. Menhaden 
and other fish were used quite extensively also for fertilizer. 

Oysters were transplanted to the shore waters of Rhode Island and 
Connecticut from Chesapeake Bay about 1840, and lobsters became a 
product of commercial importance as early as 1830. The business of 
canning lobsters started in Maine in 1843 and had developed to a 
considerable extent by 1860. 

Since the Civil War there have been important changes in the 
fishing industry. Its position in New England is relatively less 
important than formerly, owing chiefly to the more rapid develop- 
ment of other lines of activity. As a result of the develop- 
ment of fisheries in other sections of the country, New England has 
lost its national position of preeminence in this industry. The deep- 
sea fisheries of this region have declined on the whole, but the inshore 
phase of the industry has experienced material development. 

The chief change that has come about is the decline of the whaling 
industry. Until 1850 the only fisheries of consequence were those 
for whale, cod, and mackerel. By 1908 whaling had practically dis- 
appeared in New England, and the oyster led all species of fish in 
the value of product. The menhaden industry also became of little 



FISHERIES 71 

consequence in this region several decades ago. The cod and mackerel 
industries reached their maximum development in the early years of 
the Civil War. While these declined for a time, they by no means 
became unimportant and they have advanced recently. 

GENERAL TREND AND PROSPECTS 

The proximity of New England to the only extensive offshore fish- 
ing grounds on the Atlantic coast of the United States gives these 
northeastern States a unique advantage as compared with other sec- 
tions. The offshore banks where cod, haddock, and other ground fish 
abound are immune to the harmful results of industrialization, such 
as stream obstruction and pollution, which have seriously affected 
the fisheries in certain of our river, lake, and inshore areas. The 
fisheries of the offshore grounds form the very backbone of New 
England's sea-food resources. With these grounds relatively resist- 
ant to the influences of man, there is good reason to expect the 
fisheries to maintain their productiveness at a relatively high level. 

With the inshore fisheries, which are also highly important com- 
ponents of the sea-food industry, this is not the case. The Atlantic 
salmon, which in early days abounded in every stream of the New 
England coast and were taken by the thousands, are now extinct in 
most of the streams, and only a few hundred are taken in some of the 
rivers of Maine. The lobster fishery long ago failed to supply suffi- 
cient of these crustaceans for the American trade. The yield is only 
a fraction of what it formerly was, and many of the lobsters now on 
the American market come from the Canadian Maritime Provinces. 
Other examples of depletion might be given, but these suffice to em- 
phasize the fact that sea-food resources are not inexhaustible and 
that measures to assure perpetuity of the supply are highly important 
to the industries which depend on these resources for their raw ma- 
terial. This is true of the offshore as well as the inshore fisheries, 
though serious depletion seems less imminent in the former case. 

The responsibility for conservation in New England resides in the 
several State governments. The States have direct jurisdiction over 
fisheries and enforce whatever regulations are enacted by their respec- 
tive legislatures. Their functions are largely those of enforcement 
and patrol, and much greater attention is accorded the fresh-water 
and sports fisheries than the marine and commercial fisheries. This 
greater attention to inland resources is largely due to the close asso- 
ciation of fish and game laws. The whole scheme has resulted in a 
lack of policy with regard to commercial fisheries, which are regu- 
lated largely according to political expediency. There is no pro- 
vision for the scientific study of the fisheries such as would permit 
the formulation of a policy providing the maximum exploitation of 
the resources consistent with their permanent preservation. 

Under these conditions we might expect overexploitation of some 
kinds of fish and underexploitation of others, and this is what has 
actually taken place. Many kinds of fish and shellfish that were 
overexploited in former days are now yielding but a fraction of 
their potential output, while others which formerly were considered 
of no economic importance have now become valuable commercially, 



72 INDUSTRIAL STRUCTURE OF NEW ENGLAND 

with the result that the total yield has remained very nearly con- 
stant. This becomes a matter of concern when it is realized that at 
the present time there are few additional kinds to turn to when those 
now fished decline. 

The lack of a conservation policy on the part of the States is 
compensated to some extent by fisheries research work carried on 
in this region by the United States Bureau of Fisheries. This re- 
search is of assistance in developing the principles of conservation 
to be followed in some of the important fisheries, but it can not take 
the place of carefully formulated programs of conservation by the 
States themselves. An essential feature of such programs is the sci- 
entific observation of fishing to detect depletion in its earliest stages. 
Exploitation of fisheries can then proceed unhindered as long as they 
show no signs of depletion; when that occurs, proper restrictions 
might be applied promptly enough to prevent irremediable damage. 
Such a policy would tend to prevent the passage of unnecessary 
restrictive measures, and would facilitate the promulgation of needed 
regulations. The future of the fisheries depends largely upon the 
extent to which such a definite policy is followed. 

The commercial and economic phases of the fisheries are here dis- 
cussed in three sections under the following headings: (1) Fishing- 
operations; (2) the wholesale fish trade; and (3) the fish canning 
and preserving industries. 

There is quite an elaborate organization in the fishing industry. 
Much of the production is carried on by corporations of considerable 
size, which conduct both fishing and marketing operations. The 
New England Fish Exchange is an organization for facilitating 
marketing operations. 

In schooner fishing the captain, as a rule, is financial manager of 
the trip, and he provisions the vessel and sells the catch on return to 
port. The receipts from the catch are divided, the vessel owner 
having the first lien for his share ; then provisions and supplies are 
paid for. The captain next gets 10 per cent, and the remainder is 
divided between the crew and the captain. In the trawler industry 
the management is usually in the hands of a large corporation, and 
the captain and the crew are paid regular wages. The wholesalers 
on the pier are a separate group from the fishermen and captains, 
although some of the dealer-corporations own and operate vessels, 
particularly of the trawler class. 

FISHING OPERATIONS 

The enterprise of fishing is carried on in a great many ways, the 
operating units varying in size and importance from the one-man 
boat fishing alongshore to the 200-ton vessel sailing out to the off- 
shore banks; and from simple apparatus, like hook and line or dip 
net, to the relatively complicated otter trawls, pound nets, or purse 
seines. An arbitrary division between the small boat or shore fish- 
eries and the vessel fisheries appears in the published statistics on 
the subject. Fishing carried on by boats of 5 tons net and over, as 
measured by the customs service, is included in the vessel fishery, 



FISHERIES 



73 



and all fishing carried on with smaller boats or without boats is 
regarded as shore fisheries. 

vessel fishing is concerned primarily with the catch of the ground 
fish, which live and feed close to the bottom of the sea. The chief 
ground fish arc cod, haddock, halibut, hake, cush, pollock, and floun- 
ders. The mackerel and swordfish are not ground fish. They live 
and feed farther from the bottom, but they are caught in the vessel 
fisheries. 

GROUND FISH 

The fishing for cod, haddock, halibut, hake, cusk, and pollock is 
probably the oldest and most typical of the New England fisheries. 
In recent years flounders have become important components of the 
ground-fish catch. These fish are found principally on the offshore 
hanks, although large quantities are also taken on the grounds along 
the shore. 

Species of Fish Landed by Fishing Vessels at Boston, Gloucestee, and 
Portland, 1893 to 1928 

[In thousands of pounds] 



Cod 



Year 



Fresh 



Salted 



Haddock 



Fresh 



Salted 



Hake 



Fresh Salted 



Pollock 



Fresh Salted 



1893. 
1894. 
1895. 



1897- . 
1898.. 
1899.. 
1900- 
1901- 
1902- . 
1903.. 
1904- 
1905_ . 
1906- 
1907.. 
1908.. 
1909- . 
1910. . 
1911.. 
1912-. 
1913- 
1914- 
1915- 
1916- 
1917.. 
1918. 
1919. 
1920. 
1921. 
1922. 
1923. 
1924. 
1925. 
1926. 
1927. 
1928. 



20, 254 
27, 762 
24, 071 
25, 448 
27, 238 
31,674 
48, 294 
34, 051 
35, 972 
36, 373 
30, 557 

30. 636 
36, 137 
36, 196 
45, 953 
41,615 
38, 590 
35, 549 
33, 977 
35, 519 
29, 177 
36, 080 
34, 088 
35, 993 
49, 873 
68, 338 
60, 651 
58, 407 
48, 106 
50, 174 
58, 232 
58, 656 
64, 097 

73. 637 
61,367 
58, 155 



34, 373 
35, 829 
43, 228 
34,040 

24, 757 
26, 485 
36, 906 
29. 969 
29, 719 
30, 248 
27, 195 
21,443 
17, 852 
18, 323 
15, 368 
21, 832 
32, 744 

25, 790 
19, 729 
18, 186 
15,688 
11,450 
10,968 

7,629 
6, 574 
3,487 
4, 723 
3, 858 
5,409 
5, 006 
4,443 
2,793 
3,153 
4,582 
1,987 
1,147 



33. 865 
45, 608 
41,578 
30, 167 
30, 978 

32, 482 

33, 291 
33, 043 
28, 930 
38, 395 
40, 339 
47, 509 
65, 897 
61,195 
41,815 
47, 418 
42, 401 
49, 227 
55, 711 
63, 225 
53, 436 
57, 599 
57,813 
60, 371 
53, 395 
66,602 
82, 561 
75, 235 
67, 397 
70, 065 
73,718 
79, 897 
91,861 
93, 983 

128, 543 
155, 322 



37 

15 

6 

46 

2 

4 

532 

423 

400 

463 

641 

425 

340 

464 

323 

237 

155 

131 

184 

160 

68 

155 

45 

15 

131 

44 

5 

25 

77 

50 

8 



19, 754 
23, 305 
15,176 
10, 526 
14, 679 
17, 502 
16, 657 
11,445 
11,121 
14, 264 
14, 769 
21,887 
22, 781 
13, 027 
19,580 
20, 434 
13,163 
19, 759 
18, 097 
15, 289 

13, 740 
12, 531 

14, 589 
13, 029 

7,839 
5, 246 
4,300 
4,666 
4,494 
5,341 
6,315 
7,263 
5,789 
5,482 
5, 845 
8,411 



238 

39 

165 

18 

18 

19 

53 

78 

148 

134 

78 

237 

457 

260 

214 

122 

113 

189 

355 

270 

345 

222 

301 

143 

75 

35 

40 

55 

42 

33 

22 

22 

17 

23 

17 

11 



3,453 
2,175 
2, 356 
1,908 
1,891 
4,464 

7, 343 
5,278 
7,345 

12, 580 
11,290 
10, 521 
20, 409 

8, 522 
20, 428 
12, 429 
12, 502 
18, 808 
14, 747 
14,359 
15,031 
12, 243 
12, 961 
15, 502 
14. 467 
26, 507 
18, 696 

8,539 
6, 893 
5,048 
4, 766 
5,067 
5,243 
6,705 
7, 652 
8, 032 



161 

6 

122 

255 



29 

144 

41 

98 

16 

154 

637 

1,646 

988 

776 

1,090 

1,381 

816 

879 

307 

236 

211 

235 

101 

40 

53 

56 

22 

52 

49 

39 

18 

47 

34 

11 

9 



Note.— -Prior to 1916, Portland landings are lacking. 



74 



INDUSTRIAL STRUCTUJJK OF NEW ENGLAND 



Species of Fish Landed by Wishing Vessels at Boston, Gloucester, 
Portland, 1893 to 1928— Continued 



"\ ear 


Cusk 


Halibut 


Mackerel 


Flounders 


Fresh 


Salted 


Fresh 


Salted 


Fresh 


Salted 


Fresh 


1893. 


9,110 

10, 454 
5,566 
3,322 
3,049 
4,918 
3,411 
2,018 
2,029 
1,785 
2,881 
5,414 
8,797 
5,101 
7,027 
5,067 
3,148 
4,504 
6,433 
6, 317 
5,816 
5,747 
6,236 
6,017 
3,525 
2,644 
2,025 
1,849 
2,060 
2,194 
2,911 
3,344 
3,606 
2,694 
2,693 
2,350 


174 

191 

255 

305 

144 

107 

228 

131 

52 

21 

78 

236 

231 

230 

72 

141 

185 

191 

248 

163 

144 

112 

95 

52 

24 

14 

38 

6 

38 
54 
87 
62 
107 
34 
34 
7 


7,964 
9,378 
8,660 
9,689 
8,329 
8,381 
8,236 
7,275 
5,065 
6,326 
3,622 
2,437 
2,952 
4,019 
3,293 
3,179 
3,589 
2,988 
3, 091 
3,060 
4,756 
3,063 
3,584 
3, 364 
1,724 
1,770 
2,100 
3,768 
5,618 
5,608 
4,873 
4,422 
3,553 
3,426 
4,773 
3,382 


1,829 

1,527 

1,062 

1,207 

1, 572 

1,997 

789 

1,569 

463 

753 

832 

853 

515 

636 

904 

947 

860 

1, 036 

411 

481 

532 

317 

286 

95 

42 

11 

15 

22 

48 

16 

2 

1 

8 

5 

6 

4 


552 
936 
553 
1,136 
1,146 
874 
1,230 
8,889 
2,783 
2,772 
2,040 
2,182 
3,499 
1,740 
4,091 
5,508 
4,121 
583 
3,099 
2,660 
4,293 
3,980 
7, 345 
10, 832 
12, 032 
7,583 
4,315 
6,284 
2,735 
4,266 
10, 684 
8,474 
24,115 
35, 123 
31, 354 
24, 165 


8,744 

7,077 

4, 033 

10, 484 

1,784 

2,222 

3,862 

15, 966 

12,013 

8,139 

8,032 

5,184 

5,645 

2,100 

6,386 

3,467 

3,458 

610 

1,439 

1,548 

1,383 

2,708 

3,574 

5,075 

5,410 

2, 576 

1,398 

1,008 

650 

460 

881 

1,283 

2,095 

1,109 

176 

88 




1894 




1895 




1896 --- -.- 




1897 




1898 . 




1899 




1900 




1901 




1902 




1903 




1904 -.- --- 




1905 -. --- 




1906 - -- 




1907 




1908 -- 




1909 




1910 - 




1911 




1912 - 




1913 


400 


1914 _ . _- 


863 


1915 . - 


652 


1916 .. 


1,298 




1,280 


1918 


2,270 


1919 - - 


2,452 


1920 


3,638 


1921 - - 


2,605 


1922 


3,281 


1923 . 


3,437 


1924 


4,335 


1925 


6,638 


1926 -- 


6,779 


1927 


8,359 


1928 


10,414 




Year 


Herring 


Swordfish 


Other 


Total 


Fresh 


Salted 


Fresh 


Salted 


Fresh 


Salted 


Fresh 


Salted 


1893 










1,045 

285 
1,717 
1,549 
8,354 
1,448 
2,730 
5,184 
1,475 
2,091 
2,847 
117 
172 
517 
2,142 
880 
1,059 
592 
1,807 
3,297 
2,875 
3,059 
3,222 
5,732 
3,858 
2, 265 
1,702 
1,348 

49] 

2, 178 

66] 

. 873 
1,016 
710 
1,591 
1,816 


837 

99 

1,869 

620 
2,926 

392 
91 
7,276 
2,157 
1,395 
1,790 


95, 996 
121, 119 
99, 677 
83, 745 
95,664 
107, 881 
127, 274 
107, 183 
96, 439 
117, 223 
111,442 
125, 771 
169, 535 
136, 518 

151, 775 
144, 596 
124, 631 
138, 043 
144, 864 
151,421 
133, 970 
141,575 
147, 075 
165, 321 
156,783 
193, 024 
180, 543 
170, 167 
144, 259 

152, 189 
168,216 
175,821 
200,017 
232, 247 
257, 158 
275, 297 


46,400 
45, 996 


1894 


799 


1,224 


417 




1895 




50, 762 


1896 










46, 929 


1897 










31, 201 


1898 


6,138 
6,082 


4,244 
7,412 






35, 523 
49, 500 


1899 






1900 






55, 086 
54,726 


1901 


1,719 
2, 637 
3,097 
2,917 
6, 882 
5,273 
5,402 
6,708 
4,421 
4, 994 
6,399 
5,885 
2, 070 
4,910 

4, 346 
11,410 
6,817 
8, 764 

6, 858 

V,,'. )0 J 
2, 262 
762 
264 
1,467 
1,642 
1,266 
2, 786 

roe 


10, 030 
10, 023 
7,887 
16, 270 

8, 569 
10, 935 
15,614 

8,629 
9,278 
14, 720 
16, 752 
10,005 

9, 077 
5,839 
8,93] 
7, 223 
6, 322 
6, 233 

3, 502 

3, 097 

36] 

1,892 

1,219 

2, 943 
2, 400 

316 

1, 410 
I, 111 






1902 






50, 731 
46, 050 
45, 395 
35, 352 


1903 .. 






1904 


2, 151 
2,009 

928 
2,044 
1,358 
1,637 
1,039 
1,503 
1,810 
2, 376 
1,500 
2,239 
1,773 
1,973 
1,034 

MA 

2, 632 

1,598 

3, 282 
2, 455 
2, 023 
1,527 
2,442 
2,246 
2, 544 


3 




14 
12 






33, 884 







39, 797 
36, 869 
48, 471 


1906 






1909 




27 






43, 692 
40, 288 


1911 




11 


1912 




31, 283 
28,247 
21,014 
24,521 


L913 


5 




1914 









0) 
1 


1916 




20, 503 


1917 




18, 647 








12, 477 


L919 




11 


9, 938 

8, 1 13 






L921 




1 

44 




o, 606 






7, 685 






6,746 
7,127 













7,852 
6,179 








1927 






6,091 
2, 686 


1928 













than 5oo pom 
I'noj to L910, Portland landings are lacking. 



FISHERIES 75 

METHODS EMPLOYED 

Hand-line fishing was the principal method employed in the early 
days of the ground-fish activity. In this method fishing was done 
from the deck of the vessel, each man operating a single line carry- 
ing one or two baited hooks. 

Hand lines have been largely displaced by trawl lines. The latter 
consist of ground lines appropriately equipped with gangings carry- 
ing baited hooks, together with buoys, buoy lines, and anchors. The 
usual number of hooks to a set varies from 24,000 to 32,000. They 
are fished from dories. Each vessel carries 12 to 16 dories, which are 
launched from the vessel after arriving on the fishing banks. Lines 
are set and hauled from the dory. Sometimes' two sets are made 
during the daytime, and sometimes overnight sets are made. In any 
case the fish are returned to the vessel, and when the full cargo is 
made the vessel proceeds to the landing port. The trawl-line method 
was for a long time the principal one used in vessel fishery, and it 
still accounts for a large share of ground fish landed. It is a hazard- 
ous task to manage the dories, and in bad weather many a dory with 
its fishermen has failed to return to its schooner. 

Since 1900 otter-trawl vessels have entered the ground fishing 
operations. The otter trawl consists of a bag-shaped net which is 
dragged along the bottom, catching any fish which lie in its path. 
The mouth of the net is kept open by the kite action of the otter 
boards, from which the net derives its name. 1 

The real start of the trawling business in New England was made 
in 1906, when the little steam trawler Spray from the Fore Kiver 
Shipbuilding Co.'s plant at Quincy was put into service. This pioneer 
boat was followed by others owned by the Bay State Fishing 
Co. During the war there was a spurt in the use of trawlers and 
about 60 craft were in commission. With the slump in the industry 
at the end of the war, many of these vessels were laid up. Since 1920, 
however, the fleet has been steadily built up again, the recent trend 
toward the use of trawlers being marked. In 1928 there were 49 
otter-trawl steam and motor vessels in operation, landing over 
91,000,000 pounds of fish (fresh weight) out of the total of 280,000,000 
pounds landed by all vessels at Boston, Gloucester, and Portland. 

The above, as stated previously, refers to the large steam and 
motor vessels which operate a net about 120 feet across the mouth. 
In most recent years an otter trawl about half this size, and termed 
a " flounder drag " or " drag," has been used in catching flounders. 
Except for size it is essentially the same net as used by the steam 
trawlers. 

Most of the large boats are corporation owned, but many small 
ones are owned by individual fishermen. The small trawlers are 
most important in the Nantucket region, where they are used for 
catching flounders. During fair weather the old-fashioned schooners 
and dories can operate readily, but in the rougher weather of winter 
the trawlers take a relatively larger part in the fishing industry. 
Otter-trawl vessels landed 25.2 per cent of the quantity and 20.7 per 

1 For further details of the otter-trawl and line-trawl fisheries consult " Otter Trawl 
Fishery." by A. B. Alexander, H. F. Moore, and W. C. Kendall. Appendix VI to the 
Report of tie V. S. Commissioner of Fisheries for 1914. 



76 



[INDUSTRIAL STRUCTURE OF NEW ENGLAND 



cent of the value of the total catch landed by fishing vessels at New 
England ports' in the year 1925. In 1927 there were in the New Eng- 
land vessel fleet 25 otter trawlers, which landed 77,600,000 pounds, 
out of a total vessel catch of 264,000,000 pounds. 

The fishing with otter trawls is necessarily confined to grounds 
where the bottom is relatively smooth and free from obstructions. 
This has resulted in the concentration of such fishing on the South 
Channel grounds and Georges Bank, which are particularly favor- 
able. In 1928, of the 91,000,000 pounds of fish (fresh weight) caught 
by steam and motor trawlers, 83,000,000 were taken from these 
grounds. 



PRINCIPAL SPECIES 



Both the methods of fishing and the changes in market conditions 
have had notable effects in the nature of the catch over a series of 
Virtually the entire catch originally went into the salt-fish 



years. 



FISHING 
GROUNDS 

SOUTH CHANNEL 
GEORGES BANK 

NANTUCKET SHOALS 
BROWNS BANK 

JEFFREYS LEDGE 


MILLIONS OF POUNDS 


5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 


COD 


| 


HADDOCK | 


1 


ALL OTHER 


W////// 


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t ~':j 










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- 




'/.// 


' ' ' : 


//// 


ZZ^/ 


my///, 


EH 








i 


\ 


1 




OFF CHATHAM 


rm 








































MIDDLE BANK 


B 








































PLATTS BANK 


i 








































CASHES BANK 


1 








































CLARKS BANK 


] 








































FIPPINIESBANK 










































TILLIES BANK 
SHORE 
















|.~ 


NoTE-.Weight of salted fi'sh landed /jqs been converted 
,to the equivalent of fresh fish its landed. 

fill!!!! 


P24Z 


01-46 



Figure 4. — Relative productiveness of various fishing: areas and principal species of catch 

trade, the most of the catch being salted aboard the vessels and 
landed at Gloucester. Cod was the species most sought, and, with the 
exception of halibut, the others were considered purely incidental. 

With increased facilities for transportation and refrigeration, the 
fresh-fish trade grew at the expense of salt-fish trade. This placed 
a premium on fish from shorter trips made to near-by grounds. In 
the days of salt fish much of the catch came from grounds as far as 
Grand Bank, a thousand miles distant from port. Now, most of the 
catch comes from near-by grounds. 

With the development of the fresh-fish trade, species other than 
<-o(\ have been utilized extensively. The landings of haddock illus- 
trate the point most strikingly. The advent or otter-trawl fishing 
in South Channel and on Georges Bank, where haddock appear to 
be most abundant, gave rise to the increased importance of this 
species. Recently the catch of haddock has been further stimulated 
by the trade in packaged fish, which utilizes this species to a much 
greater extent than any other. 



FISHERIES 



77 



Landings of Fish by Fishinc Vessels at Principal New England Ports, 

L893 1928 

[In thousands of pounds] 



Year 



L893 

1894_ 



1897. 
1898 
1899 

1900. 
1901. 
1902. 
1903. 
1904. 
1905. 
1906. 
1907. 
1908. 
1909. 
1910. 
1911. 
1912. 
1913. 
1914. 
1915. 
1916. 
1917. 
1918. 
1919. 
1920. 
1921- 
1922. 
1923. 
1924- 
1925. 
1926. 
1927. 



Boston 


Fresh 


Salted 


66, 518 


1,077 


86, 129 


1,336 


73, 612 


196 


61, 820 


1,256 


62,704 


200 


53, 494 


1,186 


63, 450 


1,274 


63,648 


3,173 


56, 855 


2,137 


77, 609 


1,365 


78, 383 


1,883 


81, 183 


911 


101, 085 


222 


89, 610 


83 


87, 717 


394 


94, 713 


947 


92, 085 


491 


102, 059 


31 


93, 629 


131 


100, 157 


143 


92,203 


149 


92, 231 


113 


97, 397 


502 


98, 255 


76 


98, 155 


496 


109, 227 


249 


103, 209 


183 


118,302 


257 


104, 277 


91 


106, 032 


158 


123, 982 


253 


130, 631 


335 


148, 723 


315 


167, 061 


257 


194, 877 


64 


218, 353 


34 



Gloucester 



Fresh Salted 



29, 479 
34, 990 
26, 065 
21, 925 

32, 960 
54, 387 

63, 824 

43, 536 
39, 584 

39, 615 

33, 059 

44, 588 
68, 451 
46, 907 

64, 057 
49, 883 
32, 546 
35, 983 
51,236 
51,264 
41, 768 
49, 344 
49, 678 
46, 515 

40, 062 
62, 002 
61, 622 
39, 113 
26, 747 

30, 396 
29,012 
29, 263 
42, 161 
49, 222 
46, 056 
39, 407 



46, 323 
14, 662 

50, 567 
45, 673 
31, 002 
34, 337 

48, 226 
51,862 
52, 589 

49, 366 
44, 167 
44, 484 
35, 131 
33, 801 
39, 403 
35, 923 

47, 980 
43, 661 
40, 158 
31, 140 
28, 098 
20, 901 
24, 018 
20, 165 
18, 073 
12, 173 

9,749 
7,627 
6,270 
7, 356 
6,018 
6,583 
7,311 
5,679 
6,497 
2,497 



Fort land 



Fresh Salted 



0) 
1 

0) 
C 1 ) 

( J ) 

to 

to 

0) 

( J ) 

0) 
0) 
0) 
0) 
to 
to 

to 

0) 

to 
to 

0) 
0) 

0) 

20, 551 
18, 566 

21, 795 
21, 713 

12, 752 

13, 235 
15, 762 
15, 221 
15, 927 
18, 133 

15, 964 

16, 226 

17, 536 



0) 

0) 

to 
to 
to 

0) 

to 

to 

0) 
0) 

to 

0) 

to 

to 
to 
to 
to 
to 

0) 

to 



261 
79 
55 
6 
229 
246 
172 
475 
209 
226 
244 
131 
154 



Total 



Fresh Salted 



95, 996 

121,119 
99, (177 
83, 745 

95, 664 

107, 880 
127,274 
107, 183 

96, 439 
117,223 
111,442 
125, 771 
169, 535 
136, 517 
151, 775 
144, 596 
124, 631 
138, 043 
144, 865 
151, 421 
133, 970 
141, 575 
147, 075 
165, 321 
156, 783 
193, 024 
186, 544 
170, 167 
144, 258 
152, 190 
168, 216 
175,822 
209, 017 
232, 247 
257, 158 
275, 297 



46,400 

45, 998 

50, 763 

46, 929 

31,201 
35, 523 
49, 500 
55, 036 

51, 726 
50,731 
46, 050 
45, 395 

35, 352 
33, 884 

39, 797 

36, 869 
48, 471 
43, 692 

40, 289 
31, 283 
28, 247 
21,014 
24, 520 
20, 503 
18, 647 
12, 477 

9,938 
8, 111 
6,607 
7,686 
6,746 
7,127 
7,852 
6, 180 
6,691 
2,685 



1 Statistics for Portland not available prior to 1916. 
Source: IT. S. Bureau of Fisheries. 



TREND OF GROUND FISH PRODUCTION 



The trend in the production of various species of ground fish may 
be seen from the following table and that on page 73. During the 
past 40 years the production of cod has had a slight downward trend, 
but haddock increased from about 43,000,000 pounds to nearly 
94,000,000 pounds by 1924. By 1928 the landings of the three ports 
amounted to 155,000,000 pounds. Flounders increased from the rela- 
tively unimportant catch of 3,000,000 pounds to a place of importance, 
with nearly 31,000,000 pounds. Landings of hake and pollock in- 
creased during the first half of the period, but have since decreased. 
The causes are problematic, but may possibly be found in the chang- 
ing composition of the catch in consequence of the employment of 
otter trawls. They may, however, be the result of natural fluctuations 
in abundance, or the effect of depletion in recent years. 



78 



[INDUSTRIAL STRUCTURE OF \K\V ENGLAND 



Catch of Principal Species of Ground Fish in New England 

[In thousands of pounds] 



Year 


Cod 


Haddock 


Hake 


Pollock 


Halibut 


Flounders 


Total 


1889 


97, 146 
89, 208 

88, 255 
75, 065 
95, 284 
84,918 

89, 218 


43, 474 

45, 676 
47, 077 
76, 617 
59, 544 
89, 406 
93, 519 


14, 816 
37, 184 
33, 183 
35, 471 
34, 121 
20, 222 
18, 499 


8,442 
9,445 
17,744 

28, 949 

29, 244 
25,010 

8,295 


10,741 
10,828 
12,366 
3,018 
4, 354 
1,960 
4,501 


2,951 
4,109 

4, H0U 

5, 761 
9, 753 

15, .541 
30, 855 


177, 570 


1898 . 


196, 150 


1902 


203, 434 


1905. 


224,881 


1908 


232; 300 


1919 


237, 057 


1924 


244, 887 







Source: U. S. Bureau of Fisheries. 

The case of halibut is undoubtedly one of depletion. The landings 
in 1889 were nearly 11,000,000 pounds, and in earlier years they were 
undoubtedly larger. In 1924, however, they had dropped to 4,500,- 
000 pounds. Unless measures are taken to conserve this species we 
can not expect the catch to increase materially. On the other hand, 
if the demand causes greater intensity of fishing for this species, 
in all probability the supply will become further depleted, and 
eventually the catch will disappear. 

Of the 6 principal kinds of ground fish 2 have decreased and 2 
have increased. The increases have more than offset the decreases, 
resulting in a total increase. 

Whether this general increase of ground fish can continue is a 
question of great interest and importance. It is seen that most of 
the increase has come in two species — haddock and flounders. Both 
of these are taken in fairly restricted regions. Reference to Figure 
4, showing the relative catch of haddock on various fishing grounds, 
indicates strikingly the concentration of this species on South Chan- 
nel and Georges Bank fishing grounds. Unless other grounds are 
developed, and this seems unlikely, we can not look forward to con- 
tinuing expansion at the same rate as indicated up to this time. The 
matter of expansion in the flounder fishery is quite similar. 

On the other hand, there is reason to believe that the fishery for 
cod has decreased as a result of economic rather than natural causes. 
The United States takes only 12 per cent of the total catch of cod in 
this region. The remainder is taken by the fishermen of Newfound- 
land, Canada, France, and Portugal. The total catch by all nations 
has averaged above a billion pounds annually and has shown no 
tendency to decrease during the past 40 years. 2 It is believed that 
because of the natural advantages enjoyed by the fishermen of New 
England the American catch could be increased considerably, pro- 
vided a sufficient demand existed. This, in addition to potential 
supplies of other ground fish, makes it seem possible that the catch 
of ground fish may continue to increase substantially before reach- 
ing the limits' of this resource. 

MACKEREL 

Next in importance to the ground-fish activities, and equally im- 
portant in the history of New England, is the mackerel fishery. 

■ "Statistics of the Catch of Cod off tie Eastern ('oast of North America to 1026." 
byO. K. Sette, Bureau of Blsheriea Documenl L033; Appendix VIII, Report ot U. S. Com- 
beries, H*27 ; Bureau of Fisheries Documenl No. 1034. 



FISHERIES 79 

Originally this was prosecuted by means of hand lines from the 
decks of mackerel vessels. This method has long since been dis- 
placed by purse seining. The purse seine is a curtain-shaped net 
about 250 fathoms long and 20 fathoms deep, which is laid around 
the school of fish. The bottom is then closed by drawing the purse 
line. 

Purse seining is done by the larger vessels of the fishing fleet. 
Most of these have their home port at Gloucester, from where they 
sail in search of mackerel, as far south as Cape Hatter as and as far 
north as the Gulf of St. Lawrence. The catches are landed at Cape 
May on the New Jersey coast, at New York City, and at New Eng- 
land ports, depending on the locality in which the mackerel are 
taken. 

Of somewhat lesser importance is the drift gill-net fishery for 
mackerel, although it is by no means negligible. This is pursued, 
as a rule, by somewhat smaller vessels than the purse seiners. The 
netters set their curtain-shaped nets in the evening some 3 miles 
along the surface. They haul them in in the morning and remove 
the mackerel which have been entangled in the nets. Practically the 
same localities are fished and the same ports of landing are used as 
in the case of the purse-seine fishery. Additional quantities of 
mackerel are caught in the shore gear, such as pound nets, but by far 
the larger part of the catch is taken by the purse seines and the gill 
nets. 

The mackerel fishery more than any other fishery of New England 
is characterized by great fluctuations from year' to year. There have 
been periods of abundance followed by years when mackerel were 
so scarce as to be almost negligible. When this fish is abundant it 
forms a very important contribution to the New England fish produc- 
tion. Reference to the table on page 74 will give an idea of the 
wide fluctuations to which this fishery is subject. 

In the years prior to 1885 the catch of mackerel was many times 
larger than it has been in any year since. Recent studies by the 
Bureau of Fisheries have indicated that the principal cause of fluc- 
tuations in the mackerel fishery is the uncertainty of reproduction in 
various years. In some years the spawning season is good and a 
great many young mackerel survive to augment the stocks, while 
successive years may result in virtually no offspring. The relatively 
large catches of 1925, 1926, 1927, and 1928, were largely the result 
of a good crop of mackerel from one spawning season, presumably 
that of 1923. There seems no reason to believe that, given a succes- 
sion of good spawning years, the fishery might not attain the im- 
portance enjoyed by it in 1885 and prior years. The fact remains, 
however, that the mackerel fishery is likely to continue to fluctuate 
widely in its annual catch, and therefore can not be a mainstay to 
the same extent as the ground-fish fisheries. 

SWORDFISH 

The only other vessel fishery of importance to be considered is 
that for swordfish. This can hardly be regarded as a distinct fishery. 
The swordfish is harpooned from a pulpit extending over the bow of 
fishing vessels. In season some vessels are outfitted exclusively for 
swordfish, but a large portion of the catch is made by vessels engaged 



80 INDUSTRIAL STRUCTURE OF NEW ENGLAND 

primarily in other fisheries. Swordfish make a more important con- 
tribution to the fish production than appears from the quantity 
caught, because of the high price this species brings in the market. 
In 1927 fishermen received an average of 23 cents a pound for sword- 
fish, as compared with 3 cents for haddock. As in the mackerel 
fishery, the results of the swordfish catch vary widely from year to 
year, but, on the whole, are somewhat more stable than in the mack- 
erel catch. Whether the swordfish fishery may be developed beyond, 
its present importance can only be conjectured. Judging from the 
zeal with which this fishery is prosecuted, it is unlikely that the catch 
can develop beyond its present status. 

HERRING 

The herring fishery is of greatest importance as a source of 
material for sardine canning along the coast of Maine. Only the 
young of the herring are used for this purpose. They are caught 
in brush weirs which are constructed on the shoals in the bays and 
inlets along the broken coast of Maine and the neighboring shores 
of the Maritime Provinces of Canada. They are concentrated par- 
ticularly in the Passamaquoddy Bay region, though weirs are fished 
as far w T est as Portland. The weir consists of a brush fence which 
leads the young herring into a brush inclosure, from which they find 
difficulty in getting out. They are removed from the inclosure with 
seines and are delivered to the canneries. 

A large portion of the raw material for the Maine canneries — 
perhaps 75 per cent — is collected by their vessels from weirs on the 
Canadian side of the bay. No reliable statistics are available on 
total quantity of fish caught in the weirs, both American and Cana- 
dian, but the production of canned sardines in Maine gives an idea of 
the quantities used by the canneries. (See p. 89.) In addition to 
the young or sardine herring, some quantities of large, mature her- 
ring are caught in gill nets, pound nets, and seines. These are sold 
either fresh or salted, or for bait. By treaty provisions American 
fishermen may visit certain portions of the south and west coasts 
of Newfoundland, where herring fishing is carried on. In 1927 
the vessels engaged in the herring fishery there landed cargoes of 
herring at Gloucester aggregating 2,106,846 pounds (fresh weight). 

It is estimated that during the season approximately 1,500 craft 
of various sizes and types are engaged in moving the herring to the 
canneries. The season extends from April to November, with a lull 
from the middle of June until August. Most of these craft are gaso- 
line motor boats, many of which are engaged in clam gathering. 
Lobster and scallop fishing, and trawing during the idle time in 
the sardine industry, although a large number of the vessels are put 
up lor the winter. The boats are owned both by canners and by 
fishermen. 

There is a considerable investment in the canneries. Some of the 
Larger factories are valued at about $200,000, and many of the older 
oik- are valued at $60,000 to $75,000. 

The pads in 1925 in Maine and Massachusetts was 1,778,860 cases. 
This amount would require about 100,000,000 pounds of fresh her- 
ring. Iu 1927 only 1,262,124 eases were packed, valued at $5,2 19,030. 
Fully one-third OI the pack is put up in keyless or pressed-tin cans. 



PISH I in 



81 



most of the rest being packed in keyed or roll-top cans. Cottonseed 
oil is used for packing the greater part of the output, but the fancy 
packs use olive oil, and a few canners use tomato sauce. About one- 
fifth of the pack is put up in mustard. 

LOBSTERS 

Lobster fishing is carried on along all coasts of New England, but 
Maine produces over half of the total catch. This amounts to about 
9.700,000 pounds annually, with a value to the fishermen of about 
$3,000,000. Lobsters are caught in baited traps called lobster pots. 
These pots are very much like lath crates with a funnel-shaped en- 
trance, through which the lobster readily enters but finds difficulty 
in escaping. This type of operation is a small-boat fishery, the pots 
being anchored to the bottom on the ledges and reefs along the coast, 
and visited every few days for removal of the lobsters and for re- 
baiting. The following table shows the number of pots used and 
the catch in 1924, and in the previous years for which statistics are 
available. 

Lobster Fishery of New England 



Year 


Lobster 
pots fished 


Total catch 


Average catch per pot 


Quantity 


Value 


Quantity 


Value 


1924 


256, 662 
239, 558 
i 176,365 
190, 364 
212, 690 
205, 049 
175, 458 


Pounds 
9, 716, 196 
10, 666, 707 
14, 735, 000 
11, 524, 499 
14, 756, 495 
14, 661, 808 
30, 449, 603 


$3, 072, 411 
2, 550, 980 
1, 857, 000 
1, 319, 107 
1, 336, 572 
1, 276, 967 
833, 736 


Pounds 
38 
45 


$11. 97 


1919 


10.65 


1908 




1905 


61 
69 

72 


6.93 


1902 


6.28 


1898 


6.23 


1889 











1 Includes eel pots. 

Source: U. S. Bureau of Fisheries. 



A decline from 30,000,000 to less than 10,000,000 pounds since 1889 
is the most striking thing to be observed from the table. This decline 
has occurred in spite of the greater number of pots in use. This fact 
is brought out more forcibly by the figures on the average yield per 
pot, which shows a decline from 72 to 38 pounds since 1898. The 
price has increased more than the decline in quantities. The value 
of the catch per pot in 1924 was nearly twice as great as in 1898. All 
these observations — the decreased total catch in spite of increased 
gear, the decreased catch per pot, and the strong increase in prices — 
point indisputably to depletion. 

This decline has long been recognized, and attempts to regulate 
the fishery have been made by the States, but these efforts have been 
partially nullified by the lack of uniform size limits in the various 
States. The general inadequacy of the regulations has permitted de- 
pletion to continue. Thus, it seems that a continued decline in the 
volume of the lobster catch is probable, and when this reaches such 
a low point that it can not be offset by increased prices, the income 
of fishermen may be seriously impaired. 



82 INDUSTRIAL STRUCTURE OF NEW ENGLAND 

Canned lobster first assumed commercial importance in 1842, with 
the establishment of a lobster cannery in Maine. There was no regu- 
lation of the industry until 1879, and, meanwhile, through the de- 
struction of young lobsters and females with eggs, the supply de- 
creased very greatly. Since 1884 all the New England States have 
passed laws against the taking of small lobsters and the destruction 
of the females carrying eggs. Massachusetts even seizes supplies of 
imported lobsters that are below the legal size limit and distributes 
them on favorable growing locations along the coast. For a time the 
canning industry was stopped for a part or even all the year, but the 
supply continued to decrease. Eecently, with measures to protect 
the oncoming natural supply and with the introduction of artificial 
propagation, the industry has been recovering. 

There are estimated to be approximately 4,000 men engaged in 
lobster fishing in Maine and 500 in Massachusetts. Many lobsters 
are brought in also from Nova Scotia. In 1924 Portland received 
1,250,000 pounds of live lobsters from the waters of Maine and Nova 
Scotia. In 1925 the Massachusetts lobster fisheries took 1,573,000 
pounds. Maine formerly did a fairly extensive" business in canning 
lobsters, which came from Canadian waters. In late years no lobsters 
have been canned in New England. 

OYSTERS 

Oysters were introduced into New England from Chesapeake Bay 
about 1840. This industry is restricted mostly to waters south of 
Cape Cod. Northward the temperatures are for the most part too 
low for oyster culture. This practically limits the activity to the 
shallow waters of Connecticut, Rhode Island, and the southern shore 
of Massachusetts. The oyster, more than any other marine animal, 
lends itself to farming operations. Shells, or culteh, are spread on 
the bottom at the spawning season, and the minute young oysters 
settle on the culteh, where they find suitable surface for attachment. 
These are later fished up as spat, or seed oysters, and distributed 
on the growing bottoms. After a suitable growing period the oysters 
are again fished up and marketed. 

The farming or cultural operations are virtually a necessity in New 
England waters because of the limited extent of suitable spawning 
grounds. By making the maximum use of these for the production of 
spat, a much larger area of growing grounds may be seeded and thus 
converted from barrenness to a productive condition. The oyster 
bottoms are leased by the States to private parties for the purpose 
of oyster farming and are then known as private grounds. 

The next table shows the productivity of New England oyster 
fisheries. Virtually all the market oysters are produced on private 
grounds, only 3,000 of the 1,039,000 bushels of oysters having come 
from public grounds in 1924. The production of seed oysters exceeds 
thai of market oysters. Large quantities of these are sold and are 
planted in waters outside the New England States. With the adop- 
tion of improvements in the technique of oyster farming developed 
by the Bureau of Fisheries, it is probable that oyster farming in New 
England can be greatly expanded. Within recent years pollution of 
the waters along the Sound from factories and from domestic sewage 
has had a serious effect upon oyster production. 



Fisn ki; Iks 
Oyster Production 01 New England in L924 



83 



Product 


Massachusetts 


Rhode Island 


Connect uiil, 


Total 


Quantity 


Value 


Quantity 


Value 


Quantity 


Value 


Quantity 


Value 


Market oysters: 
Public 


Bushels 




Bushels 

500 

368, 598 


$750 
457, 614 


Bushels 

2, (530 

591, 488 


$3, 865 
683,034 


Bushels 
3, 130 

1, 035, 979 


/ $4, 615 


Private 


75, 893 


$267,811 


1,408,459 






Total 


75, 893 


267,811 


369, 098 


458, 364 


594,118 


686, 899 


1, 039, 109 


1,413,074 






Seed oysters: 
Public 


6,800 
17,000 


5, 325 
12, 450 






54, 850 
496, 788 


55, 933 

583, 224 


61, 650 
513, 788 


61,258 


Private 






595, 674 










Total 


23,800 


17, 775 






551, 638 


639, 157 


575, 438 


656, 932 










Grand total 


99, 693 


285, 586 


369, 098 


458, 364 


1, 145, 756 


1,326,056 


1,614,547 


2, 070, 006 



Source: U. S. Bureau of Fisheries. 



CLAMS 



Clam fishing is carried on in all the coastal New England States, 
but is most important in Maine and Massachusetts. Many clams are 
canned in Maine, but elsewhere they go largely into the fresh market. 
Two kinds are principally taken — the quahog, or hard clam, and the 
soft clam. Of the total catch, approximately three-fourths are soft 
clams. 

Examination of records covering the past 45 years shows that the 
yield of soft clams has declined from 11,500,000 to 6,300,000 pounds, 
and that of hard clams has increased from 500,000 to 1,700,000 pounds. 
It appears that the soft clams have been somewhat depleted, and the 
hard clams have been utilized as a substitute to a limited extent. A 
serious difficulty confronting the clam industry is the pollution of 
beds near cities and the consequent closure of these areas to clamming. 
Such measures in the interest of public health have operated to 
decrease the production of clams. If means were found to protect 
such beds from pollution, thus opening them to clamming, the yield 
might be considerably increased. 

Yield of Clams in New England in 1924 



State 


Soft clams 


Hard clams (qua- 
hogs) 


Total 




Quantity 


Value 


Quantity 


Value 


Quantity 


Value 


Maine 


Bushels 

357, 634 

3, 600 

252, 035 

8,240 

4,435 


$228, 251 

3,600 

297, 763 

15, 480 

12, 155 


Bushels 
120 


$80 


Bushels 

357, 754 

3,600 

404, 756 

62, 290 

7,389 


$228, 331 


New Hampshire 


3, 600 


Massachusetts 


152, 721 
54, 050 
2,954 


359, 889 
134,500 
10, 773 


657, 652 


Rhode Island . . 


149, 980 


Connecticut ._ 


22, 928 


Total 


625, 944 


557, 249 


209, 845 


505, 242 


835, 789 


1, 062, 491 







Source: U. S. Bureau of Fisheries. 

MISCELLANEOUS SHORE FISHERIES 



In addition to herring, lobster, and oyster fishing there are other 
extensive fisheries along the entire New England coast operating 
pound nets, gill nets, seines, lines, and other apparatus. The catch 



84 



INDUSTRIAL STRUCTURE OF NEW ENGLAND 



includes many of the fish mentioned in connection with the vessel 
fisheries, and, in addition, such fish as alewives, shad, smelt, whiting, 
squeteague or sea trout, butterfish, scup, bluefish, and many others 
are taken. The catch of such species in 1924 aggregated about 
15,000,000 pounds. 

SUMMARY OF NEW ENGLAND FISHING ACTIVITIES 

In the following table the statistics of New England fisheries as of 
1924 have been summarized. It may be seen that 777 vessels of 5 
tons net and over were engaged in fishing or in transporting fish 
from the catching grounds to the landing ports; that over 10,000 
boats were engaged in fishing; and that the catch of about 407,000,000 
pounds was valued to the fishermen at $19,000,000. Over 44 different 
kinds of fish are included in the total, but the 23 kinds enumerated 
separately in the table made up 97 per cent of the catch and are the 
only ones of any great importance. 

Extent of Fishing Operations, and Catch of Principal Species 
in New England States in 1924 



Item 


Maine 


New 
Hampshire 


Massachu- 
setts 


Rhode 
Island 


Connecti- 
cut 


Total 


Fishing and transporting 


230 

4,673 

6,252 

$4, 136, 989 


3 
72 
134 

$56, 029 


333 

3,388 

7,123 

$10, 799, 598 


81 

993 

1,176 

$1, 818, 858 


130 

896 

1,298 

$2, 006, 658 


777 


Boats 


10, 022 


Fishermen * 


15, 983 


Value of products 


$18, 818, 132 






Thousands of pounds 


Catch of principal species: 
Alewives . . _ 


1,095 

12 

21,410 

1,568 

157 

343 

15, 508 

11,721 

141 

47, 930 

2, 293 

1 

2,777 




2,444 

378 

65, 815 

2,658 

414 

22, 996 

77, 684 

6,712 

4,360 

11, 799 

21, 676 

522 

5, 349 

158 

172 

38 

1,733 

6,307 

1,680 

1,751 

3,765 

698 

698 

3,557 


376 

685 
1,357 


110 

6 

539 


4,025 

1,081 

89, 219 


Butterfish 




Cod 


98 
1 
6 


Cusk 


4,227 


Eels 


168 

3,099 

134 

38 


112 

4,416 
49 
3 


857 


Flounders ... 


30, 854 


Haddock . _ _ 


144 

25 


93, 519 


Hake 


18, 499 


Halibut . . 


4,501 


Herring 




507 
2, 381 
1,743 

116 

1,192 

11 

8 

200 

1,744 

1,696 

50 

515 
2,584 

271 
1,654 




60, 236 


Mackerel. 




304 

5, 270 

48 

2 

89 

11 

80 

2 

702 

10 

68 

8,020 

2 

5,926 


26, 654 


Menhaden ._ _. 




7, 536 


Pollock 


4 


8,294 


Scup 


1,352 


Shad 


244 
628 
863 
70 

5,513 
171 

3,577 




516 


Smelt 


4 


689 


Sword fish 


2,882 


Whiting 




8,123 


Lobsters. - 


126 
4 
36 


9,717 


Crab: 


1,986 


("hiins 


7,961 


Oysters 


11,302 


Scallops 


296 

388 




1,267 


All other 




11, 525 








Total 


116,706 


448 


243, 364 


20, 535 


25, 769 


406, 822 







' Including shoremen and transporters directly connected with fisheries. 
Source: U.8. Bureau of Fisheries. 



FISHERIES 



85 



It has been pointed out that some of the important species of fish 
and shellfish have been yielding diminishing quantities of product, 
and others have responded to increased demand with larger yields 
In the following table are shown the total net results of these and 
other changes. 

Operations and Catch of New England Fisheries, 1888-1924 



• 


Fishermen 


Fishing 
vessels 


Fishing 
boats 


Catch 


Year 


Thousands 
of pounds 


Value in 
thousands 
of dollars 


1888__. 


26, 959 
22, 367 
24, 031 
21, 770 
17, 847 
15, 285 


1,543 
1,427 
1,479 
1,620 
978 
777 


11,418 
10, 557 
11,405 
12, 627 
10,364 
10, 022 


572, 908 
393, 458 
534, 075 
530, 029 
467, 340 
406, 822 


9, 860 
9,682 
12, 406 
15 139 


1898 


1902. - r 


1908__. 


1919 


19, 839 

18, 818 


1924. ..- 





Source: U. S. Bureau of Fisheries. 

The significant trends brought out by these figures are (1) the 
distinct decrease in number of fishermen; (2) an equally distinct 
decrease in number of vessels; (3) a relatively slight decrease in 
number of boats; (4) a decrease in the total catch; and (5) a very 
marked increase in the value of the catch. From this it would 
appear that in spite of decreased man power and a numerically 
smaller fishing fleet the catch is being maintained at a fairly hori- 
zontal level, apparently because of increased efficiency of the per- 
sonnel and apparatus of fishing. Furthermore, while the size of 
the catch has remained virtually the same its value has almost 
doubled. General price changes account for practically all the gen- 
eral increase in the value of the New England fish catch. As might 
be expected, it is found that the return per fisherman has increased 
at a distinctly greater rate than have general prices. 

In summary, it appears that the New England fisheries have prac- 
tically reached the point where increased production of certain species 
is offset by decreased production of others, thus establishing a vir- 
tually horizontal level. The increased efficiency of operations, how- 
ever, has permitted an upward trend in the real value of products 
per person engaged. Barring excessive depletion, there seems reason 
to believe that the return per man can continue to increase at a rate in 
excess of average prices, thus constituting a real gain to the industry. 

WHOLESALE FISH TRADE 

The wholesale trade consists of buying and selling fishery products, 
preparing fish into fillets, steaks, and pan-dressed products for the 
package trade, shucking oysters, and impounding lobsters. The 
wholesale fish trade of New England in 1924 was carried on by 200 
establishments, which employed 1,922 persons, who received $2,157,537 
in salaries and wages. The volume of this business conducted in the 
various States is shown in the following table. 

61232°— 30 — -7 



80 INDUSTRIAL STRUCTUBB OF NEW ENGLAND 

Wholesale Fish Trade of Individual New England States in 1924 



State 


Establish- 
ments 


Persons 
engaged 


Wages and 

salaries 


Maine, _ _ 


54 
1 

103 
25 
17 


} 271 

1,077 
217 
357 




New Hampshire 


$188, 020 


Massachusetts. . 


1, 566, 654 


Rhode Island.. .. 


173,604 


Connecticut . 


228, 659 




Total 


200 


1,922 


2, 157, 537 







Source: U. S. Bureau of Fisheries. 

FRESH AND FROZEN FISH 

Boston and Gloucester, Mass., and Portland, Me., named in order 
of their importance, are the main points wh$re the wholesale trade 
in fresh and frozen fish is carried on. Wholesale dealers are also 
located at Provincetown, Nantucket, and New Bedford, Mass.; New- 
port, R. I. ; and New London, Conn. In addition, one or more whole- 
sale dealers are usually located in practically every seacoast town 
suitable for the safe harboring of vessels. 

At Boston is located the famous Fish Pier, which is considered the 
most modern pier in the United States for the accommodation of 
fishing vessels and the fresh and frozen fish trade. The pier, con- 
structed of brick, stone, and concrete, is 1,200 feet long and 300 feet 
wide. The majority of the wholesale fish dealers in Boston are lo- 
cated there, as well as the Boston Fish Exchange and a cold-storage 
plant for fishery products. Shares of boats and vessels unloaded at 
the pier are sold through this exchange in much the same manner as 
stock is traded on the New York Stock Exchange. During 1928 
some 218,000,000 pounds of fresh and salt fishery products valued at 
nearly $9,000,000 passed through the exchange. 

While the Fish Pier is the most modern of its kind, it leaves much 
to be desired in the way of efficient handling and conveying of the 
products from vessels to the establishments on the pier. Fish are 
unloaded from the vessels to the dock, largely by hand, in a slow 
and laborious fashion, consuming much more time than is proper in 
handling such a perishable product. From the dock's edge the fish 
are carted by hand to the various buying houses. When originally 
occupied in 1915, the annual landings were 100,000,000 pounds ; now 
twice as much must be handled with the same facilities, resulting in 
serious congestion. The problem of devising and installing auto- 
matic unloading and conveying equipment is imminent and must be 
solved in the near future. 

Gloucester, although having no central fish pier, ranks second in 
importance as a fish port. This port is the center of the salt-fish 
industry, which formerly was much more important than at present. 
In Late years, because of the increased demand of the consumer trade 
for fresh or frozen fish, the handling of Fresh fish and the canning of 
fishery products comprise a large proportion of the business of this 
port. " During L928 nearly 42,000,000 pounds of fresh and salted fish- 
ery products, valued at nearly $1,500,000, were landed by fishing ves- 
sels at Gloucester. 



FISHERIES S7 

Portland, the third port in importance, has shown considerable 
revival, largely because of improved facilities for the distribution 
of fishery products. During 192S about 18,000,000 pounds of fresh 
and salted fishery products, valued at nearly $600,000, were landed at 
Portland. 

A radical departure in the method of merchandising fresh and 
frozen fish during recent years has given the fish business an impetus 
which promises to revolutionize the trade. This new method con- 
sists of placing the edible portion of the fish in unit packages of suit- 
able size for retail distribution. Fish packed in this manner are 
known as package fish. Package fish are prepared at points of pro- 
duction, and are packed in containers and shipped in various types 
of cases, with or without the use of ice, depending upon the character 
of the product and the method of shipping. 

As a result many establishments that in former years bought and 
sold only fresh or frozen fish have now taken on the aspect of cut- 
ting and packing concerns. The majority of these fish cutting and 
packing plants are located in Boston, Gloucester, and Portland. 
They are not confined, however, to the larger cities, and some firms 
desiring to be near points of production have opened large plants in 
smaller fishing towns, such as Provincetown, Mass., and Groton, 
Conn. 

The capital required in erecting plants of this design is many 
times that necessary for carrying on a buying and selling organiza- 
tion, and the number of employees required is also much larger. 
While no accurate statistics are available on this trade, it is interest- 
ing to note that it began in 1921, in a small way, at Boston, and in 
1928 there were 51 firms engaged in the trade in the New England 
States. Although many of these were previously wholesale dealers, 
a considerable number of the firms are new to this field, an indication 
that capital from other sources is entering the fish industry. 

The combined production of package fish in the New England 
States and New York amounted to 61,913,000 pounds in 1928, valued 
at $9,262,000, which is 95 per cent of the production in the United 
States. By far the larger part of this production was of fillets. 
Among the species, packaged haddock made up 92 per cent of the 
total amount. 

That New England plays an important role in supplying the 
Nation with fresh and frozen fish was revealed by a study of the 
distribution by wholesale fish dealers at Boston during September, 
1922. Boston dealers in that month distributed more than 12,000,- 
000 pounds of fishery products to points in 35 States, the District of 
Columbia, and Canada. Of the quantity distributed during that 
month Massachusetts consumed 56 per cent; New York, 19 per cent; 
Pennsylvania and Rhode Island, 5 per cent each; Connecticut, 4 per 
cent; New Hampshire, 2 per cent; Illinois, Maryland, Canada, and 
Maine, 1 per cent each ; and the remainder went to points in 26 
States. While no later comprehensive data are available pertain- 
ing to the distribution of fish from Boston, it is believed that during 
the past few years fish from that port have been given a wider dis- 
tribution, largely as a result of the merchandising of package fish. 



88 INDUSTRIAL STRUCTURE OF NEW ENGI/AND 

OYSTERS AND LOBSTERS 

The wholesale trade in oysters includes shucking and marketing. 
Many of the firms in this business also operate oyster farms and own 
and operate vessels for the taking of oysters. The product of this 
region is marketed largely in New England and in the Middle At- 
lantic States, although quantities are shipped to points in the Middle 
West. 

The wholesale trade in lobsters consists of buying, impounding, 
and selling. Firms handling lobsters do not usually make a prac- 
tice of handling fish or other fishery products. They obtain lobsters 
in times of plenty and impound the surplus for marketing in times 
of scarcity. The pounds, or inclosures where lobsters may be kept 
alive but confined in the sea for some months, play an important part 
in the New England lobster industry. The dealers buy when the 
price is low and draw upon these impounded stocks at will. The 
pounds are filled twice a year — in September and October for the 
trade up to about March 20, and again in May and early June for 
the trade from the middle of July to the 1st of September. This 
phase of the industry makes an uneven seasonal catch available for 
the demand at all seasons of the year. 

For impounding, dealers use large inclosed floats of wooden con- 
struction which are known as " lobster cars." In impounding lob- 
sters considerable capital is tied up both in cars and in stocks. Addi- 
tional labor is also necessary to feed and care for the impounded 
lobsters. During recent years no lobsters have been canned in the 
United States, as they are more valuable when sold fresh. 

Lobsters are marketed largely in New England and throughout 
the Eastern States, but quantities have been shipped west as far as 
the Pacific States. Dealers in Portland, Me., ship live lobsters to 
St. Louis, Kansas City, Portland, Oreg., and even to Florida. 
Boston dealers ship to a greater number of points, the distribution in 
September, 1922, covering 27 States. 

CANNING AND PRESERVING FISH 

The canning and preserving of fishery products 3 is of considerable 
importance in the New England States. Their output is about one- 
fourth of the total for the United States exclusive of Alaska. In 
1924 there were 200 establishments, employing 6,600 persons and 
producing about $14,250,000 worth of goods. Figures for 1928 are 
available on the quantity and value of canned goods and certain 
by-products, as shown in the next table. 

FISH CANNING 

Of these canning industries the most important is sardine can- 
ning in Maine. Most of the factories are located in Eastport and 
vicinity, convenient to the rich young-herring fisheries of the Pas- 
samaquoddy Bay region. About 75 per cent of the fish used in the 
vicinity of Eastporl and Lubec are taken in Canadian weirs. As a 
rule, the fish arc purchased from Canadian fishermen by repre- 

e Also discussion of canning and preserving in manufacturing section of this report, 
]>. 542. 



I' is 1 1 ki; IKS 



89 



sentatives of the canneries, arc transported in American-owned boats 
manned by Americans, and are entered free of duty as the product 
of American fisheries. 

The operation of the canneries is seasonal, depending on the runs 
of fish. In general, there are two periods of abundance — the spring 
run, which begins late in April and continues until about the middle 
of June, and the fall run, beginning in August and continuing 
throughout the fall months. Usually the fall run consists of fatter 
and more desirable fish and is considered the more important of the 
two. Scarcity of fish, poorness in quality, or unsatisfactory markets 
may shorten the season. These factors cause considerable variation 
from year to year. 

New England Production of Canned Fishery Products and By-Products 

in 1928 



Product 


Quantity 


Value 


Canned products: 1 

Sardines 


cases _ 


2, 055, 763 
265, 217 
220, 251 

15, 893 

481, 305 

639, 487 

5, 778, 286 


$8, 076, 546 

990, 718 

1, 742, 533 

774, 833 
1, 166, 236 


Clams, clam chowder, etc 

Miscellaneous.. ... 


do.... 

...do 


By-products: 

Fish meal, scrap, and waste.. 

Glue 


tons.. 

_. gallons.. 


Fish oils .. . 


..do . 


356, 930 
185, 577 


Miscellaneous 2 


pounds.. 


Total 




13, 293, 393 









1 The pack of sardines has been converted to the equivalent of quarter-pound cans, 100 to the case; that 
of clam products, to No. 1 cans, 48 to the case; and that of miscellaneous canned products, to 1-pound 
cans, 48 to the case. 

2 Consists of herring skins and scales, kelp products, isinglass, and oyster-shell products. 

Source: U. S. Bureau of Fisheries. 

Canning operations include bringing in the fish; distributing the 
fish upon grates for drying; steaming and drying; cutting and pack- 
ing the fish in cans; addition of oils or sauces; sealing the covers; 
processing; cleanirig; testing; labeling; and boxing. Much of this 
work is accomplished mechanically, but considerable hand labor is 
required, particularly in packing the fish in cans. Large numbers of 
girls and women are employed for the latter operation. 

The product consists chiefly of low-priced sardines packed in cot- 
tonseed oil in quarter-pound cans. They are marketed largely in the 
mining regions and industrial centers, especially among the foreign 
population of limited means, and mainly through channels where 
price is of greater moment than quality. 

The marketing of the product on a price basis rather than a quality 
basis is probably the chief obstacle to the expansion of the sardine 
industry. Our imports of higher grade sardines amount to nearly 
half the annual production in Maine. Since it has been demon- 
strated that sardines of equal quality can be put up in Maine (a few 
canneries are now packing such high-grade sardines) there appears 
to be a great opportunity for development of this phase of the 
industry. 

The canning of clams, clam chowders, and other clam products 
is an industry of some importance in the State of Maine. In some 
cases the canners of sardines also pack clam products. Many of the 



90 



INDUSTRIAL STRUCTURE OP NEW ENGLAND 



clam plants are small, and they are somewhat widely scattered along 
the coast. 

In Massachusetts and Maine there are a few establishments which 
produce a wide variety of canned fishery products derived from the 
flesh and roe of fish, often mixed with other food products. Some of 
these specialty items are finnan haddie, fish flakes, fish cakes, haddock 
chowder, smoked herring, mackerel, and haddock roe. Many of these 
are sold under special trade names. These products furnish an out- 
let for portions of fish otherwise wasted, and stabilize the business 
by absorbing surpluses when the market is glutted. This business 
has developed rapidly in recent years and promises to continue its 
increase. Illustrative of the growth in the output of these specialties 
are the comparative figures of output, as follows : 

Annual Peodtjction and Value of Canned Fishery Products, 1921-1928 



Year 


Pounds 


Value 


Year 


Pounds 


Value 


1921 


3, 184, 017 
2, 718, 910 
3, 247, 017 
6, 689, 084 


$632, 044 

590, 075 

491, 942 

1, 219, 687 


1925 


7, 515, 602 

8, 307, 517 
8, 932, 189 

10, 572, 048 


$1, 407, 038 
1, 464, 020 
1, 543, 184 


1922 _ 


1926. 


1923 _ 


1927 


1924.. 


1928 


1, 742, 533 







SALTED AND SMOKED FISH 

The preparation of salted and smoked fishery products is carried 
on by numerous plants located in Maine and Massachusetts. With 
the exception of a few in Gloucester, these are relatively small units 
and the total volume of the business is not large. In former days 
the salt-fish business was vastly more important, but the development 
of refrigeration, transportation, and canning methods has to a large 
degree effected the displacement of salt fish by fresh, frozen, and 
canned fishery products. The following tables give detailed statistics 
of salt and smoked fish in New England. 

Salt-Fish Industry and Products of Maine and Massachusetts in 1924 



Item 


Maine 


Massachusetts 


Total 


Plants _.. 


37 

451 

$338, 288 


27 

534 

$536, 425 


$874 


64 


Person? engaged 


985 


Wages paid 


,713 






PRODUCTS 


Pounds 

603, 038 

5, 675, 886 

611,239 

161,976 

1,079 

1, 143,750 

5, 400 

4,074,213 

32, 330 


Value 
$13, 408 
454, 055 
122,248 
5, 403 

162 
46, . r )«»7 

702 
153,606 

7r,:, 


Pounds 
53,000 
10, 591, 395 
2,800 

1 478, 556 


Value 

$5,300 

1,543,368 

375 

30, 020 


Pounds 

656, 038 

16, 267, 281 

614,039 

040, 532 

1,079 

4, 127,556 

5, 400 

4, 747, 176 

770, 610 

2, 129,393 

1,442, 168 

5,000 

75, 297 


Value 

$18, 708 
1, 997, 423 


Cod 


( 'od, boneless 


122, 623 
35, 423 


' U4: _ 


' uk, fiorn-le- 


162 


Haddock 


2, 983, 806 


236, 288 


282, 885 
702 


Haddock, \»>w le 


Hake 


672, 963 
738, 280 

2,129,393 

7. r ,«), COS 


38, 448 
36, 820 
192,045 
65, 967 


192, 054 
37,581 


Herring 


■ -< I __ 


192,015 


Pollock 


682, 500 
5, 000 
6, 266 


27,614 
350 
508 


93, 58] 




350 


( od < tn md sounds. 


69, 029 


5, 502 


0,005 




13,002,679 


825, 403 


18,478,890 


2,1.54, 139 


31,481,569 


2, 979, 542 








Bureau of E 1 



FISH BRIES 91 

Smoked-Fish Industry and Pboducts of Maine and Massachusetts i.\ L924 



Item 


Maine 


Massachusetts 


Total 


Plants 


47 

432 

$93, 43!) 


17 

1S1 

$232, 96S 


64 


Persons engaged 


6 1 3 


W ages paid 


$326,404 






TRODUCTS 

A lew i ves 


['minds 

L19, 160 
1,113,076 


I 111 IK 

$7, 900 
131,391 


Pounds 


1 'ill ii r 


• 
Pounds 

119, 160 
2,365,317 

39, 966 

2, 054, 003 
49,645 
163, 795 
1,782,790 
3,251,000 
58,091 
72,000 
400, 500 


Value 

$7, 900 
240, 427 


Finnan haddie 


1,252,241 
39, 966 

1,669,998 


$109, 036 
7,939 

139, 700 


Halibut .... 


7,939 
180, 087 


Herring: 

Bloaters 


384, 005 

49,645 

163, 795 

1, 782, 790 


40, 387 

4,172 

14, 690 

257, 417 


Lengthwise 


4,172 


Medium scale 






14, 690 


Boneless 






257, 417 


Plain or kippered 


3, 251, 000 


190,610 


190, 610 


Whole 


58, 091 
72,000 


10, 023 
2,400 


10, 023 


Russian sardines 






2,400 


Other fish 


400, 500 


98, 524 


98, 524 










Total 


3, 742, 862 


468, 380 


6, 613, 705 


545, 809 


10, 356, 567 


1,014, 189 







Source: U. S. Bureau of Fisheries. 

INCOME OF PERSONS ENGAGED IN FISH INDUSTRY 

FISHERMEN 

It is exceedingly difficult to ascertain the income of fishermen. A 
few enterprises, such as the operation of vessels by large firms, arc 
on a wage basis. For the most part, however, the fisherman's income 
depends on the proceeds from the sale of the fish catch. On the 
larger vessels compensation is on a share basis. Operating expenses 
are first deducted, and the remainder is divided into shares, several 
going to the owner, several to the captain and to the engineer, and 
one to each member of the crew. Shares are usually divided after 
each trip, and a crew's share of more than $100 each for a w T eek's 
trip may be regarded as unusually high. In smaller boat fisheries 
individual fishermen or partners own and operate on a profit basis, 
sometimes employing other fishermen on w^ages or shares. Since the 
sharing system has many modifications, and all depends on the fish- 
ing success, it is virtually impossible to gauge the income or pur- 
chasing capacity of fishermen. There are always some operating 
at a loss, many operate at small profit, and some get very high 
returns. 

Though it is impossible to obtain an estimate of fishermen's in- 
comes, some idea of purchasing capacity may be gained by recalling 
that the annual value of fishery products in New England is about 
$19,000,000. This amount is spent for the operation and replace- 
ment of vessels, boats, and gear, and for the personal expenditures 
of fishermen and their families. 

WHOLESALE TRADE EMPLOYEES 

From the table on page 86 it may be seen thai in the wholesale fish 
trade 1,922 persons were employed and that $2,157,537 was paid in 
salaries and wages. From this it may be calculated that the average 
per person is $1,120. This figure, however, is too low, since the 1,922 



92 



INDUSTRIAL STRUCTURE OF NEW ENGLAND 



persons include proprietors and firm members, for which no com- 
pensation was reported. It is estimated that the average is more 
nearly $1,200. 

CANNING AND PRESERVING INDUSTRY 

There were 6,608 persons employed by the canning and preserving 
industry in 1924, and $2,853,414 was paid in wages, according to 
Bureau of Fisheries reports for that year. As in the table on the 
wholesale trade, the figures for number of persons include proprietors 
and firm members, whose compensation does not appear in the statis- 
tics. For more accurate information on this subject the following 
table has been prepared from census figures. These probably give 
good averages, but the totals are not complete, since all enterprises 
with production under $5,000 annually have been excluded. Since 
there are many small firms engaged in salting and smoking fish, this 
omission is of some importance. Furthermore, in Maine the employ- 
ment in sardine canneries is seasonal, six months probably being the 
average duration. The low earnings of the women sardine packers 
in Maine are doubtless responsible for the low average in that State. 

Employment in the Fish Canning and Preserving Industry in 1927 



Item 



Proprietors and firm members.. 
Salaried officers and employees - 

Salaries 

Average salary 

Wage earners (average number) 

Wages 

Average wage 



Maine 



27 

165 

$245, 682 

$1, 489 

1,888 

$904, 742 

$479 



Massachu- 
setts 



9 

227 

$404, 021 

$1, 780 

917 

$1, 014, 558 

$1, 106 



Total 



392 

$649, 703 

$1, 657 

2. 805 

$1, 919; 300 



Source: V . S. Bureau of Fisheries. 



Part II.— TRANSPORTATION, POWER, AND FUEL 

Note. — Assistance in compiling the data on transportation was given by Edwin Bates 
and K. .1. McPall of the Department of Commerce. , 

RAIL AND WATER TRANSPORTATION 

The purpose of this section is to show the facilities available for 
connecting the freight traffic of New England with the rest of the 
country; it is thus confined to a consideration of the external x tie-up 
of the region's transportation structure. 

RAIL GATEWAYS 

Because of the region's location, the rail routes that tie New Eng- 
land to the rest of the country play an especially vital role in its in- 
dustrial life. Dependence in large measure on regions to the west 
and south, for raw materials, for fuel, and for market outlets, gives 
unusual importance to the cost of transportation. The fact that the 
volume of inward-moving fuel and raw materials greatly exceeds that 
of outward shipments — chiefly manufactured goods of relatively 
small volume and high value — is inevitably reflected in the general 
level of freight rates, on account of the preponderance of one-way 
revenue-freight traffic. 

The bulk of rail traffic moves into and out of New England 
through five major gateways. One of these connects the rail lines 
that converge in the vicinity of Albany, N. Y., with the two main 
rail systems — Boston & Maine and Boston & Albany — that serve 
northern and central New England, providing through traffic with 
the West across New York State. For north and south traffic, con- 
necting lines link these with lines traversing southern New York 
State and Pennsylvania. About 42 per cent of New England's total 
tonnage, both inbound and outbound, moves through the gateways 
that pierce the middle-western boundary of New England, opposite 
the Mohawk Valley. 

One of the principal rail gateways into southern New England is 
the route along Long Island Sound, over the New York, New Haven 
& Hartford system, through New York Harbor, where connection is 
made with various trunk lines converging in New York City and pro- 
viding access to the interior of the country westward and southward. 
There is a great concentration of traffic through this gateway, both 
for all-rail traffic to and from the interior and for water shipments 
through the port of New York. About 22 per cent of New England's 
inbound rail movement and 25 per cent of its outbound movement are 
through this gateway. 

1 The rail and water facilities within the New England region are discussed in Chapter 
VIII of The Commercial Structure of New England, published separately as Part II of 
The Commercial Survey of New England (Domestic Commerce Series No. 26, U. S. Depart- 
ment of Commerce). The nature and volume of commodity movements into and out of 
New England over the various boundaries are presented in The External Trade of New 
England. (Domestic Commerce Series No. 22.) 

93 



94 



INDUSTRIAL STRUCTURE OF NKW ENGLAND 



There is also an important group of lines converging at Maybrook. 
N. Y., crossing the Hudson River at Poughkeepsie and entering New 
England north of the Sound region, thus avoiding the traffic conges- 
tion of the New York district. A substantial portion, about 18 per 
cent of the inbound traffic and 10 per cent of the outbound traffic, 
enters and leaves New England through Maybrook. 

A lesser volume of traffic moves into and out of New England 
through the gateways of northern New York and Vermont. Such 
traffic comprises about 10 per cent of the inbound and about 15 per 
cent of the outbound rail shipments. 




Figure 5 

Besides these all-domestic routes, there are several routes by which 
traffic moves over the Canadian lines to the Middle West by way of 
(he Great Lake region. They account for about 6 per cent of both 
ihe inbound and the outbound rail movement of New England. 
These northern routes play a competitive role and are a factor in 
fixing the rates between New England and the Middle West. They 
provide an all-rail differential route to the Middle West from Long 
[gland Sound al New London over the Central Vermont Railway 
via St. Albans and the Canadian National Railway Lines. There is 
also a differentia] route over the Boston & Maine via Newport, Vt. 

The relative importance of these different gateways in the loaded 
freight-car movement into and out of New England in 1926 is shown 
graphically in Figure 5. 

FREIGHT RATE STRUCTURE 

The present freight-rate structure of the country has developed out 
of past experience, under conditions existing when rates were deter- 



KAIL AND WATEB TRANSPORTATION 



95 



mined solely by competition. New England's favored location re- 
garding water transportation lias been an important factor in traffic 
with regions where competitive routes are offered. 

Between distant points of origin and of destination the through 
freight rates for the country are based upon relatione between the 
different territories into which the carriers, through their regional 
freight associations, have divided the United States. In each of 
these the schedules vary for different commodity classifications, and 
there are also separate schedules for volume movement of individual 
commodities. While the rate structure for New England in general 
applies alike to inbound and to outbound movements, there are special 
distinctions to be noted in certain areas. Westbound rates between 
New England and Central Freight Association territory are lower 



FREIGHT RATE REGIONS of THE UNITED STATES 

IN RELATION TO 

NEW ENGLAND TRAFFIC 




NEW E NGLAND SURVEY 

U. S. DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE 

Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce 

Domestic Commerce Division 



Figrure 6 

than the eastbound all-rail rates. Transcontinental rates and rates 
to southwestern territory are the same in both directions. 

The general rate territories into which the United States is divided 
are shown in Figure 6. In each of these divisions there is a dis- 
tinctive basis for constructing rate schedules. 

BREAK-UP OF TERRITORY 

For westbound traffic the whole region may be taken as a single 
unit. Traffic going west of Buffalo, Pittsburgh, and Wheeling takes 
the Boston rates, no matter what part of New England is its origin, 
except for northern Maine. 

On eastbound traffic from points west of the Buffalo line, the Bos- 
ton rates apply to all of Connecticut, Rhode Island, and Massachu- 
setts, to the southern part of Maine and New Hampshire, the southern 
and western parts of Vermont, and to points on the Grand Trunk 



96 INDUSTRIAL STRUCTURE OF NEW ENGLAND 

line as far east as Portland. For eastern and northern Maine the 
eastbound rates are generally based on those for Rockland, Me. On 
traffic interchanged with the southeastern States in either direction 
certain parts of New England pay more than the Boston rates. 

Totally different systems of rate making have developed to apply 
to traffic interchanged with different large sections of the country. 
These rate systems apply with fair uniformity to movements starting 
or terminating in any part of each of these large territories. 

RATES TO NEAR-BY TERRITORY 

Between New England and the region immediately to the west — 
known as trunk-line territory, extending from the New England 
boundary to the Buffalo-Pittsburgh-Wheeling line — the freight-rate 
system is very complex for both inward and outward traffic. Since 
this region is so close to New England, there is great variation in the 
distances which individual shipments have to move between origin 
and destination. Rates applied to individual cases are based roughly 
upon the distance of haul. 

For traffic moving between New England and points west of trunk- 
line territory (that is, Central Freight Association territory) there 
is some distinction between eastward and westward shipments. On 
westward movements the six New England States are generally 
considered as a unit. For freight originating in any part of New 
England and destined to points west of trunk-line territory the rate 
is approximately the same as that from Boston. 

For traffic moving eastward from points west of trunk-line terri- 
tory, except from transcontinental and southern territory, New Eng- 
land is divided into two rate areas. The greater part of New Eng- 
land takes the rate for Boston. To points in eastern and northern 
Maine and in northern Vermont and New Hampshire the rates are 
generally based on those to Rockland, Me. 

PERCENTAGE RATE AREA 

In the region west of the trunk-line territory, freight rates are 
built on a highly systematized basis graduated according to distance, 
designated as the percentage system. The region includes all the 
area north of the Ohio River, extending west to the Mississippi and 
north to the Illinois State boundary, and takes in the States of Ohio, 
Indiana, Illinois, most of Michigan, and the southern part of the 
Province of Ontario (that is, the area included in Central Freight 
Association territory). Special areas containing the leading points 
on the west shore of Lake Michigan are included. The rates to 
(Minneapolis and St. Paul and to the leading cities of southern 
Wisconsin are closely related to the percentage system. 

The rates between Chicago and New York are the yardstick for 
rate making on traffic interchanged between this area and the whole 
northeastern seaboard. Rate levels are determined primarily by 
the percentage relation between the New York-Chicago mileage and 
the distance from various zones in this area to points in the East. 
In this territory the freight rates to and from New England increase 
with considerable regularity according to the distance. 



RAIL AND WATER TRANSPORTATION 97 

DIFFERENTIAL RAIL RATES 

Differential rail rates, lower than the standard all-rail rates by de- 
fined amounts, are also available for traffic moved between New Eng- 
land and points in the Middle West, extending as far westward as 
Montana. These lower rates are given over routes which are 
somewhat longer, or slower, than the standard routes. The routes 
include ocean and rail, via Atlantic ports; rail and lake, via the 
Great Lakes; and all-rail, via longer rail routes, particularly on the 
Canadian railways. The influence of these routes has been of con- 
siderable importance to New England. 

COMBINATION RATES WITH THE GREAT PLAINS 

Traffic interchanged with the Great Central Plain, lying between 
the Mississippi River and the Rocky Mountains, generally moves on 
what are known as " combination rates." These are a combination 
of the regular charge to the western edge of the territory covered 
by percentage rates, plus another rate applying between that line 
and the particular receiving or shipping location in the West. The 
portion of the entire rate which applies to the eastern part of the haul 
may be the percentage rate on Chicago; in the central and the 
northern portion it is that for the " Mississippi crossings." The por- 
tion of the rate applying to the western part of the haul may be the 
regular rate between the river and the western location involved ; or 
it may be a somewhat lower rate used solely for combination, and 
known as a " proportional rate." 

In almost all cases the lowest possible combination of rates for 
any routing applies to all rates. Since the rates increase progres- 
sively over various distance zones westward from the Mississippi, 
the charges between various points in this western territory and New 
England are based roughly upon the distance involved. A maximum 
limit upon rates applying to points on the western edge of this ter- 
ritory is imposed by the ruling that they can not be higher than 
transcontinental rates. 

Through rates to the Southwest (Arkansas, Louisiana, Oklahoma, 
and Texas) were established in the summer of 1928. 

TRANSCONTINENTAL RATES 

The transcontinental rate system applies to all traffic between the 
East and the Pacific coast territory, bounded roughly on the east by 
the Rocky Mountain divide. This system has been built upon the 
rate structure for traffic interchanged between the East and the 
Pacific coast water terminals. The rates to the terminals, in turn, 
have grown out of competition between the railways and the water 
carriers. It was formerly true that generally the lowest rates ap- 
plied to much of the traffic moving westward to the actual terminals. 
Rates to the intermountain points, where there was less competition, 
tended to exceed the terminal rates by the amount of the local rate 
for the back haul from the coast. To-day, while the rates to the 
coast terminals are the basis for transcontinental rates, the charges 
on traffic interchanged in each direction with the intermountain 
points are shaded downward from this basis, rather than upward. 



98 



INDUSTRIAL STRUCTURE OF NEW ENGLAND 



In Figure 7 is shown the competitive position of the eastern 
two-thirds of the country in relation to all-rail transcontinental 
traffic with California terminals. The chart at the base of the 
map gives rate comparisons for first-class freight moving from 
the different lettered areas in the East. While this map is con- 
structed for westbound class traffic to California terminals, it is 
fairly representative of all transcontinental traffic interchanged 



COMPETITIVE POSITION OF NEW ENGLAND 

ON 

RAIL SHIPMENTS to CALIFORNIA TERMINALS 

(and Southern Intermediate Points) 




U. S DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE 

Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce 

Domestic Commerce Division ' 



RATE COMPARISONS FOR LETTERED GROUPS of SHIPPING POINTS 



FROM POINTS IN 



RATE IN DOLLARS PER 100 LBS —FIRST CLASS FREIGHT 



GROUPS Aand K 
B •• L 
C - M 
D 
E 
F 

GandH 
J 



Figure 7 



in either direction with points west of the Rockies. With some rates 
on special commodities there is less breaking up of the eastern ter- 
ritory, the same rate applying over broader "blanket zones." For 
certain commodities moved eastward the rates are blanketed over 
the entire country cast of the Rockies, 



RATES TO AND FROM THE SOUTH 



Rales on traffic interchanged between New England and the 
southern territory east of the Mississippi and south of the Ohio River 
have also <iv<>\\\\ out of a transportation situation in which water 
competition ha- played an important part. There, again, the cities 



BAIL AND WATER TRANSPORTATION 99 

enjoying water communication were formerly given lower rates than 
their surrounding territory. This practice has been changed in 
recent years, and now the tendency is for the rates published for the 
leading cities to apply also to all points in their neighborhoods. 
Thus, the South is broken up into various commercial ureas for rate- 
making purposes. Within the past two years there has been a 
material adjustment in the rates from New England to southern 
territory, placing them more fully on a mileage basis. 

FACILITIES FOR WATER TRANSPORTATION 

In coastwise traffic to the Atlantic and Gulf ports water facilities 
antedate the railroads as a means for extending New England com- 
merce to a wide market in the United States. The opening of the 
Panama Canal in 1914 doubled this advantage by extending its water 
traffic to include the Pacific coast regions. Cheapened water trans- 
portation has brought the coasts relatively closer together, at the 
same time that increased rail rates have moved the interior of the 
country relatively farther from seaboard. 

Development of the trunk-line railroads and their extension across 
the continent in the latter half of the nineteenth century — in which 
New England capital and enterprise played a prominent part — 
diverted attention for a time from the advantages of New England's 
water facilities in domestic trade. By opening up the interior of 
the country to low-cost rail transportation an ever-increasing market 
was made accessible. 

This water service is important also in the movement of manu- 
factured products to the Pacific coast and into the Southwest. New 
England manufacturers forward a substantial portion of their 
products to the Pacific coast via the United States intercoastal con- 
ference lines, and into the Southwest via the Atlantic coastwise and 
Gulf steamship lines. The service compares favorably with all-rail 
routes with a 15-clay schedule between New York and Los Angeles 
via the Panama Canal. 

The increased cost of rail service in recent years and the conges- 
tion of traffic have given renewed emphasis to the advantages of 
water transportation and have directed attention to establishing the 
best balance between rail and water traffic. A large proportion of 
bulky commodities, such as fuel and raw materials for manufac- 
ture, in which low freight rates are more important than rapid 
movement, is adapted to this water traffic. The avoidance of rail 
congestion also makes the use of water facilities frequently an actual 
saving of shipping time. 

The water facilities of New England may be considered according 
to regions concerned, as those for (1) local interchange between New 
England points, (2) interchange of traffic through the port of New 
York for domestic and foreign shipment, (3) interchange with the 
Atlantic and Gulf ports in domestic trade, (4) interchange with the 
Pacific coast, and (5) direct foreign traffic with non- American ports. 

About four-fifths of all New England's water traffic is coastwise 
shipping, and less than one-fifth is foreign traffic. Of the coastwise 
shipping the greatest volume of movement is between New England 
and the Atlantic and Gulf ports. 



100 INDUSTRIAL STRUCTURE OF NEW ENGLAND 

MAIN ROUTES AND CONNECTIONS 

Direct water service from Boston and Providence to Philadelphia, 
Baltimore, and Norfolk is given by the Merchants & Miners Trans- 
portation Co. The Clyde Line, the Ocean Steamboat Co., and the 
Eastern Steamship Line operate between Boston and southeastern 
ports. Water traffic from New England ports through the ports 
of Baltimore and Norfolk has a differential advantage over all- 
rail routes in a territory spreading out to the westward over much 
of the region north of the Ohio River, including Chicago and Duluth 
and extending westward to the Rockies. 

The water route through Hampton Roads is of very great impor- 
tance to New England industry, because over this route moves half 
the bituminous coal — upward of 10,000,000 tons annually — that is 
consumed by New England industries. This coal moves by rail 
from the mines of West Virginia to tidewater, and thence by vessel 
to New England ports, at rates below the all-rail rates from Pennsyl- 
vania mines. Minor quantities of coal move also from the more 
northern fields through the ports of Baltimore and Philadelphia. 

Direct water connections through the South Atlantic ports of 
Charleston, Savannah, and Jacksonville are afforded by the Clyde 
Line, the Merchants and Miners Transportation Co., and the 
Savannah Line for commerce with the Southeastern States. The 
connection at Savannah with the terminal of the Illinois Central 
Railroad system provides also an Atlantic corridor to the Middle 
West, which brings the port of Boston into direct communica- 
tion with this interior region. Combined water-and-rail rates with 
the South are fixed at certain differentials below the all-rail rates. 

The Panama Canal brings the whole Pacific coast region, extend- 
ing eastward to the Rockies, into a favorable position in which trans- 
portation rates for New England are materially less than the all- 
rail continental rates from points well in the interior. This inter- 
coastal traffic by water is confined practically to a limited selection 
of goods which do not require rapid movement. 



NEW ENGLAND POWER SITUATION 

The high degree of industrialization in New England makes the 
matter of an adequate and economical power supply one of the vital 
factors in the continued development of this section in competition 
with other regions. New England has been passing through a period 
of pronounced growth and change in its power situation, generally 
parallel to the expansion throughout the country. The developments 
in this region have taken the following directions : 

1. A change from private sources of steam and water power gen- 
erated within individual manufacturing establishments to the use 
of purchased electrical energy provided by power companies. 

2. The concentration and development of separate power units 
within central supply systems which serve the industrial users in a 
wide area. 

3. Increased utilization of the natural water-power resources of 
the region, through the development of projects at new sites and 
through expansion of former units by enlarging reservoir capacities 
and increasing elevations to increase the efficiency of stream flow. 

The plan of this section is first to indicate the extent of the total 
power requirements of New England industries, and to show the 
trend of growth in these over a period of years. Consideration is 
then given to the sources from which these power requirements are 
supplied, with the relative importance of fuel and water. The type 
of agencies which supply power to New England industries is then 
discussed, together with changes and trends in the relative impor- 
tance of these sources and agencies. 

Electrification of New England industry is considered in regard to 
its present volume and its recent trends. This includes consideration 
of the development of power interconnections by the linking up of 
central stations. 

Water power is considered from the angle of total resources, its 
growth and present development, the extent of undeveloped water 
power, and the sources outside New England that may have signifi- 
cance to the industries of this section. 

No exhaustive treatment of this highly technical engineering sub- 
ject is attempted here. Various agencies have made surveys and 
reports on certain phases of New England power to which the reader 
is referred for more detailed information. The reports of the power 
commissions of some of the States, particularly in Maine, New Hamp- 
shire, and Massachusetts, cover this subject more fully than is pos- 
sible in the present treatment. The most comprehensive and detailed 
of these studies is a general survey 2 of the New England power 
situation by the Associated Industries of Massachusetts, published in 
1924. 

2 Reference is made especially to the following reports : Superpower Study of the North- 
eastern Section of the United States, by the Federal Power Commission, 1924 ; Report of 
Associated Industries of Massachusetts Power Investigation Committee, 1924 ; Reports of 
New Hampshire Power Commission ; Annual Reports of Maine Power Commission, espe- 
cially that for 1918; a report by the New England Council in 1927, entitled ' Power 
Interconnections." 

61232°— 30 8 101 



102 



INDUSTRIAL STRUCTURE OF NEW ENGLAND 



POWER REQUIREMENTS AND EQUIPMENT 

The total power requirements of the New England population 
would include not only the power for turning machinery in factories 
but also that used for street and municipal lighting, electric railways, 
the lighting of private dwellings, and electric power used on farms. 
The electrification of steam railways is also a growing factor in 
the change of power sources. No complete information is at hand 
to show the total consumption of power throughout New England. 
The only records of actual power consumption are those for pur- 
chased electric energy which passes through meters of public utility 
companies. 

In the absence of records of power developed or consumed in 
manufacturing establishments, the only available indicator is the 
capacity in horsepower of the equipment used as prime movers. 
This is shown for census years by the United States Census of Manu- 
factures, which classifies the capacity of prime movers, according to 
sources of power, under the headings of fuel burning, Avater driven, 
or operated by purchased electric current. 

The rated capacity of all prime movers in manufacturing estab- 
lishments of the six New England States in 1925 was approximately 
4,350,000 primary horsepower and represented a little less than one- 
eighth of the total for all manufacturing industries of the United 
States. The importance of all power equipment in manufacturing 
establishments of the individual States is shown by the following 
table. 

Installed Capacity of Power Equipment in New England Manufacturing 
Establishments in 1925 



State 


Total pri- 
mary horse- 
power 


Per cent 

of New 
England 


Massachusetts _ 


2, 130, 503 
847, 395 
628, 941 
410, 181 
376, 373 
172, 762 


46.6 


Connecticut. _ _ 


18.6 




13.8 


Khode Island . . _ 


9.0 




8.2 


Vermont ... 


3.8 






Total ..- 


4, 566, 155 
38, 825, 681 


100.0 








11.7 









NATURE OF POWER EQUIPMENT 

About 60 per cent of the power equipment in New England fac- 
tories is operated by power generated within the individual establish- 
ments from fuel or water. The remainder is operated from electric 
current purchased from power' companies or from other manufac- 
t urers. 

Of the portion supplied from the individual power plants of manu- 
facturers, slightly more than half is provided by steam or water 
power- applied directly to the turning of machinery; and a little 
less than one half is 'used to generate electric current within the 
establishment . 



XKW ENGLAND POWEB SITUATION 



103 



Fuel was used in L925 as a source of power to operate t2.3 per cent 
of the equipment of private manufacturing plants, and water was 
the source of power for only 18 per cent, while internal-combustion 
engines comprise but 2 per cent. The following table shows for 
1927 the relative importance of these different types of power equip- 
ment in the manufacturing establishments of each State. This is 
shown graphically for 1925 in Figure 8. 




Figure 8. — Relative importance of various types of power equipment in New England 
manufacturiig plants in 1925 

Types of Power Equipment Used in New England Manufacturing Estab- 
lishments in 1927 

[Rated capacity in horsepower of all prime movers] 



Source of power 



Fuel burning 

Steam engines 

Steam turbines 

Internal combustion 

Water driven: Water wheels and 

turbines 

Purchased current: Electric 

motors 

Total, all sources 

Each State as per cent of New 
England total 

Per cent operated by each type: 

Fuel-burning equipment 

Water-driven equipment 

Purchased current 



Mass- 
achu- 
setts 



944, 586 

525, 659 

409, 117 

9,810 

163, 406 

1,022,511 



2, 130, 503 



46.66 

44.34 
7.67 
47.99 



Con- 
necti- 
cut 



323, 561 

167, 053 

150, 391 

6,117 

52, 571 

471, 263 



847, 395 



18.56 

38.18 
6.21 
55.61 



Maine 



150, 402 

91,554 

57, 125 

1,723 

317, 870 

160, 669 



628, 941 



13.77 

23.91 
50.54 

25.55 



Rhode 
Island 



189, 385 

94, 925 

91, 260 

3,200 

21, 558 

199, 238 



410, 181 



46.17 
5. 26 

48.57 



New 
Hamp- 
shire 



163, 846 
73, 570 

87, 714 
2,562 

154, 748 

57, 779 



376, 373 



8,24 

43.53 
41. 12 

15.35 



Ver- 
mont 



42, 469 

32, 181 

8,327 

1,961 

51,705 

78, 588 



172, 762 



3.79 

24. 58 
29. 93 
45.49 



Total 

New 
England 



1, 814, 249 

984, 942 

803, 934 

25, 373 

761, 858 

1, 990, 048 



4, 566, 155 



100. 00 



New 
England 

as per 
cent of 
United 

States 



10.03 
9.71 

11. 85 
2.17 

47. 66 

10.40 



11.76 



Source: U. S. Bureau of the Census. 



There is conspicuous contrast among the individual States. In 
Maine more than half the power equipment is water driven. In New 
Hampshire and Vermont also water power is a large proportion of 
the total. In Massachusetts, Connecticut, and Rhode Island, how- 
ever, less than 10 per cent of the power equipment in manufacturing 
establishments is driven by water. Purchased current is the power 
source for more than half the purchased equipment in Connecticut 
and for nearly half that of Rhode Island. In Massachusetts fuel is 
slightly less important than purchased current. 



104 



INDUSTRIAL STRUCT URE OF NEW ENGLAND 



GROWTH IN POWER EQUIPMENT 

The growth of the amount of power equipment installed in New 
England industries in the census years from 1869 to 1927, inclusive, is 
shown in the following table. In the two decades from 1869 to 1889 
the total primary horsepower doubled. In the next 20 years, ended in 
1909, it more than doubled. Since 1910 the growth has been fairly 
regular and continuous. The total rated capacity in 1925 was upward 
of 16.5 per cent greater than in 1910. In this same period, however, 
the expansion for the United States as a whole was relatively greater, 
amounting to more than 19 per cent. 

The most significant facts in the recent development of New Eng- 
land's power equipment are (1) the great increase in equipment 
operated by purchased electric current since 1914, (2) the relatively 
stable position of water-driven equipment since 1909, and (3) a 
substantial falling off in the fuel-burning equipment of private indus- 
trial plants since 1914. 

The installation of equipment using purchased electric current has 
increased 31.3 per cent in New England since 1914, as measured by 
horsepower capacity, in comparison with 30.7 per cent for the United 
States as a whole. 

Changes in Total Power Equipment of New England Manufactures 

1869-1927 



Census 


Total primary horse- 
power J 


New Eng- 
land as 

per cent of 
United 
States 


Census 
year 


Total primary horse- 
power * 


New Eng- 
land as 

per cent of 
United 
States 


year 


New Eng- 
land 


United States 


New Eng- 
land 


United States 


1927 

192.5 

1923 

1919-.. 

1914-.. 

1909 


4, 566, 155 
4, 349, 191 
4, 151, 136 
3, 796, 846 
3, 124, 329 
2, 715, 121 


38, 825, 681 
35, 772, 628 
33, 094, 228 
29, 504, 792 
22, 437, 072 
18, 675, 376 


11.8 

12.2 
12.5 
12.9 
13.9 
14.5 


1904 

1899.. 

1889 

1879.. 

1869 


2, 125, 815 

1, 792, 342 

1, 156, 877 

743, 106 

514, 730 


13, 487, 707 
10, 098, 000 
5, 939, 000 
3, 411, 000 
2, 346, 000 


15.8 
17.7 
19.5 
21.8 
21.9 



1 Includes equipment operated by purchased electric current. 
Source: United States Biennial Census of Manufactures. 

CHANGES IN SOURCES OF POWER 



The next table shows the changes from 1904 to 1925 in the relative 
importance of fuel-burning and water-driven industrial equipment 
for New England as a whole. 



Changes in Source of Power for New England Industrial Equipment, 1904 

to 1925 

[Percentage of total horsepower capacity] 



Year 


Generated i manufac- 
turing establishments 


Purchased 

Cl -rent 

30.84 
37. 70 
30. 22 


Year 


Generated in manufac- 
turing establishments— 


Purchased 




From fuel 


From water 


From fuel 


From water 


current 




12. 29 
13 06 
50. 09 


17.88 

IS. .34 
10.69 


L014 

L909 


61.52 
62. 64 
64.00 


24. 25 
27. 89 
31.00 


13.2:5 




1923 


9.47 


J'*]'* 


1904 


5.00 









NEW ENGLAND POWBB SITUATION J()5 

ELECTRIFICATION OF INDUSTRIES 

The growth of the utilization of electric power is an important 
factor not only because of its effect upon the productive industries 
but because of its far-reaching effect in opening up a large market for 
electrical equipment and appliances. Every factory which installs 
electric power becomes thereby a market for motors and accessories. 
Every household which uses electric current is a potential market 
for numerous household appliances. Every farm so equipped finds 
various uses for electrically driven machinery. 

The increased availability of electric power for manufacturing 
processes fosters the economical development of industry. It brings 
to isolated plants in small communities the advantage of economical 
power that is enjoyed in large industrial centers and thus tends to 
relieve the concentration of industry in the large centers. The ac- 
cessibility of this power is particularly significant to the periodic and 
small-unit industries which do not have large power requirements. 
The steam engine and the water wheel could transmit power only by 
shafts or belts, hence mills had to be built as highly concentrated 
units. The ease of transmission of electrical power is tending to 
disperse industry instead of confining it to congested areas. 

The increased electrification applies also to communities already 
served, in the improvement of service resulting from linking up 
small, separate units by interconnections of central stations. The 
wider distribution of power load thus made possible provides a more 
abundant and regular supply of power at individual points. 

Development of interconnecting power systems increases the ad- 
vantage to industrial users, not only because it assures specified 
amounts of power to meet stated requirements, but also because it 
provides continuity of supply which is available instantly day or 
night in abundant quantity to meet such additional load requirements 
as expanding business may make necessary. 

USE OF PURCHASED CURRENT 

New England industrial establishments in 1924 consumed 3,093,- 
197,000 kilowatt hours of electrical energy. Of this total consump- 
tion, central power stations supplied 58.4 per cent, and 41.6 per cent 
was generated in private industrial plants. Thus, it is seen that 
central stations supply more than half of all the electrical energy 
consumed in New England manufacture. 

In 1924 there were 1,038 private industrial plants in New England 
generating electricity, whose equipment had a total rating of 751,565 
kilovolt amperes. In 1925 there were 330,093 electrically driven 
motors in the industrial plants of New England. About two-thirds 
of these were small motors with a capacity of less than 5 horsepower. 
Of this total number 63.5 per cent were driven by purchased current 
and the remaining 36.5 per cent were operated by current from pri- 
vately generated sources. 

OWNERSHIP OF CENTRAL STATION POWER PLANTS 

Most of the electric power produced for sale in the New England 
States is generated by power companies and traction companies. In 
1922 power companies produced 78 per cent of the New England total 



106 



[NDUSTRIAL STRUCTURE OF NKW ENGLAND 



and traction companies 18 per cent. Municipal plants contributed 
only 2 per cent and private sources less than iy 2 per cent of the total. 
The volume of power generated in each State in 1922 by the differ- 
ent kinds of plants is shown in the following table, as reported by the 
Associated Industries of Massachusetts. 

Output of Central Station Power in New England States in 1922 

[Thousands of kilowatt hours generated] 



State 


Power 
companies 


Traction 
companies 


Municipal 
plants 


Private 
sources 


Imported 


Total 


Massachusetts 


1, 422, 165 
534, 612 
346, 725 
284, 460 
198,608 
69, 440 


396, 295 

185, 530 

63,800 

683 


48, 080 
9,068 


28, 070 
1, 300 
3,040 
6,637 
7,567 
6,130 




1,894,610 


Connecticut 




730, 510 
413, 565 


Rhode Island 




Maine 


700 

850 

13, 415 


12, 055 


304, 535 


New Hampshire 


207, 025 
93, 165 


Vermont ... .. 


3,480 


700 






Total 


2, 856, 010 
78.4 


649, 788 
17.8 


72, 113 
2.0 


52, 744 
1.4 


12, 755 
.4 


3,643,410 


Percentage produced by each 
type 


100 






1 



PUBLIC UTILITY POWER DEVELOPMENT 

The production of electric power by central stations and public- 
utility companies in New 7 England, according to reports of the 
United States Geological Survey, showed an increase of 51 per cent 
from 1920 to 1926. In this same period the production for the 
United States as a whole increased 69.4 per cent. It thus appears 
that although central-station development has made substantial 
growth in New England in the last few years, it has been surpassed 
by some other parts of the United States. 

The production of central stations and public-utility companies in 
New England in 1920 was 7.81 per cent of the United States total ; in 
1 926 it was 7 per cent : and in 1928 it was 6.78 per cent. Figures of 
the annual power production of New England and comparative fig- 
ures for the United States are given in the following table. 

Annual Electric Power Production by Central Stations and Public- 
Utility Companies of New England and of the United States, 1920-1928 





New England 


United States 


Year 


Millions of 
kilowatt- 
hours 


Increase 
from pre- 
ceding 
year 


Relation to 

United 
States 
total 


Millions of 
kilowatt- 
hours 


Increase 

from pre- 
ceding 
year 


1928 


5, <>"><> 
6,471 
5, m 
4, 824 
4, 335 
4, 276 
3, 730 
3,214 

3, 407 


Per cent 
8.9 
5. 9 

7. 1 

LI. 3 

1.4 
14.6 
16.1 
» 5.7 


Per cent 
6.78 

6. 82 

7.00 

7. 32 

7. 34 
7.68 
7.82 
7. 85 
7.81 


87, 850 

80, 205 
73,791 
65, 870 
59, 014 
55, 674 
47, 659 
40, 976 

43, 535 


Per cent 
9. 5 


LS27 - 

1926 - - --. 


8.7 
12.0 


L92I 


11.6 


1924 


6.0 


! (23 - 


16.8 


1922 


16.3 


L921 .- 


' 5. 9 


1920 


11.9 









I 
i i I leologh .1 i hi ■.<•;. . 



XKW KXdl.wi) Powki; SITUATION 



107 



SOURCES OF ENERGY 

Figures of the Geological Survey for the annual production of 

electricity by public-utility power plants show that approximately 
two-thirds of the total production, as measured by kilowatt-hours, is 
contributed from fuel and one-third from water power. Compari- 
son of fuel sources and water sources from 1920 to L928 by years is 
afforded for public-utility plants in the next table. It is noted that 
the increase in total power production has run almost parallel in 
these two sources. The proportions for the individual years show 
very little variation, but since 1926 there has been a pronounced in 
crease in the relative importance of water sources. 

Sources of Annual Production of Electricity by Public-Utility Power 
Plants in New England, 1920-1 .928 

[Thousands of kilowatt-hours] 





Total 


From water 


From fuels 


Year 


Total 


Per cent 

of New 

England 

total 


Total 


Per cent 
of New 
England 

total 


1928 


5, 968, 843 
5, 470, 556 
5, 165, 955 
4, 823, 655 
4, 334, 553 
4, 275, 836 
3, 729, 873 
3, 214, 189 
3, 406, 712 


2, 377, 869 
1, 989, 386 
1, 684, 790 
1, 637, 835 
1, 437, 012 
1, 253, 734 
1, 210, 475 
1, 038, 693 
1, 133, 910 


39.9 
36.4 
32.6 
33.9 
33.2 
29.3 
32.4 
32.3 
33.3 


3, 580, 974 
3, 481, 170 
3, 481, 165 
3, 185, 820 

2, 897, 541 

3, 022, 102 
2, 519, 398 
2, 175, 496 
2, 272, 802 


60. 1 


1927 


63.6 


1926 


67.4 


1925 


66.1 


1924 _ 


66.8 


1923 

1922_ 


70.7 
67.6 


1921 


67.7 


1920 


66.7 







Source: U. S. Geological Survey. 

A report for the 12 principal power systems of New England for 
1926, compiled by The Electrical World, showed that of the 61 power- 
stations included in these 12 systems there were 19 fuel-burning 
plants, whose total rating of generators was 1.094,617 kilovolt am- 
peres and 42 hydroelectric plants (of which 22 were in Maine) whose 
generators had a total rating of 323,005 kilovolt amperes. Thus, in 
the plants included in these principal power systems fuel was the 
source of energy for over 77 per cent of the total generator capacity, 
and water power was the source for less than 23 per cent. Of these 
fuel-consuming plants coal was the source for 92 per cent, and fuel 
oil for about 8 per cent, 

SOURCES OF CENTRAL STATION POWER IN DIFFERENT STATES 

The relative importance of fuel and of water in the production of 
electric power by central stations is shown for each State, as of 1922, 
in the following table. 



108 



INDUSTRIAL STRUCTURE OF NEW ENGLAND 



Sources of Electrical Power Generated by Central Stations in New England 

States in 1922 





Fuel 


Water 


Total, 
thousands 
of kilowatt- 
hours gen- 
erated 


State 


Thousands 
of kilowatt- 
hours gen- 
erated 


Per cent 
of total 


Thousands 
of kilowatt- 
hours gen- 
erated 


Per cent 

of total 


Massachusetts _ . 


1, 504, 125 
579, 540 
406, 410 
20, 080 
34, 525 
1,800 


79.39 
79.33 

98.27 
6.59 

16.68 
1.93 


390, 485 
150, 970 
7,155 
284, 455 
172, 500 
91, 365 


20.61 
20.67 
1.73 
93.41 
83.32 
98.07 


1, 894, 610 
730, 510 
413, 565 
304, 535 
207, 025 
93, 165 


Connecticut . , . 


Rhode Island.. 


Maine _ . 

New Hampshire 

Vermont 




Total 


2, 546, 480 


69.89 


1, 096, 930 


30.11 


3, 643, 410 







Source: Report of Power Investigating Committee, Associated Industries of Massachusetts. 

It is seen that in 1922, 98 per cent of the power in Rhode Island 
was produced from fuel, and in both Massachusetts and Connecticut 
nearly 80 per cent was produced from fuel. These three States com- 
prise the bulk of the power production by central stations, amount- 
ing to 83 per cent of the New England total from all sources and 
about 98 per cent of the total from fuel sources. 

In contrast to this dependence on fuel in southern New England, 
in Vermont 98 per cent of the total production of central stations 
was from water, in Maine 93 per cent, and in New Hampshire 83 
per cent. For all New England, according to these figures, 70 per 
cent of the total electrical power produced in central stations in 
1922 was developed from fuel sources and 30 per cent from water. 

The relative importance of coal and oil in generating electric 
power in the different States is shown from 1926 to 1928 in the 
following table. 

Coal and Oil Consumption by Public Utility Power Plants in New 7 England 

States in 1926-1928 



State 


Coal 


Oil 


1926 


1927 


1928 


1926 


1927 


1928 


Massachusetts 


Short tons 

1, 546, 952 

840, 303 

348, 459 

1,919 

49, 143 

184 


Short tons 

1, 535, 025 

824, 080 

314,441 

1,933 

33,617 

407 


Short tons 

1,546,906 

839, 538 

328,881 

1,680 

31, 232 


Barrels 
582, 173 
1,512 
181,975 
116,517 
1,474 
37, 052 


Barrels 
628, 072 
374 
167, 225 
30, 842 
1,555 
30, 221 


Barrels 
398, 710 


Connecticut 


202 


Rhode Island 


91,613 


Maine 


27, 281 


New Hampshire... 

Vermont 


2,841 
50, 028 








Total 


2, 786, 960 


2, 709, 503 


2, 748, 237 


920, 703 


858, 289 


570, 675 







Source: U. S. Geological Survey. 



M LIBBAfiY 




CROWN POINT 



NEW ENGLAND STATES 

INTERCONNECTIONS BETWEEN UTILITIES 

SCALE IN MILES 



LEGEND 

TRANSMISSION LINES 

PROPOSED TRANSMISSION LINES 

• STEAM GENERATING STATIONS 

HYDRO GENERATING STATIONS 
HYDRO-STEAM GENERATING STATIONS 
UNDEVELOPED HYDRO SITES 
o SUB STATIONS 



CORRECTED TO MARCH I. 1929. 



Reproduced by courtesy of 

New England Council 

Power Committee 



61232°— 30. (Face p. 109.) 



XKW ENGLAND POWEB SITUATION 109 



INTERCONNECTIONS OF CENTRAL POWER STATIONS 

The growth of power equipment and capacity is only one indicator 
of the availability of power to meet the requirements of industry. 
The interconnections w T hich tie up individual units into large sys- 
tems are important in providing a reserve supply of energy to meet 
maximum demands. These interconnections equalize the distribu- 
tion of current to meet the load required at different places and differ- 
ent times. Since peak loads do not regularly appear simultaneously 
in all parts of an area, the interconnection of power units by means 
of a unified system permits the distribution of peak loads so as to 
relieve the individual plant of the necessity of installing equipment 
for meeting its maximum requirements single handed. The econo- 
mies resulting from such interconnections in turn admit of lower 
rates to power users. 

The fact that New England is a natural power unit argues for the 
unifying of its power resources in the way that will permit their 
most efficient and economical utilization. In the last few years there 
has been a growing tendency for neighboring power companies to 
consolidate, or to connect their lines and sell electrical power to each 
other as needed. As most of these power companies have their peak 
loads at different times, such a system is of great value in distribut- 
ing and equalizing their power requirements. The central stations 
of New England are actively interested in the economic develop- 
ment of their territories and encourage the introduction of new 
industries and the expansion of established industries by providing 
information that will aid in industrial development. 

Some of these interconnecting lines have been in existence for many 
years, but the development has been much more rapid during the last 
three or four years than during the dozen years preceding. With the 
exception of Maine, the present density of these interconnecting lines 
in the New England States is at least equal to that in the leading 
States of New York, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania. It is consider- 
ably more dense than that of any other part of the United States, 
with the possible exception of the region centering in Chicago. The 
extent of the present interconnections in the various power areas of 
New England is shown graphically in Figure 9. This map indi- 
cates, in addition to the location of the different types of power sta- 
tions, the location of undeveloped hydroelectric sites in northern New 
England. 

WATER-POWER DEVELOPMENT 

The rugged topography of New England, giving rise to falls and 
rapids in the numerous rivers and streams flowing from the moun- 
tainous interior in comparatively short routes to the sea, provides a 
great many locations with sufficient fall for generating water power. 
Coupled with this is the presence of many lakes and ponds, which 
form natural reservoirs and thus maintain the regularity of supply 
by restraining the water that falls on these areas from draining off 
rapidly. 



110 



[NDUSTRIAL STEUCTUBE OF NEW ENGLAND 



Water power depends not only upon the elevation or drop in 
the stream but also upon the extent of the drainage area and upon 
the reserve supply that is available from natural or artificial storage 
reservoirs. 

The extent of all water-power resources of the New England 
States and the degree to which they have been developed is shown 
in the following table. 

Total Potential Watee Power of New England States 



State 


Capacity available 
90 per cent of the 
time 


Capacity available 
50 per cent of the 
time 


Developed capacity 
in 1927 


Horsepower 


Per cent 
of New 
England 


Horsepower 


Per cent 

of New 
England 


Horsepower 


Per cent 
of New 
England 


Maine. _ 


536, 000 
186,000 
106,000 
80, 000 
65,000 
25,000 


53.7 

18.7 
10.6 
8.0 
6.5 
2.5 


1, 074, 000 
350, 000 
235, 000 
169, 000 
110, 000 
40,000 


54.3 
17.7 
11.9 
8.5 
5.6 
2.0 


537, 161 
278,002 
362, 123 
200,157 
148, 423 
30,188 


34.5 


New Hampshire .. 


17.9 


Massachusetts 


23.2 


Vermont 


12.9 


Connecticut 


9.6 


Rhode Island ... 


1.9 






Total 


998, 000 
34, 818, 000 

2.87 


100.0 


1, 978, 000 
55, 030, 000 

3.60 


100.0 


1, 556, 054 
12, 296, 000 

13.1 


100.0 


United States , 




New England as per cent of United 
States 

















Source: U. S. Geological Survey. 

The first column of this table shows what might be termed the com- 
mercially available water power capable of providing practically con- 
tinuous energy. This is naturally much less than the energy that is 
available only 50 per cent of the time. The latter may be termed 
the maximum power capacity. 

The estimated capacity of New England rivers and streams avail- 
able 90 per cent of the time amounts to a little less than 1,000,000 
horsepower and represents about 2.9 per cent of the total for the 
whole United States in this class. The capacity available 50 per 
cent of the time is naturally much greater, amounting to approxi- 
mately 2,000,000 horsepower. This represents a somewhat greater 
proportion (3.6 per cent) of the national total for this intermittent 
power. 

About four-fifths of all the potential water power of New England 
is in the three northern States, and only one-fifth is in the three in- 
dustrial States of the South. More than one-half of the total is in 
Maine; upward of one-fourth is in New Hampshire and Vermont ; 
a little more than one-tenth is within the boundaries of Massachu- 
< it : find Connecticut and Rhode Island together contain less than 
one-tenth of the New England total. 



NEW ENGLAND POWEB SITUATION 



111 



GROWTH OF WATER POWER DEVELOPMENT 

The water-power resources of New England were developed earlier 
and more fully than those of other sections of the country. It will 
be many years before all the water-power sites in the United States 
are developed to a greater extent than the sites that have been utilized 
in the New England States. 

Figures of water-power development as indicated by the capacity 
of all water wheels installed in plants of 100 horsepower and above 
show a fairly steady and continuous increase in this region; the 
relative position of New England in the water-power development 
of the country as a whole, however, shows a steady and continuous 
reduction — from 24.6 per cent in 1909 to 12.2 per cent in 1928, as is 
shown in the following table. 

Growth in New England Water-Power Development as Compared with the 
United States, 1909-1928 

[In thousands of horsepower] 





Capacity of water wheels in- 
stalled in plants of 100 horse- 
power or more 


Year 


Capacity of water wheels in- 
stalled in plants of 100 horse- 
power or more 


Year 


New 
England 


United 
States 


New 

England 
as per 
cent 
of United 
States 
total 


New 
England 


United 
States 


New 
England 

as per 

cent 

of United 

States 

total 


1928 


1,654 
1,536 
1,535 
1,399 
1,387 
1,390 
1,330 
1,310 
1,300 
1,250 


13, 572 
12, 296 
11, 721 
10, 038 
9,087 
9,090 
8,270 
8,050 
7,800 
7,590 


12.2 
12.7 
13.1 
13.3 
14.0 
15.3 
16.1 
16.3 
16.7 
16.5 


1918 


1,190 
1,160 
1,140 
1,090 
1,060 
1,050 
1,020 
1,000 
. 970 
950 


7.110 
6,800 
6,470 
6,140 
5,790 
5,480 
4,770 
4,530 
4,220 
3,870 


16.7 


1927 


1917.. 


17.1 


1926 


1916 


17.6 


1925 


1915 


17.8 


1924 


19M 


18.3 


1923 


1913 


19.2 


1922 


1912 


21.4 


1921 


1911 


22.1 


1920 


1910... 


23.0 


1919 


1909 


24.6 









EXTENT OF PRESENT DEVELOPMENT 

The extent of present water-power development in New England, 
and its magnitude in the individual States, as indicated by horse- 
power capacity, is shown in the first column of the following table. 
It is observed that Maine accounts for slightly more than one-third 
of the New England total; Massachusetts has a little less than one- 
fourth, and New Hampshire a little less than one-fifth; Vermont 
contributes more than one-eighth, and Connecticut and Rhode Island 
together a little less than one-eighth. 



112 



INDUSTRIAL STRUCTURE OF NEW ENGLAND 



Developed Watee Power i\ New England States m Plants of 100 Horse- 
power or More, 1926-1028 





Total capacity 


Public utility and 
municipal 


Manufacturing and 
miscellaneous 


State and year 


Horse- 
power 


Per cent 

of New 

England 

total 


Horse- 
power 


Per cent 

of New 

England 

total 


Horse- 
power 


Per cent 

of New 

England 

total 


Maine: 

1928 


538, 761 
537, 161 
525, 509 

362, 123 
362, 123 
353, 939 

278,002 
278, 002 
277, 252 

260, 157 
200, 157 
200, 157 

184, 423 
148,423 
184, 423 

30,188 
30,188 
30, 188 


32.6 
34.5 
34.2 

21.9 
23.3 
23.0 

16.8 
17.9 
18.1 

15.7 
12.9 
13.0 

11.2 

9.5 

9.7 

1.8 
1.9 
2.0 


239, 801 
234, 230 
222, 570 

159, 211 
159, 211 
171, 977 

143, 711 
143, 711 
143, 711 

216, 501 
156, 501 
156, 501 

117, 405 
81,405 
81,405 

3,285 
3,285 
3,285 


27.2 
30.0 
28.6 

18.1 
20.5 
22.1 

16.3 
18.5 
18.4 

24.6 
20.1 
20.1 

13.3 
10.5 
10.4 

.5 
.4 
.4 


298, 260 
302, 931 
302, 939 

202, 912 
202, 912 
181, 962 

134, 291 
134, 291 
133, 541 

43, 656 
43, 656 
43,656 

67, 018 
67, 018 
67, 018 

26,903 
26,903 
26, 903 

773, 740 
771, 711 
756, 019 

1, 658, 194 
1, 757, 619 
1, 759, 781 


38 6 


1927 


39 3 


1926 


40. 1 


Massachusetts: 

1928 


26.2 


1927 


26.4 


1926 


24.1 


New Hampshire: 

1928 


17.4 


1927___ 


17.4 


1926 


17.7 


Vermont: 

1928 


5.6 


1927 


5.7 


1926 


5.8 


Connecticut: 

1928 


8.7 


1927 


8.7 


1926 


8.8 


Rhode Island: 

1928 


3.5 


1927 


3.5 


1926 


3.5 






Total: 

1928 


1, 653, 654 
1,5.56,062 
1, 535, 468 

13, 571, 530 
12, 296, 000 
11,720,983 


100.0 
100.0 
100.0 


879, 914 

778, 343 

779, 449 

11,886,336 
10, 538, 381 
9, 961, 202 


100.0 
100.0 
100.0 


100.0 


1927 . 


100.0 


1926 


100.0 


United States total: 

1928 




1927 








1926 . 








New England as per cent of United 
States: 
1928 _ 


12.2 
12.7 
13.1 


7.4 
7.4 

7.8 


45.9 


1927 . 








43.9 


1926.... 








42.4 













Comparison of the ownership of this developed water power is 
instructive. For New England as a whole the ownership is almost 
equally divided between the public utility and municipal plants on 
one hand and the private manufacturing establishments on the other. 
Public agencies are slightly in the lead for the region as a unit ; they 
stand out particularly in Vermont and Connecticut. The private 
manufacturing establishments have a pronounced lead, however, in 
Massachusetts, Maine, and Rhode Island. Private development 
of water power bears a much higher proportion of the total in New 
England as a whole than it does nationally ; and public agencies hold 
a less prominent place in New England than they do for the country 
at large. 

UNDEVELOPED WATER-POWER RESOURCES IN NEW ENGLAND 

The report of the Power Investigating Committee of the Asso- 
ciated Industries of Massachusetts showed that in 1922 the unde- 
veloped capacity of water-power sites which were capable of practical 
development so as to make power available 60 per cent of the time 
on a full-load factor, in all New England, comprised about 865,000 



NEW ENGLAND POWER SITUATION 



113 



horsepower. This included only sites with capacities exceeding 1,000 
horsepower, and did not allow for possible increases from addition 
of storage developments with suitable pondage. It was estimated 
that a total installed capacity of about 1,720,000 horsepower would 
be required to make full use of this capacity if developed by ade- 
quate reservoirs. The estimate of the United States Geological 
Survey for power available 50 per cent of the time instead of 60 per 
cent is naturally somewhat larger. 



LOCATION OF UNDEVELOPED RESOURCES 

The power resources of industrial southern New England are, on 
the whole, already utilized intensively. There remain in this section 
few water-power sites that are capable of extensive new development. 
Additional water power of special interest to the industries of 
southern New England is that resulting from the redevelopment of 
existing sites or from the construction of storage reservoirs. It is 
significant that practically all water-power development of any 
importance in southern New England in the last 20 years has been 
of this nature. 

Upward of 80 per cent of the undeveloped water power as com- 
puted in the above-mentioned report was located in four river basins 
of northern New England — the Penobscot, the Kennebec, the Andro- 
scoggin, and the upper Connecticut River. The following table gives 
the computed undeveloped horsepower capacity of the various river 
basins of New England, and the corresponding kilowatt-hours which 
they would be capable of adding per year. On these same rivers 
there are many available power sites in units of less than 1,000 horse- 
power, not included in this table, whose output would be absorbed 
for local uses. About 75 per cent of the total undeveloped power 
was in the State of Maine. A substantial amount of development 
has taken place in some of these river basins since these estimates 
were prepared. 

Undeveloped Water Power in New England River Basins in 1922 



River basin 


Horsepower 

capacity 

available 

60 per cent 

of the time 


Corre- 
sponding 
millions of 
kilowatt- 
hours per 
year 


River basin 


Horsepower 

capacity 

available 

60 per cent 

of the time 


Corre- 
sponding 
millions of 
kilowatt- 
hours per 
year 


Penobscot 


236, 605 
222, 670 
141, 250 
115,730 
38, 830 
29,440 
27, 290 


1,325 
1,295 
735 
668 
200 
158 
170 


St. Croix 


19, 455 
18, 990 
9,100 
3,240 
2,390 


110 


Kennebec 


Housatonic... 


99 


Connecticut 


Lake Cham plain 


49 


Androscoggin 


Quinegaug. 


17 


St. John 


Machias 


12 


Saco 


Total ..- 




864, 990 




Merrimack 


4,830 









Source: Power Investigating Committee of Associated Industries of Massachusetts. 

WATER-POWER SOURCES ADJACENT TO NEW ENGLAND 

In addition to the undeveloped water-power soufces within the 
New England States the region is situated not far from other 
abundant potential sources that merit consideration. 



114 INDUSTRIAL STKUCTUUK OF NEW ENGLAND 

Situated at the eastern extremity of Maine, on the international 
boundary of New Brunswick, is the Passamaquoddy Bay power 
project. This contemplates the development of between 500,000 and 
1,000,000 horsepower, at a cost of installation from $75,000,000 to 
$100,000,000. The plan of this project is to develop power by the 
creation of reservoirs and pools for impounding the high tides that 
rush into this area twice daily from the Bay of Fundy. The con- 
struction of massive dams and locks will harness the flow of water 
arising from the difference in water levels by directing its force 
against turbines installed in power stations at this site. 

On the St. Lawrence River, located between Ogdensburg, N. Y., 
and Montreal, are three important water-power areas, all within a 
radius of 250 miles from central Massachusetts. It is estimated that 
these could develop about 5,000,000 horsepower, which would be 
capable of delivering from 20,000,000,000 to 25,000,000,000 kilowatt- 
hours annually. The development of these sites will depend upon 
international agreements and upon negotiations for the projected 
canalization of the St. Lawrence River for deep-sea navigation. 

Somewhat more distant than this area is the power field of the 
Ottawa, St. Maurice, and Saguenay and St. Francis Rivers, in the 
Province of Quebec, which are estimated to be capable of a continu- 
ous output of about 2,500,000 horsepower. About 700,000 horse- 
power is now developed and construction is under way to make avail- 
able about 600,000 more. A considerable portion of this power is 
used in the pulp and paper industry in Quebec. All this field is 
within 450 miles of the center of power demand in eastern Massachu- 
setts, and about one-fourth of it is within a radius of 300 miles. 
The engineers who made the power report offered the opinion that 
importation of Canadian power might become feasible, even in spite 
of expected efficiencies and decreased labor costs of future steam 
stations at tidewater sites in New England. 



NEW ENGLAND FUEL SUPPLY 

Note. — The section on fuel was prepared with the cooperation of tlir Bureau of Mines. 

The fuel question is one of major importance in New England, 
both to its industries and to its householders. The region must de- 
pend entirely upon outside sources for fuel, with the exception of 
wood, for no mineral fuels — neither coal, natural gas, nor oil — are 
produced commercially anywhere in New England. (See p. 58.) 
With its large consumption of fuel, both for industries and for house- 
hold use, the transportation of necessary supplies becomes a factor 
of very great importance. Shipments of coal and oil into New Eng- 
land comprise a major portion of the total volume of freight traffic 
into this section. Fuel is thus the principal item in creating the 
great excess of inward-moving freight over outward shipments. It 
is therefore the principal factor in the problem of heavy one-way 
movement, with the resulting burden upon transportation equipment. 

New England's chief dependence for fuel is upon anthracite and 
bituminous coal from Pennsylvania and West Virginia, but large 
volumes of petroleum and petroleum products, brought in by tanker 
from California, the Gulf Coast, and foreign ports, are consumed. 
Coke, briquets, and other forms of solid fuel are used to a limited 
extent, in addition to manufactured gas. In recent years the con- 
sumption of petroleum as fuel has been of increasing importance, 
largely in consequence of the shortage and resultant high prices of 
coal. In years of special shortage of coal considerable quantities of 
anthracite and bituminous have also been imported, chiefly from the 
British Isles. 

COAL CONSUMPTION 

New England consumes approximately 30,000,000 tons of anthra- 
cite and bituminous coal yearly. The 6-year average from 1921 to 
1926. inclusive, was 30,077,000 tons, varying from a minimum of 
25,278,000 tons in 1922 to nearly 36,000,000 tons the following year. 
The total receipts of domestic coal in 1928, according to the Massa- 
chusetts Special Commission on the Necessaries of Life, were 
29,028,000 net tons; in 1926 they were 31,679,000 tons. 

Approximately two-thirds of the total receipts is bituminous coal, 
and one-third is anthracite. In 1928 the reported receipts of bitumi- 
nous were 19,652,000 tons and of anthracite 9,376,000 tons. The fig- 
ures for 1926 were 21,067,000 tons and 10,612,000 tons, respectively. 
The 6-year average from 1921 through 1926 for bituminous was 
20,156,000 tons, and that for anthracite was 9,921,000 tons. The 
greater proportion of the anthracite, probably 90 per cent of the 
total, is for household consumption. The greater proportion of the 
bituminous coal, however, is consumed by New England manufactur- 
ing plants and by public-utility companies for the production of 
power consumed in the industries. 

115 



116 



INDUSTRIAL STRUCTURE OF NEW ENGLAND 



A test made by the United States Fuel Administration, covering a 
6-month period in 1918-19, showed that of the total rail shipments of 
bituminous coal in that period approximately 60 per cent were con- 
signed directly to the industries, 19 per cent went to retail coal deal- 




BA5ED ON DATA FROM U 5 BUREAU OF MINES 



~~ulTBUfi EJU OF FOREIGN AN D DOMESTIC COMMERCE 0387-46 

Figure 10 



ers, 10 per ceni to public-utility companies, and 5 per cent to public 
instil ut ion-. This covered only rail shipments, and it is probable 
that a greater proportion of the water shipments went to manufactur- 
ers, since manufacturing activities predominate in the tidewater 
service areas. 



NEW ENGLAND FUEL SUPPLY 



117 



The total coal consumed by all New England manufacturing estab- 
lishments in 1923, as reported in the census for that year (the latesi 
for which complete data are available by States), was 11,402,000 
tons, distributed among the six States as follows : 

Coal Consumed by New England Manufacturing Establishments in 1928 

[In thousands of tons] 



State 


Bituminous 


Anthracite 


Total 


Massachusetts 


5,307 

2,279 

1,141 

827 

505 

269 


500 
198 
61 
32 
250 
33 


5,807 
2,477 
1,202 


Connecticut _ .. .. 


Maine - - 


Rhode Island . . _ , 


859 


New Hampshire 


756 


Vermont 


301 






Total 


10, 328 


1,074 


11,402 







A ton of coal was consumed, on the average, for every $561 in value 
of manufactured products. The value of products represented by 
1 ton of coal in 1923 varied, in different lines, from $48 in gas 
manufacture and $155 in paper manufacturing to $3,159 in the boot 
and shoe industry. In the metal industries the value of products 
per ton of coal averaged $611. These figures do not take account of 
coal consumed in generating the electric current purchased by manu- 
facturers from public-utility plants. 

The relative coal consumption in the individual counties of New 
England is indicated by dots on the map (fig. 10), which shows the 
tonnage consumed by manufacturers and public utilities in 1919. 
Although this. tonnage is for a period of postwar activity, it repre- 
sents fairly accurately the relative importance of different portions of 
New England as consumers of bituminous coal. The counties of 
greatest consumption are naturally those having the greatest concen- 
tration of large coal-consuming industries. A large proportion of 
this consumption is seen to lie in areas near tidewater. 

The annual receipts in New England of anthracite and bituminous 
coal from 1916 to 1928, as compiled by the Massachusetts Special 
Commission on the Necessaries of Life, are shown in the following 
table. 

New England Receipts of Anthracite and Bituminous Coal, 1916-1928 





Thousands of tons 


Year 


Thousands of tons 


Year 


Anthracite 


Bitumi- 
nous 


Total 


Anthracite 


Bitumi- 
nous 


Total 


1916 


10, 715 
11, 680 
13, 621 

10, 578 

11, 255 
11, 374 

6,471 


24, 122 
23,504 
27, 171 
18, 182 
22, 434 
17,188 
18, 807 


34, 837 
35, 184 
40, 792 
28, 760 
33, 689 
28,562 
25, 278 


1923 


12, 184 
10,611 
8,280 
10, 612 
9,146 
9,376 


23, 684 
18, 877 
21,313 
21, 071 
22, 426 
19, 652 


35, 868 


1917 


1924.... 


29, 488 


1918 


1925 


29, 593 


1919 


1926 


31, 679 


1920 


1927 


31, 572 


1921 


1928. 


29, 028 


1922 











61232°— 30 9 



118 INDUSTRIAL STRUCTURE OF NEW ENGLAND 

The total receipts show considerable fluctuation from year to year, 
largely because of strikes and coal shortages in the producing regions. 
Accumulation of coal stocks within New England in anticipation of 
strikes has prevented any great inconvenience to manufacturers. 
New England can conveniently store upward of 4,000,000 tons of coal. 
This accounts, in large measure, for the fluctuations in annual re- 
ceipts. While no great change is shown in the general trend of 
total shipments, there has been a pronounced falling off in anthra- 
cite in recent years. In 1922 the receipts of anthracite were only a 
little more than half those of 1921. In 1925 receipts of anthracite 
were less than in either 1924 or 1926 by more than 2,000,000 tons. 
In bituminous there was a notable falling off in 1921, in 1922, and 
again in 1924. 

BITUMINOUS COAL 

SOURCES 

New England draws its supply of bituminous coal from two main 
producing fields, designated for convenience as the northern area and 
the southern area. There has been a pronounced change to the 
southern area in recent years. The northern area comprises the fields 
of Pennsylvania, northern West Virginia, and western Maryland, 
while the southern area includes the mines of southern West Virginia 
and adjacent districts in the western part of Virginia and in eastern 
Kentucky. Th$se two producing sections were almost equally divided 
in the tonnage of coal shipped to New England in 1926, the southern 
area exceeding the northern by the slight amount of 18,000 tons in a 
total of nearly 21,000,000 tons. The major portion of the coal 
shipped from the northern area to New England moves by all-rail 
routes, while practically all of that from the southern fields moves 
by a combination of rail and tidewater routes. 

The most important district in the northern area is that compris- 
ing the Clearfield and adjacent mines of central Pennsylvania, which 
contributed slightly over one-third of all New England's bituminous 
supply, and over two-thirds of that from the northern fields. More 
than four-fifths of the coal moving to New England by all-rail 
routes was from the central Pennsylvania region. Other districts 
in the northern area that shipped considerable quantities of coal, all 
rail, to New England in 1926 were the Greensburg, Westmoreland, 
and Connellsville districts, which shipped over 750,000 tons, and the 
Pittsburgh, Panhandle, and Westmoreland districts, which shipped 
about the same amount. A small quantity of the coal from these 
northern fields moved by rail to the ports of Philadelphia and New 
York, and thence by tidewater to New England. Northern West 
Virginia and western Maryland, which contributed something over 5 
per cent of the entire bituminous movement in 1926, send their coal 
chiefly by rail to the port of Baltimore, and thence by tidewater to 
New England. 

Coal shipped to New England from the southern area comes 
chiefly from the Pocahontas, New River, and Kanawha fields of 
southern West Virginia. Their distances irom New England are 



SOURCES and MOVEMENT 
BITUMINOUS COAL 



INTO 

NEW ENGLAND 
1926 




NORTHERN FIELDS 
I . Central Pennsylvania 

(Clear field and. adjacent fields) 
S. Northern W.Virginia (Fairmont and adjacent fields) 

3. Connellsvllle 

4. Westmoreland 

5. Greonsbura, 

6. Pittsburgh .Youghiogheny and Panhandle 

7. Northern Pennsylvania 

8. Cumberland and Piedmont 
■9. Somerset and Meyersdale 

SOUTHERN FIELDS 

10. Pocahontas 

1 1 . New River and Winding Golf 

12. Kanawha 

1 5. Thacker, Kenova and Logan 
14,. Tug River and Southwestern Vi'rgi 

MOVEMENT 
''■' ' ' To Rail Gateways 
■'•■'•■ • To Water Gateways 
< 1 Tidewater 



NEW EN GLAND SURVEY 

U. S. DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE 

Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce 

Domestic Commerce Division 



61232°— 30. (Face p. 118.) 



NI'.W ENGLAND FUEL SUPPLY 



119 



too great to admit of all-rail shipments in competition with the 
northern fields ; hence practically all the shipments to New England 
from this southern section are by rail to tidewater at Hampton Roads 
and thence by vessel to New England ports. The movement from the 
southern fields, comprising more than half the total bituminous ship- 
ments to New England, makes up more than four-fifths of the total 
movement by tidewater. The remainder, amounting to less than 
one-fifth of all shipments by tidewater, moves from the nprthern 
field through the ports of Baltimore, New York, and Philadelphia. 
The southern movement by tidewater in 1926 amounted to upward 
of 10,500,000 tons, moving through Hampton Roads, while that mov- 
ing through the ports from the northern field was less than 2,500,000 
tons. 

The following table shows the total bituminous movement to New 
England from 1916 to 1928 and the amount by tidewater and by all- 
rail routes, as reported to the United States Bureau of Mines, 
together with averages for the eight years frpm 1921 to 1928 and 
for the five years from 1916 to 1920. Since 1921 the tidewater move- 
ment has averaged better than 62 per cent of the total, while for 
the five years previous it was 53.5 per cent of the total movement. In 
1920 it was only 46 per cent, while in 1927 it was nearly 68 per cent, 
and was upward of 60 per cent in every year but one since 1921. 

Total Movement of Bituminous Coal to New England by Tidewater and 
by All-Rail Routes, 1910-1928 

[In thousands of short tons] 



Year 



Total 



By tidewater route 



Quantity 



Per cent 
of total 



By all-rail routes 



Quantity 



Per cent 
of total 



1928 

1927_. 

1926 

1925__ 

1924 

1923 

1922 

1921 

8-year average, 1921-1928. 

1920 

1919 

1918 

1917 

1916 

5-year average, 1916-1920. 



19, 651 
22, 426 

20, 994 

21, 220 

18, 473 
23,008 

16, 704 

17, 233 

19, 964 

22, 663 

18, 040 
27, 171 

23, 504 
24, 122 

23,100 



13, 176 
15, 194 

12, 949 

13, 463 
11, 488 
13, 374 
10, 892 



12, 435 

10, 456 
8,385 
16, 058 
12, 692 
14, 193 

12, 357 



67.1 
67.8 
61.7 
63.5 
62.2 
58.1 
65.2 
51.4 

62.2 

46.1 
46.5 
59.1 
54.0 
58.8 

53.5 



6,473 
7,232 
8,045 
7,756 
6,985 
9,634 
5,812 
8,374 

7,539 

12, 207 
9,655 
11, 114 
10, 811 
9,929 

10, 743 



32.9 
32.2 
38.3 
36.5 
37.8 
41.9 
34.8 
48.6 

37.8 

53.9 
53.5 
40.9 
46.0 
41.2 

46.5 



MOVEMENT FROM NORTHERN FIELD 



Upward of three-quarters of the total bituminous movement into 
New England from the northern field in 1926 moved by all-rail routes, 
passing through four principal rail gateways at the Hudson River 
crossings. Over 35 per cent of the total rail movement passed through 
Maybrook, N. Y., destined mainly for points on the New Haven 



120 



INDUSTRIAL STRUCTURE OF NEW ENGLAND 



Railroad system. About 19 per cent moved through the junction 
point at Harlem River. Nearly 55 per cent of the total all-rail move- 
ment thus passed through these gateways into southern New Eng- 
land, 25 per cent passed through Albany, N. Y., and about 20 per- 
cent through Mechanicville and Troy, destined for New England 
points served by the Boston & Albany Railroad and the Boston & 
Maine. This includes a small movement through Rouses Point. 
The gateways at the exit of the Mohawk Valley thus account for 45 
per cent of the total all-rail movement of bituminous coal into New 
England. 

The importance of these rail routes and of the tidewater routes in 
shipments from the northern field into New England is shown for 
1926 in the following table. 



Routes of Bituminous Coal from Northern Field into New England, 1926 



Route 


Tons 


Per cent of 
all-rail or 
tidewater 


Per cent of 

total 
northern 


Per cent of 
total north- 
ern and 
southern 


All-rail: 

Maybrook . 


2, 853, 485 
2, 040, 961 
1, 604, 130 
1, 546, 207 


35.5 
25.4 
19.9 
19.2 


27.2 
19.5 
15.3 
14.7 


13.6 


Albany . _ - 


9.7 


Mechanicville and Troy . .. - - 


7.6 


Harlem .. 


7.4 






Total all-rail 


8, 044, 783 


100.0 


76.7 


38.3 






Tidewater: 

Baltimore . 


977. 472 
972, 945 
492, 667 


7.5 
7.5 
3.8 


9.3 
9.3 
4.7 


4.7 




4.6 


Philadelphia - - - - 


2.3 






Total tidewater . _ - 


2, 443, 084 

10, 487, 867 


18.8 
100.0 


23.3 
100.0 


11.6 


Total rail and tidewater - -_ 


49.9 







Source : Massachusetts Special Commission on Necessaries of Life for figures on 
rail " and Bureau of Mines for " Tidewater." 



'All- 



The general location of the coal fields which supply New England 
and the routes taken by coal shipments by rail and water, together 
with the proportions of the total movements that go by each of the 
indicated routes, are shown in Figure 11. A general summary of all 
the bituminous coal shipments to New England, showing the volume 
and the percentage from the different fields, classified by rail and 
by tidewater, is given in the following table. 



NEW ENGLAND FUEL SUPPLY 



121 



Summary of All Bituminous Shipments to New England in 1926, by Sources 

and Routes 





Total rail and tide- 
water shipments 


Total rail shipments 1 


Total tidewater 
shipments 


Field and route 


Tons 


Per 

cent, 
of all 
ship- 
ments 


Per 

cent 

of 

ship- 
ments 
from 
field 


Tons 


Per 

cent 
of all 

rail 
ship- 
ments 


Per 

cent 
of 

total 
rail 
and 

water 


Tons 


lYr 
cent 

of all 
tide- 
water 


Per 

cent 
of all 
ship- 
ments 


NORTHERN FIELDS 

Central Pennsylvania (Clearfield 
and adjacent fields) 


7, 170, 050 
1, 085, 447 

765,290 

754, 883 
303, 288 

286, 733 
122, 176 


34.1 
5.2 

3.6 

3.6 
1.4 

1.4 
.6 


68.4 
10.3 

7.3 

7.2 
2.9 

2.7 
1.2 


6, 516, 274 
94, 929 

620, 253 

405, 457 
303, 288 

104, 582 


81.0 
1.2 

7.7 

5.0 


31.0 

.5 

2.9 
1Q 


653, 776 
990, 518 

145, 037 

349, 426 


5.0 

7.7 

1.1 

2.7 


3 1 


Northern West Virginia 


4 7 


Qreensbur?, Westmoreland, and 
Connellsville 

Pittsburgh, Youghiogheny, and 
Panhandle. 


.7 
1 6 


Northern Pennsylvania. 


3. 8 1. 5 

1. 3 .5 




Cumberland, Piedmont, Myers- 
dale, and Somerset . 


182, 151 
122, 176 


1.4 
.9 


9 


Other fields 


.6 










Total northern __ 


10, 487, 867 


49.9 

39.7 
7.3 
2.9 


100.0 

79.4 
14.0 

5.9 


8, 044, 783 


100.0 


38.3 


2, 443, 084 

8, 336, 819 

1, 542, 065 

626, 971 


18.9 

64.4 
11.9 

4.8 


11.6 






SOUTHERN FIELDS 

Pocahontas and New River 


8, 336, 819 

1, 542, 065 

626, 971 


39.7 


Kanawha ... _. 








7.3 


Other fields . 








2.9 










Total southern 


10, 505, 855 


50.0 


100.0 






10, 505. 855 


81.1 


50.1 






... 






Grand total „__ __ ._ 


20, 993, 722 


100.0 




8, 044, 783 






12. 948, 939 


100.0 













1 In 1926, on account of the anthracite miners' strike, a considerable tonnage moved 
into New England all-rail from the southern fields ; since then they have supplied no 
all-rail shipments of coal. 

AREAS SERVED BY DIFFERENT FIELDS 

Competition between the tidewater coal from the southern field 
on the one hand, and the coal from the northern field moving either 
by all-rail routes or through the ports of New York, Philadelphia, 
and Baltimore, and thence by water, is determined by the relative 
costs of transportation and by the quality of coal desired by con- 
sumers. Transportation from the southern field involves movement 
by rail from the mines to Hampton Roads, and thence by barge or 
steamer to New England ports. The tidewater movement from the 
northern field involves, similarly, rail transportation from the mines 
to the ports of New York, Philadelphia, or Baltimore, and thence 
by barge to the port of destination. 

Cost of transportation therefore includes railroad freight from 
the mine to the shipping port, the water rate to the port of arrival, 
cost of unloading barges, and freight charges from the port to the 
interior point of consumption. The distance to whiph tidewater coal 
can be shipped inland from the port of arrival in competition with 
all-rail movement varies with the relation between the through all- 
rail rate from the mine and the local rail rate inland from the port. 
Variation in the costs of coal at the mine resulting from labor costs, 
as well as the variation in cost of transportation from the respective 



122 INDUSTRIAL STRUCTURE OF NEW ENGLAND 

northern and southern fields, prevents a definite fixing of limits to 
the territory served by each. 

The requirements of consumers also are variable for the different 
kinds of fuel furnished by different fields. New England manu- 
facturers prefer coal of low volatility for steam purposes as well 
as for domestic consumption, while the more highly volatile coal 
is generally used for gas manufacture and by the railroads. Coal 
that moves by tidewater is considerably broken up by the extra 
handling incident to loading and unloading in vessels, whereas coal 
shipped by all-rail routes is much less broken. While some con- 
sumers prefer the smokeless coal from West Virginia and others 
have a decided preference for Pennsylvania coal, the choice of many 
is governed only by the relative price and service offered. The 
higher grades of coal from the Pennsylvania field enter into keen 
competition with coal from the southern West Virginia field in the 
principal fuel-consuming sections of New England where one source 
does not have advantage in transportation cost over the other. 

In general, the market for tidewater coal extends along the New 
England coast to include the port cities and reaches inward to points 
where the cost of transportation inward from the New England 
port offsets the advantage of the water route over the all-rail route. 
This usually extends from 15 to 40 miles from the port, although tide- 
water shipments are made into the interior as far as Worcester and 
Springfield. 

The tidewater coal from the southern field enters into competition 
with the all-rail coal from the northern field, principally in the 
industrial regions extending along the coast eastward from New 
London, Conn., reaching back into the interior 25 to 40 miles. West 
of New London the consuming region bordering on Long Island 
Sound and along the Connecticut River obtains its coal chiefly by 
tidewater from the northern field, transported in shallow barges 
from the New York Harbor piers. East of New London the coast 
is served both by vessels from the southern field moving by way of 
Hampton Roads and by barges from the northern field moving by 
way of Baltimore and Philadelphia. 

In recent years coal from the southern fields has penetrated farther 
into the interior. This is due not only to the high qualities of the 
coal from the southern mines but to the greater regularity and de- 
pendability of supply in consequence of labor difficulties in the 
northern mines. The southern operators have made special efforts 
to render service to their New England customers, and as a result 
shipments from the southern field have increased while those from 
the northern field, by rail and by tidewater, have declined. 

The State of Connecticut gets practically all its coal supplies from 
the northern field, since the southern coal can not compete with that 
from Pennsylvania. Most of the State receives its coal by the all- 
rail route. New Haven is the only commercial port in Connecticut 
with facilities for deep-water steamers, and water-borne coal for all 
oilier Connecticut ports goes by barge, even to the larger ports of 
Hartford, Bridgeport, Norwalk, and New London. Very little 
bituminous coal is now shipped from New York harbor to points 
beyond Bridgeport and New Haven. 



NEW ENGLAND FUEL SUPPLY 



123 



In Rhode Island most of the supplies come from the southern field, 
although some consumers, even close to tidewater, use all-rail coal 
from Pennsylvania. In some years large amounts of Welsh anthra- 
cite have been brought into Rhode Island for household uses. 

The southern and eastern parts of Massachusetts get the major 
portion of their supply by tidewater from the southern field, and a 
considerable amount from the northern field by tidewater from Bal- 
timore and Philadelphia. The interior and western parts, of the 
State depend upon all-rail coal from the northern field. 

In Vermont and in the interior of New Hampshire, coal from the 
northern field dominates the situation entirely, since the southern 
field can not compete there with the all-rail shipments. In Maine, 
however, coal from the southern field can be brought in at tidewater 
rates that are lower than those by all-rail routes from the northern 
field. The principal consumption is in the southern section of the 
State ; only a negligible portion goes to eastern and northern Maine. 
The total coal consumption of the State does not exceed 2,000,000 
tons a year, and one-third of this is high volatile coal for railroad and 
gas purposes, which comes from the northern field. 

TRANSPORTATION RATES 

Freight rates by all-rail routes to New England are based on those 
from the Clearfield district. This is the principal rail source for 
New England's bituminous supply. It is nearer to New England 
than any other portion of the northern region and has a lower rate 
than any other field. The Greensburg district, averaging 47 miles 
farther than Clearfield, adds 10 cents a ton to the Clearfield rate, 
while both the Westmoreland and the Pittsburgh district, still far- 
ther distant, take an additional 40 cents a ton over the Clearfield rate. 
The following table shows the rail distances from the Clearfield dis- 
trict of Pennsylvania to representative consuming points in New 
England, with the rates now in force. 

Rail Distances and Rates from Clearfield District 



Destination 


Distance 
in miles 


Rate per 
ton 


Destination 


Distance 
in miles 


Rate per 
ton 


Boston, Mass __ _. 


563 
487 
581 
551 
536 


$4.22 
4.07 
4.83 
4.45 
4.20 


New Haven, Conn.. 


424 
452 
646 
617 
658 


$3.59 


Springfield, Mass 


New Britain, Conn 


4.07 


Lowell, Mass__ 


Bellows Falls, Vt 


4.60 


Framingham, Mass. 


Manchester, N. H 


4.95 


Providence, R. I_ 


Portland, Me 


4.85 









The northern carriers publish all-rail rates to all points in New 
England. These rates are much lower than any possible rates by all- 
rail routes from the southern district. This is shown in the follow- 
ing table by a comparison of the approximate all-rail distances to the 
New England gateways from the Clearfield district, in the northern 
region, and from the Pocahontas district, in the southern region. 



124 INDUSTRIAL STRUCTURE OF NEW ENGLAND 

Rail Distances to New England Gateways 



Gateway 


From 

Clearfield 

district 


From 

Pocahontas 

district 


Albany, N. Y 


Miles 
381 
386 
326 
656 
340 


Miles 

746 


Mechanicville, N. V ' . . _ . 


752 


May brook, N. Y . ___ _ * . 


612 


Portland, Me _ ".,..,„.,..,.,. . 


933 


Greenville, N. J J. . . ._ - 


604 







The carriers publish also transshipment rates from the northern 
field to tidewater at Philadelphia and Baltimore on coal moving to 
New England by water craft destined to points east of New London, 
as well as tidewater transshipment rates to New York Harbor in- 
tended to take care of New York Harbor deliveries and deliveries at 
Long Island Sound. 

For coal moving from the southern field by way of Hampton 
Eoads the southern carriers publish tidewater rates to deep-water 
piers in New England. The base- rate from mines in the southern 
area to tidewater is $2.52 a gross ton; the steamer freight rate from 
Hampton Roads to New England ports in recent years has ranged 
from 75 cents to $1 a ton on large tonnage. Added to this is a 
charge of 35 to 60 cents a ton for discharging vessels into cars, and a 
weighing charge of 1 to 3 cents additional. The average distances 
of transportation to tidewater ports from the southern coal districts, 
in comparison with distances from the northern district to tidewater, 
are as follows. 

Miles 

From southern fields base-rate area to Hampton Roads 416 

From Clearfield to port of — 

New York 350 

Philadelphia 305 

Baltimore 249 

MARKETING 

The marketing of coal to industrial users in New England does 
not vary greatly from that in other sections of the country. The 
larger coal operators have their representatives in Boston and other 
important cities making contracts with the large manufacturers for 
direct shipment from mines to the manufacturers' plants, either by 
all-rail or by rail-and-water routes. The representatives of the 
southern operators confine their activities to regions near the coast, in 
which tidewater coal can meet the competition from the northern 
field. 

Most of the coal from the southern field is transported to New Eng- 
land in large steamers or barges to ports which have modern facilities 
for discharging and considerable storage capacity. The principal 
deep-water ports served by the southern field are Providence, Fall 
River. New Bedford, Boston, Salem, Portsmouth, Portland, Bath, 
and Bangor. Some of the larger shippers from the southern field 
own or control their wharves and docks, and some of these docks are 
owned by wholesale or retail dealers. The smaller industrial con- 



NEW ENGLAND FUEL SUPPLY 125 

sumers buy their coal from local wholesale dealers, who in turn pur- 
chase their supplies through the operators' agents. 

The elements of cost entering into the price to the consumer on all- 
rail shipments are base cost at the mine, plus freight charges from the 
mine to the manufacturer. For tidewater shipments the factors are 
freight charges from mine to tidewater port, water rates to landing 
port, unloading charge, and rail freight from port to plant: The 
latter item is sometimes eliminated by consumers who truck direct 
from landing port to their plant, this being practiced in some in- 
stances as far as 30 miles from the port. 

ANTHRACITE AND OTHER HOUSEHOLD FUELS 

ANTHRACITE 

New England householders depend chiefly upon anthracite coal 
for domestic fuel. More anthracite is consumed per capita than 
in any other section of the country. This fuel embodies the advan- 
tages of cleanliness, little smoke, and easy control. New England 
householders show pronounced preference for it, and use other coal 
only when anthracite can not be obtained. In consequence of the 
high price and restricted supply of anthracite in recent years, how- 
ever, consumers have turned more and more to the higher grades of 
bituminous coal, to coke, briquets, and, to a lesser extent, to gas, fuel 
oils, and electricity. 

Receipts of anthracite in New England exceeded 10,500,000 net 
tons in 1926, comprising approximately one-third of the total coal 
receipts for that year. The 6-year average from 1921 to 1926 was 
9,921,000 net tons. For the five years prior to 1921 the annual aver- 
age was 11,570,000 tons. It is thus apparent that New England con- 
sumers in recent years have had to resort in considerable measure to 
other fuels. The production of anthracite in the past 15 years has 
not kept pace with the increase in the anthracite-consuming popula- 
tion, and consequently it has been necessary to depend upon other 
sources of household fuel. 

On the basis of actual heat value, at current price anthracite coal 
is a much less economical fuel than bituminous. The high cost, the 
high slate and ash content of anthracite, and its slow response to 
change in drafts, are counterbalanced in bituminous by considerably 
lower cost, competitive sources of supply, quick responses to changes 
of drafts, lower percentage of inert matter, and high heat content. 
The dirt and smoke of bituminous coal and the closer attention re- 
quired in burning it prevent its more general household use. Also, 
the mechanical construction of boilers and heaters, with their small 
flues, sometimes gives difficulty in burning bituminous coal. Conse- 
quently much educational effort has been necessary to bring New 
England consumers to change from the use of anthracite. In the last 
few years, however, the domestic consumption of bituminous coal has 
been very materially increased. It was estimated that during the 
coal year 1926-27, about 600,000 tons of coal of low volatility were 
sold in Massachusetts for heating apartments and other dwellings. 
Most of this coal was' run-of-mine sizes, but the smaller consumers 
made use of the prepared sizes. A large additional tonnage of 
bituminous was used for heating offices and other large buildings. 



126 INDUSTRIAL STRUCTURE OF NEW ENGLAND 

All the anthracite coal comes from the hard-coal regions of eastern 
Pennsylvania. Approximately two-thirds of the shipments are by 
all-rail routes, and about one-third is by tidewater by way of the 
ports of Philadelphia and New York. On account of strikes there 
has been pronounced fluctuation in the annual shipments to New 
England. In 1922 the total was less than 6,500,000 tons, and in 1925 
it was somewhat above 8,250,000 tons. 

COKE 

Coke is becoming increasingly important as a domestic fuel in New 
England. Its consumption for household uses in Massachusetts 
alone during the coal year 1926-27 was estimated at 475,000 tons, as 
compared with 270,000 tons in 1924r-25. Most of the coke sold in 
New England is supplied by local by-product and coal-gas plants. 
Its price per ton is ordinarily below that for anthracite, and by using 
coke in conjunction with the lower-priced steam sizes of anthracite a 
good fuel is obtained at lower cost. The frequent attention required 
by a coke fire, and the bulkiness which makes coke somewhat difficult 
to handle, are offset by advantages of cleanliness, quick response to 
change of drafts, and a fairly high heat value. The manufacture 
and marketing of coke suitable for domestic purposes has in recent 
years received increased attention. 

FUEL OIL 

Fuel oil has the advantage of convenience and high heat value 
besides requiring little attention and small space for storage. Its 
disadvantages are relatively high cost and the necessity of special 
storage equipment and of special burning mechanism. Various types 
of fuel-oil burners have been placed on the market in the last few 
years. The amount of fuel oil used for heating buildings in 1926 
was 3,150,000 barrels, comprising about 15 per cent of the total 
quantity distributed in New England. Most of this, however, was 
used in commercial heating, and only a small fraction for the heat- 
ing of homes. The total consumption for heating purposes in 1926 
was more than double that of 1925, when the total for heating 
buildings was 1,311,000 barrels, exclusive of furnace oils and the 
lighter distillates. 

In the past few years of coal shortage there was heavy consumption 
of crude oil as fuel by manufacturing plants and by public-utility 
power companies in various parts of New England. Since no crude 
oil is produced in New England, the entire supply for this section 
comes from other domestic and foreign sources, and is brought in 
by tankers from California, the Gulf coast, or foreign ports. From 
the crude oil are manufactured the usual proportions of gasoline, 
kerosene lubricating oil, gas oil, and fuel oil. 

The total distribution of fuel and gas oils in the six New England 
States in 1925, as compiled by the United States Bureau of Mines, 
was 251.048.000 barrels of 42 gallons each. Of this amount about 60 
per cent, comprising 13,604,000 barrels, was brought in during that 
year by tanker from other- refining districts; the remaining 40 per 
rent, amounting to 8,042,000 barrels, was produced in New England 
refineries. The principal refineries are in metropolitan Boston, 
Providence, and Fall River. 



NEW ENGLAND FUEL SUPPLY 127 

The consumption of fuel oil in New England was reported to have 
increased from 101,500,000 gallons in 1918, which was equivalent to 
615,000 net tons of coal, to 674,271,000 gallons in 1922, equivalent 
to 4,086,000 net tons of coal. No figures are available as to the 
amount which was used for heating alone. 

GAS AND ELECTRICITY t 

Improvement in the methods of producing and using gas and elec- 
tricity has brought about a great increase in their consumption for 
fuel. Total sales of gas in Massachusetts increased from about 16,- 
000.000,000 cubic feet in 1923 to about 25,000,000,000 cubic feet in 
1925. In the same period the consumption of electricity increased 
from 338,000,000 to about 2,500,000,000 kilowatt-hours. It was esti- 
mated that in 1926, 1,000 homes in Massachusetts were being heated 
by gas fuel. Since gas for illuminating purposes has been largely 
superseded by electricity, the gas companies are turning to the domes- 
tic and industrial fields for a market. 

WOOD 

Wood is commonly used for heating and cooking purposes in the 
wooded rural sections of New England, where it is produced locally. 
Most of the farm homes of northern New England use wood for 
household fuel. In the urban communities it is used only as kindling 
or as a supplementary fuel in fireplaces. 

IMPORTATIONS OF FUEL 

New England has imported from other countries in some years 
considerable quantities of coal — both anthracite and bituminous — and 
coke. The principal volume of imports has consisted of anthracite, 
largely from Wales. This amounted in 1926 to 386,000 tons, valued 
at $3,250,000. Imports of coke in 1926 were about 85,000 tons, valued 
at upward of $500,000. Imports of bituminous coal have been slight 
since 1923. During that year and the preceding year nearly 3,000,000 
tons were imported into New England, most of it coming in free of 
duty. Since 1923 the highest imports of bituminous in any one year 
were 62,000 tons in 1926. Recently there has been a considerable 
importation of briquets, mainly from Germany, the value in 1926 
approaching $500,000. 

NEAR-BY SOURCES OF FUEL 

In eastern Nova Scotia there are abundant supplies of bituminous 
coal accessible to tidewater and within easy shipping distance from 
New England ports. The relatively high cost of mining this coal 
under present conditions, in comparison with that in the United 
States fields, and its lower quality in comparison with that of Penn- 
sylvania or West Virginia, have prevented the recent importation 
of fuel from this near-by source to any important extent. 

In southeastern Massachusetts and Rhode Island there is an area 
of approximately 500 square miles known as the Narragansett Coal 
Basin, which is underlain with thin veins of a graphitic form of an- 



128 INDUSTRIAL STRUCTURE OF NEW ENGLAND 

thracite coal. The area is approximately equal to that of the 
anthracite coal beds of Pennsylvania, but the veins are of varying 
thickness and they occur at widely variable depths, cropping out to 
the surface in a few places. On account of the high ash content of 
this coal and the expense entailed in mining the narrow and irregular 
veins in which it occurs, this Narragansett coal has not yet proved 
to be of commercial importance, although it has been mined and used 
locally at a few places. 

The great advance in the cost of coal in the last few decades, in 
consequence of high transportation costs and increased mining ex- 
penses in the present fields of supply, has directed attention recently 
to the possibilities of this Narrangansett Coal Basin. Some author- 
ities believe this may become a commercially important source of 
fuel for New England, so that the large annual payments to other 
sections of the country may be cut down. Proposals have been made 
to use these deposits industrially by subjecting the coal to special 
treatment at the mines and using it there for power development. In 
addition to the uncertainty of such an outcome and the high capital 
outlay involved, the development of these sources is handicapped by 
the absence of special mining legislation and by the large number 
of title holders to small-surface areas. 



Part III.— THE PEOPLE OF NEW ENGLAND 

New England has a higher proportion of city dwellers than any 
other major geographical section of the country. It has the great- 
est percentage of foreign born and people of foreign stock. Other 
characteristic features are presented here which portray the relation- 
ship of the New England population to the industrial life of the 
region. 

The plan is first to show the distribution of the present population 
in the different sections and communities. An analysis is then pre- 
sented of the make-up of the New England population, with particu- 
lar consideration of the various foreign racial elements. Brief con- 
sideration is given also to a comparison of age and sex groupings 
within New England. Finally, the trend of growth in the New 
England population is considered as a whole and in respect to dif- 
ferent sections within the area. 

NUMBER AND DISTRIBUTION 

It is difficult to give an accurate picture of the present population 
of New England, on the eve of the Federal Census of 1930, since 
reliance must be placed upon statistics of 1920. The reader should 
bear in mind that various population changes have taken place in 
New England within this interval. 

The estimated population of the six New England States, as of 
July 1, 1927, was somewhat in excess of 8,100,000. According to 
the census of 1920 the population in that year was 7,400,909, com- 
prising 7 per cent of the population of continental United States. 
At that time New England, which has only 2.1 per cent of the land 
area of the country, contained almost as many people as there were 
in the million square miles between Denver and the Pacific coast. 
The following table gives the population of the States of New Eng- 
land as of 1920, together with estimates for 1925 and 1927, including 
figures from the 1925 State census of Massachusetts and of Rhode 
Island. 

Population of Individual States of New England 



*- 

State 


1920 1 


1925 


1927 2 


Connecticut __. . _ 


1, 380, 631 
768, 014 
443, 083 

3, 852, 356 
604,397 
352, 428 


2 1, 572, 000 

2 787, 000 

2 452, 000 

3 4, 144, 959 

3 679, 260 
2 352, 428 


1, 636, 000 


Maine 


793,000 


New Hampshire.. - 


455,000 


Massachusetts 


4, 242, 000 


Rhode Island 


704,000 


Vermont . _. 


352, 428 






Total 


7, 400, 909 


7,987,647 


8, 182, 428 







1 United States census of 1920. 

2 Estimate, Bureau of Census, for July 1. 

3 State census. 



129 



130 



INDUSTRIAL STRUCTURE OF NEW ENGLAND 



RELATIVE DENSITY 



New England as a unit is one of the most densely populated regions 
of the United States. In 1920, with a density of 119.4 persons per 
square mile, this region was three and one-third times as densely 



DENSITY of POPULATION 

IN 

NEW ENGLAND COUNTIES )* 




NEW ENGLAND 'SURVEY 

U. S. DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE 

Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce 

Domestic Commerce Division 



Figrure 12 



populated as the United States as a whole, and the 1927 estimate 
increases the figure to L32 persons per square mile. To distribute the 
inhabitant of tfeew State- in a<ronIan<:e, with the average density 



THE PEOPU-: OF XF.W KNCI.AXD 131 

prevailing outside Now England would require an area comparable 
with that of Texas, or half again as large as the State of California. 

Within New England, however, there are pronounced contrasts in 
the density of different areas. The contrast between the three north- 
ern States and the three southern States is much greater than that 
between New England as a whole and the rest of the United States. 
The character of New England population is dominated b\ the three 
States of the south, which account for nearly four-fifths of the total. 
Northern New England, with nearly four-fifths of the total area, has 
only a little more than one-fifth of the people of the entire group. In 
the northern group of States the average density in 1920 was only 33 
persons per square mile, but in the southern group it was 41 ( .) per 
square mile. These contrasts reflect the great differences in urbaniza- 
tion and in industrial concentration. 

Practically four-fifths of the total population of New England in 
1920 was classified as urban, in comparison with slightly more than 
one-half for the entire United States. The density of different sec- 
tions is mainly a reflection of the number and size of cities which 
they contain. 

In point of density of population New Hampshire ranks twenty- 
first, Vermont twenty-seventh, and Maine thirty-first among the 
States of the Union. On the other hand, Rhode Island and Massa- 
chusetts, in southern New England, hold first and second places, 
respectively, and Connecticut fourth place. 

URBAN AND RURAL AREAS 

Nearly one-third of the total New England population in 1920 was 
in 11 cities of 100,000 population or more. More than half of the 
total was in 46 cities of 25,000 and above. 

Of the population classified as rural, which includes all those living 
outside towns or incorporated places of 2,500 and above, nearly three- 
fifths in 1920 was located in Maine, New Hampshire, and Vermont. 
The population actually living on farms in New England was only 
8.5 per cent of the total population for the region. This was the 
lowest for any geographical division except the Middle Atlantic 
States. The farm population in Maine, New Hampshire, and Ver- 
mont, however, comprised about one-fourth of the total in these 
States. In southern New England the farm population constituted 
only one-twentieth of the total. 

New England contained, in 1920, 11 of the 68 cities of the United 
States having 100,000 or more inhabitants, and also 11 of the 76 
cities with population between 50,000 and 100,000. Of the 22 New 
England cities then exceeding 50,000 in population, all but 2 were in 
southern New England. A summary of the distribution of popula- 
tion in cities, towns, and rural territory is shown for each State in 
the following table. 



132 INDUSTRIAL STRUCTURE OF NEW ENGLAND 

Urban and Rural Population in New England States in 1920 





Total 
number 
in New 
Eng- 
land 


Maine 


New Hampshire 


Vermont 


Type of area 


Places 


Per cent 
of State 
popula- 
tion 


Places 


Per cent 
of State 
popula- 
tion 


Places 


Per cent 
of State 
popula- 
tion 


Urban... _ 


292 


25 


39.0 


27 


63.1 


14 


31 2 






Cities of 100,000 and above 


11 
11 
24 
68 
85 
93 














Cities of 50,000 to 100,000 


1 
2 
5 
11 
6 


9.0 
7.5 
10.1 
9.9 
2.5 


1 
1 
6 
6 
13 


17.7 
6.4 

19.6 
9.9 
9.5 






Cities of 25,000 to 50,000 






Cities of 10,000 to 25,000 


3 
6 
5 


13 5 


Cities of 5,000 to 10,000 


11 8 


Towns of 2,500 to 5,000 


5 8 






Rural _. 






61.0 




36.9 




68.8 




498 






Places of less than 2,500. 


19 


2.5 
58.5 


209 


36.7 
.2 


62 


14 8 


Other rural ._ _ 


54 












Massachusetts 


Rhode Island 


Connecticut 


Type of area 


Places 


Per cent 
of State 
popula- 
tion 


Places 


Per cent 
of State 
popula- 
tion 


Places 


Per cent 
of State 
popula- 
tion 


Urban. _ . .. . 


169 


94.8 


27 


97.5 


30 


67.8 






Cities of 100,000 and above 


7 
6 
14 
39 
47 
56 


39.5 
12.1 
14.6 
15.4 
8.3 
4.8 


1 
1 
3 
6 
8 
8 


39.3 
10.6 
17.1 
15.9 
10.1 
4.4 


3 

2 
4 
9 

7 
5 


32.2 


Cities of 50,000 to 100,000 


10.9 


Cities of 25,000 to 50,000 


8.6 


Cities of 10,000 to 25,000 


11.0 


Cities of 5,000 to 10,000. 


3.9 


Towns of 2,500 to 5,000... . 


1.2 






Rural 




5.2 




2.5 




32.2 








Places of less than 2,500 


185 


5.2 


12 


2.5 


11 


.8 


Other rural. __ 


31.4 


1 






1 





MOVEMENTS AND MIGRATIONS 

In 1870 17.3 per cent of the people born in New England were 
living in other parts of the country ; in 1920 the proportion was 11 
per cent. At the same time the percentage of native Americans com- 
ing to New England from other geographic divisions increased from 
4 per cent to 8 per cent. In the decade ended with 1870 New England 
suffered a net loss from migrations totaling 454,311 ; for 1920 the net 
loss was 170,855. The important factor has been the migration into 
New England of persons born elsewhere in the United States, since 
there are now more natives of New England living outside than ever 
before. The number of natives of other sections living in New 
England has trebled since 1870. 

Id 1870 in the percentage of its native born who were living in 
other sections of the country New England was surpassed only by 
the Middle and South Atlantic and the East South Central States. 
In L920 the New England percentage was lower than that of any 
other sections except the West South Central and the Pacific Coast 
State . 



THE PEOPLE OF NEW ENGLAND 



133 



It may be concluded, therefore, that native New Englanders of the 
present day exhibit less tendency to seek homes elsewhere than do the 
natives of other sections of the United States. 

MOVEMENTS WITHIN NEW ENGLAND 

The increased facility of movement a Horded by modern means of 
transportation and by economic opportunity would argue for con- 
siderable shifts of population from northern to southern New Eng- 
land. A phenomenon particularly noticeable throughout the Nation 
since the World War has been the rapid drift of rural population to 
the larger centers. Since most of the industrial centers of New 
England are in the southern portion, it would be logical to assume 
that there was an increasing drain from the north to the south. 
Figures indicate, however, that up to 1920 there had been no material 
shift in the balance of migrations between northern and southern 
New England, as is shown by the following table. 

Migrations Within New England 



Groups 


1880 


1900 


1920 


Natives of southern New England living in northern New England 

Natives of northern New England living in southern New England 


43,049 
163, 325 


56, 376 
223, 496 


79, 277 
239, 862 



It is especially noteworthy that the proportion of persons born 
in New Hampshire and living in other New England States is nearly 
three times as great as that of natives of that State living in other 
sections of the United States. In 1920 there were 69,052 natives 
of New Hampshire living in Massachusetts alone, which comprised 
more than half of the total emigration from New Hampshire to other 
States. In Maine and Khode Island, also, there were more persons 
migrating to other States of New England than to sections outside 
New England, and about half of these in each case went to Massachu- 
setts. The figures for Vermont, Massachusetts, and Connecticut do 
not present a significant picture, since many persons from these three 
States bordering on New York migrate to that State. In fact, more 
natives of Massachusetts and Connecticut migrate to New York than 
to any other State. Of the natives leaving Vermont, one-third 
migrate to Massachusetts and most of the others go to New York 
State. The next table gives the proportions of each State's native- 
born population living in the State of birth, in other States of New 
England, and outside New England. 

Residence of Natives of New England in 1920 
f Percentages of native born of each State] 



Group 


Maine 


New 
Samp- 
shire 


Vermont 


Massa- 
chusetts 


Rhode 
Island 


Connecti- 
cut 


Living in State of birth 


74.1 
15.5 

10.4 


65.6 
25.5 

8.9 


61.6 
20.0 

18.4 


84.1 
6.1 

9.8 


77.8 
12.9 

9.3 


80.2 


Living in other States of New England — 
Living in United States outside New 
England 


6.6 
13.2 







61232°— 30- 



-10 



134 INDUSTRIAL STRUCTURE OF NEW ENGLAND 

FOREIGN STOCK 

New England has a higher proportion of foreign-born in its 
population than any other geographic section of the country. In 
actual numbers it was surpassed in 1920 only by the Middle Atlantic 
and the East North Central division. The foreign-born element of 
the New England population is relatively twice as great as that of 
the United States as a whole. The proportion of foreign born in 
New England was 25.5 per cent, and for the entire United States 13.2 
per cent. With only 7 per cent of the Nation's population, New 
England has 13.5 per cent of its foreign born. 

In regard to the country of birth New England differs to an im- 
portant degree from other sections of the country. In New England 
a quarter of the foreign born are Canadians, one-half of them being 
of French blood. Their proportion in this section is six times that of 
the country as a whole. 

Next to the French Canadians, the most important foreign stock 
is the Irish ; this nationality represents one-seventh of all the foreign 
born and comprises nearly twice as great a proportion in New 
England as in the country as a whole. 

Italians constitute one-eighth of the foreign born in New England, 
a proportion which is only slightly greater than that for the Nation 
as a whole. The Polish immigrants in New England are approxi- 
mately half as numerous as those of Irish birth. 

English and Scotch immigrants represent a slightly higher pro- 
portion than the Polish, and the proportion of Russians likewise is 
somewhat greater. The proportion of English and Scotch in New 
England is slightly higher than that for the whole country ; the pro- 
portion of Poles is about the same, and that of Russians is somewhat 
lower. Besides these principal racial stocks in New England, there 
are other minor groups which are important in certain localities. 
The greater part of the foreign-born population is made up of six 
nationalities — Canadian, Irish, Italian, English, Russian, and Polish. 

The foreign born represent more than 28 per cent of the popula- 
tion in the three southern States of New England. In the three 
northern States the proportion is considerably less, representing only 
15.6 per cent. The contrast in these two main areas runs parallel to 
the existence of industrial centers, in which most of the foreign born 
live. They are concentrated to the greatest degree in the large manu- 
facturing districts. This is shown by the percentages of foreign born 
in the leading cities. Over 40 per cent of the population of Law- 
rence and of New Bedford in 1920 were born outside the United 
States. From 35 to 40 per cent of the population of Fall River, of 
New Britain, of Woonsocket, and of Manchester, were foreign born. 
Hie cities with a foreign-born population of 30 to 35 per cent include 
Boston, Cambridge, Lowell, Holyoke, Bridgeport, Waterbury, Stam- 
ford, Pawtucket, Nashua, and Lewiston. In Lawrence the foreign 
born, with the inclusion of the native stock born of foreign parents, 
comprised 78.1 per cent of the population. They made up from 70 to 
75 per cent of the population in Fall River, Holyoke, New Bedford, 
New Britain, and Woonsocket. 



THE PEOPLE OF NEW ENGLAND 



135 



FOREIGN BORN, BY STATES 



The following table shows the percentages of foreign born in each 
of the New England States in 1900 and in 1920. The second table 
shows the distribution of foreign born, according* to their country 
of birth. 

Regions of Birth of Foreign Born in New England States, 1900 and 1920 



State or area 



United States: 

1920 

1900 

New England: 

1920 

1900 

Maine: 

1920 

1900 

New Hampshire 

1920___ 

1900 

Vermont: 

1920 

1900 

Massachusetts: 

1920 

1900 

Rhode Island: 

1920 

1900 

Connecticut: 

1920 

1900 



Percentages of total foreign born 



Europe 



Total 



85.4 
85.8 



70.5 
63.4 



29.6 
27.4 



41.3 
32.7 



43.1 
42.1 



70.1 
63.9 



74.3 
69.5 



91.1 

87.8 



North- 
western 



27.5 
40.6 



30.4 

45.4 



16.1 
22.4 



19.4 
26.7 



20.9 
32.4 



33.1 
47.6 



37.0 
53.5 



27.6 
51.6 



Central 

and 
eastern 



44.1 
40.0 



23.3 
12.4 



9.2 
3.5 



13.6 
4.9 



11.1 
4.7 



21.4 
11.1 



13.0 
7.3 



41.1 
27.9 



Southern 



13.7 
5.1 



16.8 
5.6 



4.3 
1.5 



8.4 
1.2 



11.1 
5.1 



15.6 
5.2 



24.4 



23.1 
8.4 



Asia 



1.7 
1.2 



1.6 
.5 



1.0 
.2 



1.8 
.6 

2.1 



1.0 

.4 



The 
Americas 



12.4 
12.7 



26.1 
35.6 



69.4 
72.0 



57.5 
67.0 



56.1 

57.4 



25.4 
34.8 



21.2 
29.4 



11.7 



All other 



0.5 
.3 



Principal Foreign Stock in New England States in 1920, by Country of 

Birth 





New England 


Distribution 1 of New England total, by 

States 


Country of birth 


Number 


Per 

cent of 

United 

States 

total 


Per cent of New 
England 


Maine 


New Hampshire 




Total 
popula- 
tion 


Foreign 
born 


Number 


Per cent 


Number 


Per cent 


Canada 


476, 256 


42.7 


6.4 


25.3 


74, 420 


15.6 


52, 312 


11.0 






French 


240, 385 
235, 871 


78.1 
28.9 


3.2 
3.2 


12.8 
12.5 


35, 580 
38, 840 




38, 277 
14,035 




Other 






Ireland 


267, 429 

238, 508 

147, 371 

147, 320 

131, 378 

67, 286 

51, 129 

47, 501 

40, 302 

35, 361 

32, 186 

23, 081 

19,543 

15, 187 

146, 107 


25.8 
14.8 
10.5 
18.1 
11.5 
10.8 

3.0 
18.7 
57.6 
26.2 
18.3 

4.0 
13.0 

3.8 

5.4 


3.6 
3.2 
2.0 
2.0 
1.8 
.9 
.7 
.7 
.5 
.5 
.4 
.3 
.3 
.2 
2.0 


14.2 
12.7 
7.8 
7.8 
7.0 
3.6 
2. 7 
2.5 
2.1 
1.9 
1.7 
1.2 
1.0 
.8 
7.7 


5,748 
2,797 
3,763 
5,153 
1,717 
2,026 

932 
2,171 

153 
1,032 
1,228 

305 

1, 393 

72 

4,904 


2.1 

1.2 
2.6 
3.4 
1.3 
3.0 
1.8 
4.6 

.4 
2.9 
3.8 
1.3 
7.1 

.5 
3.4 


7,908 
2,074 
3,467 
4,368 
3, 997 
1,886 
1,714 
1,823 

142 
1,017 
5,280 

389 

1,558 

66 

3,396 


3.0 


Italy- 


.9 


Russia.. 


2.4 


England 


3.0 


Poland 


3.0 


Sweden.. 


2.8 


Germany 


3.4 


Scotland _. 


3.8 


Portugal _ . 


.4 


Lithuania. 


2.9 


Greece _._ 


16.4 


Austria 


1.7 


Finland 


8.0 


Hungary . 


.4 


All other 


2.3 






Total 


1, 885, 945 


13.5 


25.5 


100.0 


107, 814 


5.7 


91, 397 


4.8 







1 Total southern New England (243,769)=12.9 per cent of New England total; total northern New Eng- 
land (1,642, 176)=87,1 per cent of New England total. 



136 INDUSTRIAL STRUCTURE OF NEW ENGLAND 

Principal Foreign Stock in New England States in 1920, etc. — Contd. 







Distribution of New England total, by States 




Country of birth 


Vermont 


Massachusetts 


Rhode Island 


Connecticut 




Number 


Per cent 


Number 


Per cent 


Number 


Per cent 


Number 


Per cent 


Canada 


24, 885 


5.2 


263, 478 


55.3 


. 36,482 


7.7 


24,679 


5 2 






French.. ... 


14, 181 
10,704 




108, 691 
154, 787 




28, 887 
7,595 




14, 769 
9,910 




Other 


















Ireland 


2,884 

4,067 

1,333 

2,197 

1,726 

1,123 

630 

1,854 

29 

67 

167 

283 

476 

264 

2,573 


1.1 
1.7 
.9 
1.5 
1.3 
1.7 
1.2 
3.9 
.1 
.2 
.5 
1.2 
2.4 
1.8 
1.8 


183, 172 
117, 007 
92, 034 
87, 085 
69, 157 
38, 012 
22, 113 
28, 474 
29, 191 
20, 789 
20, 441 
8,098 
14, 570 
1,387 
93,540 


68.5 
49.1 
62.5 
59.1 
52.6 
56.5 
43.3 
59.9 
72.4 
58.8 
63.5 
35.1 
74.5 
9.1 
64.0 


22, 253 

32, 241 
8,055 

25, 791 

8,158 

6,542 

3,126 

5,692 

8,999 

794 

1,219 

1,307 

320 

176 

14, 034 


8.3 
13.5 

11 

6.2 
9.7 
6.1 
12.0 
22.3 
2.2 
3.8 
5.7 
1.6 
1.2 
9.6 


45, 464 
80,322 
38, 719 
22, 726 
46,623 
17, 697 
22, 614 
7,487 
1,788 

11, 662 
3,851 

12, 699 
1,226 

13,222 
27, 640 


17.0 


Italy 


33.6 


Russia 


26.3 


England 


15.4 


Poland. 


35.5 


Sweden 


26.3 


Germany . 


44.2 


Scotland. . 


15.8 


Portugal 


4.4 


Lithuania- 


33.0 


Greece.. 


12.0 


Austria 


55.0 


Finland .. . ... 


6.3 


Hungary 


87.1 


All other . 


18.9 






Total 


44, 558 


2.4 


1, 088, 548 


57.7 


175, 189 


9.3 


378, 439 


20.1 







It should be borne in mind that the figures given above include only 
those born in other countries. Since their offspring becomes classified 
as native born, the proportion of native to foreign parentage is bound 
to increase, and the actual foreign-born population increases only by 
new arrivals. The actual numbers and proportions of the New Eng- 
land population that are made up of these various immigrant stocks 
are, therefore, much greater than the figures indicate. 

CONCENTRATION OF FOREIGN BORN 

Most of the foreign population of New England is concentrated 
in the industrial centers, where the people find employment in the 
mills and factories. The first large-scale immigration consisted of 
French families from Canada to provide labor for the textile mills. 
In most of the mill towns there are French communities of consid- 
erable size. These are particularly conspicuous in the Blackstone 
Valley, in Fall River, and in New Bedford; in the mill towns of 
Lowell, Lawrence, Nashua, and Manchester; in the Merrimack Val- 
ley; in Biddeford, Augusta, Waterville, and Lewiston, along the 
Kennebec River, and also in other parts of Maine. Outside the textile 
areas the French are not so numerous. There are relatively few of 
that nationality in western Connecticut and western Massachusetts. 
There has been considerable infiltration into the agricultural sections 
of northern New England, particularly northern Vermont and New 
Hampshire. There is also a region in northern Maine along the St. 
John River which has been occupied for generations by French 
families whose ancestors settled there in colonial times. 

[talians are especially numerous in the cities of Connecticut and 
eastern Massachusetts. Polish communities exist in many of the 
industrial renters. There hre also a number of agricultural com- 



THE PEOPLE OF NEW ENGLAND 137 

munities, especially in the Connecticut River Valley, where Polish 
families are engaged in the growing of onions and tobacco. These, 
as well as the Italians, have engaged in truck gardening to a consider- 
able extent around many of the cities. 

Most of the Portuguese are located in the Cape district and Buz- 
zards Bay region of southeastern Massachusetts and Rhode Island, 
where many of the descendants of fishermen are now engaged in 
farming. The Swedes and the Finns are concentrated for the most 
part in a few agricultural communities of northern New England. 
Some of them live in the stone-quarrying districts. In and about 
Worcester there is a considerable concentration of Swedish stock, 
which is now well assimilated into the general population. Com- 
munities of Syrians, Greeks, and Armenians are located in the 
leather-manufacturing towns north of Boston. About the industrial 
centers of New England there are a great many mixed communities, 
with half a dozen or more racial stocks represented side by side. 

New England contains a smaller negro population than any other 
section of the country except the Mountain and Pacific States. It is 
scattered about the industrial regions, with some concentration in 
southeastern Massachusetts and in metropolitan Boston. 

CHANGES IN REGIONS OF ORIGIN 

Of the total foreign-born population of New England in 1920 there 
were 30.4 per cent born in northwestern Europe, principally Ireland, 
England, and Sweden. There were 26.1 per cent who were natives of 
the Americas, almost wholly of Canada. Southern Europe con- 
tributed 16.8 per cent, which came principally from Italy, Portugal, 
and Greece. Central Europe contributed 12.3 per cent, chiefly from 
Poland, Germany, and Austria. From eastern Europe came 10.9 per 
cent, mainly from Russia and Lithuania; Asia contributed 1.6 per 
cent, chiefly from Armenia and Syria; and 1.8 per cent were natives 
of other regions. 

It is noteworthy that from 1900 to 1920 the proportion of foreign- 
born population from northwestern Europe showed a decline from 
45.4 to 30.4 per cent ; from the Americas it likewise fell off from 35.6 
to 26.1 per cent. On the other hand, the proportion from central, 
eastern, and southern Europe increased from 18 per cent in 1900 to 
40.1 per cent in 1920. These changes, of course, run generally 
parallel to the changes for the United States as a whole, but they 
show greater variation in the case of New England. The changes in 
the individual States and in New England as a whole during this 
interval are indicated in the table on page 135. 

DISTRIBUTION OF FOREIGN POPULATION 

MASSACHUSETTS 

Massachusetts alone had nearly three-fifths of the total foreign- 
born population of New England in 1920. This State then contained 
the largest Canadian-born population of all the States of the United 
States, the second largest Irish, Scotch, and Greek; the third largest 
English, Lithuanian, and Finnish ; the fourth largest Italian, Russian, 
and Swedish; and the sixth largest Polish population. In Suffolk 
County there were more foreign-born inhabitants than in the three 
States of northern New England, and nine-tenths of these were iru 



138 



INDUSTRIAL STRUCTURE OF NEW ENGLAND 



Boston. That county contained approximately 60,000 Irish, 50,000 
Russians, 44,000 Canadians other than French, and 42,000 Italians. 
There were about 15,000 English born. In Chelsea there were some 
17,000 foreign-born inhabitants, of whom nearly one-half were 



FOREIGN BORN- POPULATION JL 

OF 

NEW ENGLAND COUNTIES 




NEW E NGLAND SURVEY 

U. S. DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE 

Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce 

Domestic Commerce Division 



Figure 13 



Russians. About three-fifths of the foreign-born population of 
R$vere consists of Italians and Russians. 

In Middlesex County, with over 200,000 foreign-born inhabitants, 
Cambridge and Lowell each had between 32,000 and 40,000 foreign 



THE PEOPLE OF NEW ENGLAND 139 

born ; Maiden and Somerville had from 14,000 to 25,000 ; and Everett, 
Newton, and Medford had from 8,000 to 12,000. In Lowell there 
were more than 10,000 French Canadians, about 7,500 Irish, and 
nearly 4,000 each of Greeks, English, and Canadians other than 
French. In Cambridge the Canadians and Irish exceeded 14,000; 
Greeks and Poles ranked next in number. In Somerville the order 
of the foreign population was Canadian, Irish, and Italian, these 
comprising two-thirds of the foreign total. 

In Essex County Canadians comprised about 30 per cent of the 
138,000 foreign born. Italians and Irish numbered from 15,000 to 
19,000; Russians, Poles, and English, from 9,000 to 13,000; and 
Scotch and Greeks, from 4,000 to 6,000. Of the 40,000 foreign born 
in Lawrence, Italians, Canadians, Irish, and English predominated, 
with populations between 4,000 and 9,000 each. In Lynn, with 
approximately 28,000 foreign born, Canadians predominated, and 
Irish and Russians followed. Salem and Haverhill each had between 
11,000 and 14,000 foreign born. Canadians, Irish, and Polish pre- 
dominated in the former city, and Canadians in the latter. 

In Worcester County, which had 125,000 foreign born, nearly a 
fourth consisted of Canadians. In this county Swedes, Italians, and 
Irish numbered from 10,000 to 18,000; and Lithuanians, Finns, 
English, and Poles, from 5,000 to 10,000. This county had the largest 
Swedish and Lithuanian populations in Massachusetts. In the city of 
Worcester there were over 53,000 foreign-born inhabitants, among 
whom the Irish, Canadian, and Swedish predominated. In Fitch- 
burg more than one-half of the 13,000 foreign born were Canadians 
and Finns. 

Bristol County, in southeast Massachusetts, had approximately 
120,000 foreign born, of which Canadians comprised 25.2 per cent, 
English 17.9 per cent, Atlantic islanders (Azores) 17.4 per cent, and 
Portuguese 13.5 per cent. Bristol County had more French Cana- 
dians than any other county in New England, and two-thirds of the 
Atlantic islanders of New England were in this county. There were 
also considerable numbers of Irish, Poles, and Russians. New Bed- 
ford, with a foreign-born population of 49,000, was surpassed in 
New England only by Boston, Providence, and Worcester. This 
foreign population was fairly evenly distributed among French 
Canadians, Atlantic islanders, English, and Portuguese. In Fall 
River, with a foreign-born population of 42,000, French Canadians 
predominated, with English, Atlantic islanders, and Portuguese next 
in importance. Fall River had the largest French-Canadian popula- 
tion of all Massachusetts cities, and New Bedford had the third 
largest. In number of the Atlantic islanders, New Bedford ranked 
first, Fall River second, and Taunton third. 

In Norfolk County, of eastern Massachusetts, with some 53,000 
foreign born, there were approximately 12,000 Canadians, a similar 
number of Irish, 7,000 Italians, and between 3,000 and 4,500 Swedes 
and English. 

In Plymouth County, which had approximately 35,000 foreign 
born, the city of Brockton contained one-half of the total. The 
principal racial groups in the county were Canadian, Irish, and 
Italian, with minor numbers of Lithuanians, Russians, English, and 
Swedes. 



140 INDUSTRIAL STRUCTURE OF NEW ENGLAND 

In Barnstable County, which includes most of the Cape Cod re- 
gion, there were about 4,000 foreign born, in which the Portuguese 
were the most numerous. 

In western Massachusetts, Hampden County contained more than 
80,000 foreign born, and of this number Springfield had 38.3 per 
cent, Holyoke 24.7 per cent, and Chicopee 14.9 per cent, respectively. 
In Springfield the foreign born were divided among the Irish, 
Italians, Russians, and French Canadians. In Holyoke French 
Canadians and Irish were the outstanding foreign elements, with a 
considerable Polish population. In Chicopee Polish predominated, 
with French Canadian second. 

Hampshire County, including the city of Northampton, had some 
16,000 foreign born, distributed in order of number principally 
among the Polish, French Canadian, and Irish. 

Berkshire County, in western Massachusetts, had a foreign-born 
population of nearly 23,000, in which Italians, French Canadians, 
Irish, and Poles predominated. Pittsfield contained 36.1 per cent of 
the county total, and North Adams had 22.1 per cent. Italians and 
Irish prevailed in Pittsfield and French Canadians in North Adams. 

RHODE ISLAND 

Of the 173,500 foreign-born inhabitants of Rhode Island, the 
greater number were in Providence County. The predominant stock 
is Italian, followed in order by French Canadian, English, and Irish, 
with considerable numbers of Scotch, Portuguese, Swedish, Polish, 
and Russian stock. About half the total foreign born of Providence 
County are in the city of Providence. In Pawtucket, with a foreign- 
born population of 21,000, English comprised 27.5 per cent, Cana- 
dians 21.8 per cent, and Irish 13 per cent. In the neighboring town 
of Central Falls the French Canadians predominate. In Woon- 
socket, with a foreign-born population of 16,000, four-fifths of the 
total are French Canadians, and these represent the only sizable 
foreign element. 

CONNECTICUT 

The foreign born in Connecticut in 1920 numbered 376,513. The 
racial proportions were as follows: Italian, 21.2 per cent; Polish, 
12.3; Irish 12.1; Russian, 10.3; English and German, 6 per cent each. 
Four-fifths of the State total of foreign born were in the counties of 
New Haven, Hartford, and Fairfield. No one of the other five 
counties had as many as 4,000 of any one nationality except Litch- 
field County, with upward of 4,000 Italians, and Windham County, 
with upward of 5,000 French Canadians. 

Bridgeport, with more than 46,000 foreign born, had the largest 
foreign population among Connecticut cities, slightly surpassing New 
Haven. In the city of Hartford there were 40,000 foreign born, in 
Waterbury 29,000, in New Britain 21,000, and in Stamford 10,000. 
In Bridgeport, the predominant stocks, in order of numerical impor- 
tance, were Italian, Hungarian, Russian, Irish, and English. In 
the city of New Haven the order of predominance was Italian, Rus- 
sian, and Irish. In Hartford one-eighth of the total foreign born 
were Polish. In Waterbury the Italians were the most numerous. 



THE PEOPLE OF \K\V ENGLAND 



141 



In New Britain Poles and Italians predominated and formed one- 
half of the foreign population of that city. In Stamford the lead- 
ing foreign-born element was Italian. 

AGE, SEX, AND OCCUPATION 

AGE GROUPS 

In the distribution of population according to age, New England 
has a greater proportion of its people in the higher age groups 
than the United States as a whole. Thirty-nine per cent of New 
England's population in 1920 was 35 years of age or above, in com- 
parison with 34 per cent for the entire United States. The average 
age (median) in New England was 28 years, in comparison with 25.2 
years for the whole country. This section had a smaller percentage 
of its population in t^e groups below 25 years and a higher percentage 
in the groups above 45 years than any other geographical division 
except the Pacific. The proportion of inhabitants below 25 years of 
age was greater in southern New England, where the higher birth 
rate among the foreign population is an influential factor. 

The age distribution in urban areas of New England did not differ 
greatly from that for urban areas of the United States ; but in the 
rural areas of New England the proportion of inhabitants in the 
lower age groups was much smaller than in rural areas of the entire 
country. Among New England's rural inhabitants the proportion 
45 years of age and above w r as considerably greater than for the 
Nation as a whole. The following table gives comparative figures of 
the distribution of total population by age groups in 1920 for New 
England and the United States, and comparisons of the respective 
urban and rural populations. 

Comparison of Age Groups in New England and in Entire United States in 

1920 



Age group 


Percentage of 
total popula- 
tion 


Percentage of 
urban popula- 
tion 


Percentage of 
rural popula- 
tion 


United 
States 


New 
Eng- 
land 


United 
States 


New 
Eng- 
land 


United 

States 


New 
Eng- 
land 


Under 5 years _ _ . 


10.9 
20.8 
17.7 
29.6 
16.1 
4.7 
.1 

34 


10.2 
18.3 
16.3 
30.5 
18.7 
5.8 
.1 

39 


9.7 
17.9 

} 50.9 

} 21.3 
.2 


10.2 
18.1 

48.3 

23.4 
.1 


12.3 
23.9 

43.5 

20.2 
.1 


10.0 


5 to 14 years . 


19.0 


15 to 24 years _ 


41.7 


25 to 44 years 


45 to 64 years . _ J. 


29.2 


65 and over. 


Age unknown _ 


.1 


Proportion of population 35 years and above 













SEX DISTRIBUTION 



New England is unique among the geographical divisions in hav- 
ing in its total population a greater number of women and girls 
than of men and boys. This excess for the region as a whole arises, 
however, from a situation existing only in Massachusetts and Rhode 



142 INDUSTRIAL STRUCTURE OF NEW ENGLAND 

Island. In the urban populations, especially of the larger cities, 
women slightly outnumber the men. In the rural regions, on the 
other hand, the men materially outnumber the women. This situa- 
tion reflects the opportunities for gainful employment for women 
and girls in the cities, which draw them away from the farms and 
smaller centers. 

OCCUPATIONS 

M 

Fifty-four per cent of the New England population of 10 years 
and above was classified as engaged in gainful occupations, in com- 
parison with 50 per cent for the United States as a whole. In Maine 
and Vermont the proportion was lower than in the national average ; 
it ranged in the other States from 53 per cent in New Hampshire 
to 57 per cent in Rhode Island. 

Women represented a considerably higher proportion of the total 
number of persons gainfully employed both in southern and north- 
ern New England than in the country as a whole. In the southern 
area 28.1 per cent of all employees were women, and in the northern 
States they comprised 22 per cent. The corresponding figure for 
the entire country was 20.5 per cent. 

The manufacturing and mechanical industries in Connecticut, 
Rhode Island, Massachusetts, and New Hampshire engaged be- 
tween 50 and 60 per cent of all persons gainfully employed ; in Maine 
and Vermont the proportions were between 30 and 40 per cent. In 
northern New England 72 per cent of the male employees were en- 
gaged in the manufacturing and mechanical industries and in agri- 
culture, forestry, and animal husbandry. In Maine approximately 
25 per cent of all employees were engaged in agriculture, forestry, 
and animal husbandry; in New Hampshire, 16 per cent; and in 
Vermont, 32 per cent. 

Transportation and trade in, the three northern States engaged 
17 per cent of the male employees. In southern New England the 
manufacturing and mechanical industries, together with trade 
and transportation, included more than three-fourths of all male 
employees. 

TREND OF GROWTH 

Comparison of the rates of growth of native born and foreign 
born in New England and in the United States as a whole is afforded 
in Figure 14. Very different relations are shown in the comparisons. 
For the foreign born, New England has experienced about the same 
rate of increase as the country as a whole in each decade since 1850. 
In the rate of increase of the native population, however, there is a 
very considerable contrast. This results not so much from the high 
rate of growth among the foreign born as from a relatively low rate 
of increase in the native stock. 

CHANGES FROM 1850 TO 1920 

At the time of the census of 1850, which was the first to distinguish 
between native-born and foreign-born inhabitants, the population 
of New England was 88.8 per cent native, in comparison with 90.2 
per cent for the entire United States. The native stock of Maine 
&nd New Hampshire was far above the United States average, while 



THE PEOPLE OF NEW ENGLAND 



143 



that of Massachusetts and Rhode Island was considerably below the 
national figure. In the course of the next 70 years the native popu- 
lation of New England had little more than doubled, but during this 



MILLIONS 




— • 


100 
80 

60 
50 
40 

30 
20 

10 

8 

6 
5 
4 

3 
2 

1 
.8 

.6 
.5 
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• 
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NATIVE BORN 
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FOREIGN BORN 
UNITED STATES 


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1850 I860 1870 1880 1890 1900 1910 1920 

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Figure 14. — Growth of native-born and foreign-born population in New England and in 
the United States as a whole 

interval its foreign-born population increased sixfold. Native born 
in 1920 constituted only about 75 per cent of the total New England 
population. The change has been radical in each of the New Eng- 
land States except Vermont, and has been pronounced in Connecticut 



144 



INDUSTRIAL STRUCTURE OF NEW ENGLAND 



and New Hampshire, while Vermont has experienced even less 
change than the country as a whole. Figures of native population 
and of foreign born in 1850 and in 1920, for the New England States 
and the Nation as a whole, are shown in the next table. 



MILLIONS 




200 

100 
80 

60 
50 
40 

30 
20 

10 

6 

5 

4 

3 
2 

1 






























































































































































































































































































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Figure 15. — Trend in growth of population in New England compared with trend in 
the United States as a whole 

Native and Foreign-Born Population in the United States and in New 
England, 1850 and 1920 



J. 

State 


Native 


Foreign -born 


Native as per cent 
of total 




1850 


1920 


1850 


1920 


1850 


1920 


United States 


20,912,000 
2, 417, 000 


91, 789, 900 
5,515,000 


2, 244, 600 
306, 200 


13, 920, 700 
1, 886, 000 


90.2 
88.6 


86.8 


New England 


74.5 






Maine 


5.50,900 
303, 500 
280, (XX) 
827, 400 
123,600 
381,000 


M0, 200 

351,700 

307, 900 
2, 763, 800 

420, 200 
1,002,200 


31,800 
14,300 
33, 700 
164, (XX) 
23, 900 
38, 600 


107.8(H) 
01,400 
44, 600 
1,088, 000 
175,200 
378, 400 


94.5 
95.2 
89.2 
83.2 
83.7 
89.4 


86.0 


\ a w Ha ED pshire 


79.4 


Vermont - 


87.4 


etts 


71.7 


Rhode i land 


71 


( tannectlcat... 


72.6 







Source: U. S. Bureau of the Census. 



THE PEOPLE OP NEW ENGLAND 



145 



Since 1790 the population of New England has increased at the 
average rate of a half million per decade. At the time of the first 
Federal Census New England had 1,009,408 inhabitants. In the next 
60 years, ended in 1850, its population increased by 1,700,000. From 
1850 to 1890 there was an increase of nearly 2,000,000. The increase 
in the three decades from 1890 to 1920 averaged about 900,000 in 
each 10-year period. 

On account of the territorial expansion of the Nation southward 
and westward, the rate of increase of population in the country as a 
whole since the first Federal Census has been much greater than that 
for New England. Up to 1890, the Nation's rate of increase in nearly 



MILLIONS 


5 

4 

3 
2 

1 
.8 

.6 

.5 
.4 

.3 
.2 

.1 














































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1840 1850 ' I860 1870 1880 ' 1890 1900 ' 1910 ' 1920 1930 

(D-D-4228-46) 



Figure 16.. — Relative growth of population in individual States 

every decade was more than twice as great as the growth in New Eng- 
land. Since 1890, which marked the end of the period of great na- 
tional expansion and settlement, the Nation's rate of growth has come 
to be practically the same as that of New England. 

CONTRASTS WITHIN THE AREA 

A striking contrast has existed between the rate of growth of the 
three States of northern New England and that of Massachusetts, 
Rhode Island, and Connecticut. In northern New England, where 
manufacturing has never assumed importance, the rate of growth 
exceeded that of the Nation in most of the decades up to 1840. Since 
that time it has been continuously less. New Hampshire, the most 
highly industrialized State in this northern group, showed nearly a 
10 per cent increase in a single decade, but the other two States re- 



146 



INDUSTRIAL STRUCTURE OF NEW ENGLAND 



mained at practically the same level for several decades. This con- 
dition of rapid early growth in these northern States, followed by a 
slowing down in later years to less than the national rate, is char- 



CHANGE in POPULATION 
NEW ENGLAND COUNTIES (1/ 




U. S. DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE 
Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce 
Domestic Commerce Division 



Figure 17 



acteristic of sections in which agriculture and other extractive indus- 
tries are the major activities. 

In southern New England the rate of population increase since 
1840 has been approximately the same as that for continental United 
States. Id the period since 181)0 it has risen somewhat higher. The 



THE PEOPLE OF NEW ENGLAND 147 

growth of population in southern New England has run generally 
parallel to its industrial expansion. 

Contrast between the northern and the southern States in rate of 
growth may be seen in Figure 17, showing the percentage of change 
in individual counties from 1910 to 1920. During this interval 
every county in the three southern States showed an increase, 
with the exception of the nonindustrial Cape district of Massa- 
chusetts. There were 6 counties whose population increased more 
than 25 per cent, and 5 others in which the increase exceeded 15 per 
cent. In the 40 counties of northern New England, on the other 
hand, there were 18 whose population decreased, and there were 13 
others in which the increase was less than 5 per cent. The northern- 
most county of Maine increased 9.5 per cent as a result of the expan- 
sion of potato growing in that section ; and the northernmost county 
of New Hampshire showed an even greater increase — 17.4 per cent — a 
result of the establishment of paper mills in that section. With these 
exceptions, all the counties in the three northern States whose popula- 
tion increased more than 5 per cent in the decade from 1910 to 1920 
were located along the southern border of those States and within the 
industrial belt of New England. 



Part IV.— MANUFACTURES 
INTRODUCTORY 

The commerce of New England depends primarily upon the activi- 
ties of its mills and factories, and the concentration of manufacturing 
in this great industrial section gives it outstanding national impor- 
tance. New England industries provide great consuming markets 
for raw materials and industrial equipment. The products of these 
industries contribute in turn an important part of the goods that 
enter into the commerce of the Nation. An outstanding charac- 
teristic of New England economic life is the high proportion of its 
population whose incomes depend upon manufacturing. These 
incomes are expended, in large measure, to buy the products of other 
sections. An adequate commercial survey of New England requires, 
therefore, a broad knowledge of the manufacturing activities upon 
which its commercial life so largely rests. 

Because of the lack of native raw materials, New England industries 
provide great consuming markets for the raw or semifinished products 
of other sections of the country. This region contains the principal 
wool market of the United States. The Nation's leading hide and 
leather market is located in New England. A substantial part 
of the American cotton crop is consumed by its textile mills. The 
region is important as a consumer of the ferrous and nonferrous 
metals. 

A great portion of the food consumed by its industrial population is 
produced in other parts of the United States. New England also 
has to look to outside sources for its fuel supply. Its industries 
provide a great consuming market for coal to supply heat and power 
for its manufacturing processes. It consumes great quantities of 
petroleum products from outside sources. The extent of the depend- 
ence of New England upon sources outside its own borders for 
food, fuel, and raw materials for manufacture is indicated by the 
fact that the total tonnage of its inward shipments is about six times 
that of its outward shipments. 1 

As an offset for the great consuming market provided to the rest of 
the country for raw and partially finished products, New England 
factories and mills contribute a high proportion of the stock of many 
manufactured articles consumed in other sections. With only 7 
per cent of the Nation's population, the manufacturing activities of 
the New England States contribute 11 per cent in the national income 
derived from manufacturing. In a number of important lines New 
England contributes well over half the entire national production, 
ana there is a long list of articles in which its contribution far exceeds 
the share indicated by its population. 

i Bee Externa] Trade of New England, by It. J. McFall, Domestic Commerce Series No. 22. 

J IS 



MANUFACTURES 149 

The industrial maturity of this great manufacturing region is 
indicated by the highly fabricated nature of its manufactures. It is 
distinguished as a region of fine manufactures. Its products are 
turned out mainly in finished form ready for the ultimate consumer. 
These products are highly individualized articles rather than those 
which lend themselves readily to great mass production. 

Manufacturing is the keystone of New England's commercial 
structure. The prosperity of this region rests mainly upon the 
activity of its factories and mills. The first part of this section 
presents a summary of New England manufactures as a whole, giv- 
ing a view of the nature and extent of manufacturing activity, its 
trend of development, and its importance in different localities 
within New England. 

Considerable place, however, is given to a detailed consideration 
of individual lines of manufacture, discussed under the various 
major groups. The summaries of individual industries embody ex- 
periences of upward of 5,000 manufacturing plants, representing 
more than half the volume of all New England industries. The 
facts thus brought to light show how manufacturers have been deal- 
ing with conditions in the recent years of pronounced changes and 
adjustment. It is to be borne in mind that the rapid changes that 
have been taking place have resulted in substantial advances and 
improvements in many lines since these conditions were reported. 

COMMERCIAL SIGNIFICANCE 

The present treatment considers manufacturing activity as a source 
of income to the people of New England. The analysis is con- 
cerned mainly, therefore, with the contribution which the manufac- 
turing processes make to the region. For this purpose the gross 
value of products is not a satisfactory measure, because only a 
part of this value is actually created within the industry. A 
large part of it is contributed by the value of the materials used. 
Moreover, the cost of materials contains a great deal of duplication 
on account of repetition in the different stages of manufacture. For 
indicating the importance of the manufacturing processes as a source 
of income to the people of New England, therefore, the value added 
by manufacture is much more accurate. This is calculated by deduct- 
ing the cost of materials used from the value of the products. The 
value added by manufacture is used as the main basis of discussion 
throughout this analysis. 

The income of the people of New England from manufacturing 
activity in 1927 was approximately 11 per cent of the total national 
income from this source, the total value contributed by all its manu- 
facturing processes, outside of the cost of materials, approaching 
$3,000,000,000. This net income is to be distinguished from the gross 
value of all products of New England manufacture, including the 
cost of materials, which aggregated over $6,000,000,000 and com- 
prised 9.6 per cent of the gross value for the entire United States. 
The per capita income from manufacturing in New England, derived 
by dividing the total value added by the estimated population, was 
approximately $364, while for the rest of the country, outside this 
area, it was $223, a difference of $141 per capita in favor of New Eng- 

61232°— 30 11 



150 



INDUSTRIAL STRUCTURE OF NEW ENGLAND 



land. This indicates the outstanding importance of manufactures to 
the well-being of this section. 

The extent of the market provided by New England industries for 
goods purchased from outside sources or from within New England 
is shown in a rough way by the total cost of materials used in its 
manufactures. This market for materials amounted, in 1927, to 
$3,048,863,000, representing 9 per cent of the total United States 
outlay for manufacturing materials. This outlay includes the cost of 
purchased fuel, power, and supplies used in the various manufac- 
turing processes, in addition to the cost of raw or semifinished 
materials. 

The highly processed nature of New England manufacturing and 
its dependence on human labor are indicated by the high propor- 
tion of its wage earners and by the relationship of its wages to 
the United States total. The average number of workers on New 
England manufacturing pay rolls in 1927 was 13.2 per cent of the 
total number so employed throughout the United States, whereas 
New England's proportion of the total population was less than 7 
per cent. In other words, there were 13 wage earners employed in 
manufacturing in every 100 persons of the New England population, 
while for the Nation as a whole, outside New England, there were 
only about half this number (7 persons) so employed in each 100 of 
population. The contribution of this section to the livelihood of 
wage earners is also distinctly higher than its proportion in the na- 
tional manufacturing output. The total wage payments of New 
England manufactures, aggregating $1,328,650,000 in 1927, repre- 
sented 12.3 per cent of the total wages paid by all manufacturing in 
the United States, while its share in the gross value of manufactured 
products was only 9.6 per cent. 

The general relation of New England manufacturing activity in 
1927 to that of the entire United States is shown in the following 
table. This shows its relatively high share of wage earners and of 
wages paid, in proportion to the New England population, and its 
relatively low proportion in the total cost of materials. The value 
added by manufacture thus represents a considerably higher pro- 
portion of the national total than does the value of the product. In 
the number of establishments the New England proportion is about 
the same as its share represented by the gross value of its products 

New England Compared with Entire United States in Total Manufac- 
turing Activity in 1927 



Item 



New England 



Total, United 
States 



New Eng- 
land's per- 
centage 



Number of manufacturing establishments 

Number of wage earners.. 

Wages paid 

( ! ost of materials 

Value of products 

Value added by manufacture 

Population (estimate for July 1, 1927) 



17, 745 
1,098,748 
1 , 328, f)5(), (K)() 
3, 048, 863, 000 
0, 028, 475, 000 
2,979,(512, 000 
8, 182, 428 



191,866 
8, 353, 977 
10,848,803,000 
35, 133, 137, 000 
62,718,347,000 
27, 585, 210, 000 
118, 628, 000 



9.3 
13.2 
12.3 
8.7 
9.6 
10.8 



MANUFACTURES 



151 



WAGES AND PRODUCTION IN NEW ENGLAND 

The next table gives figures for the four geographic divisions of 
States which contain the greater part of the country's manufactur- 
ing — New England, the Middle Atlantic division (New York, New 
Jersey, and Pennsylvania), the east North Central division (Ohio, 
Indiana, Michigan, Illinois, Wisconsin), and the South Atlantic 
division (Delaware, Maryland, West Virginia, North Carolina, South 
Carolina, Georgia, Florida). 

The figures show, for each of these sections and for the entire 
United States, average wages per wage earner, average value added 
per wage earner, and average value of gross product per wage earner. 
These averages per wage earner are derived by dividing the figures for 
total wages, total value added by manufacture, and total value of 
product, respectively, in each geographic division, by the total number 
of wage earners for that division, as reported in the 1925 census. 
It is to be borne in mind that no allowance is made for possible differ- 
ences in the proportion of men and women employed in these different 
sections, nor for differences in the type of work performed. Neither 
are differences in regularity nor seasonality of employment consid- 
ered, such as might result from strikes or seasonal activity. It should 
be borne in mind also that these figures take account of a single year 
only, in which special conditions may have been significant in some 
sections. 

The average wage per wage earner shows the average compensa- 
tion which the individual worker receives for all manufacturing in a 
given region. The average value added per wage earner shows what 
the effort of the individual worker contributes to the income of the 
region. The average value of product per wage earner indicates the 
value of marketable goods which is turned out as a result of the 
wage earner's efforts. This includes, of course, the cost of material 
and the value which the wage earner adds to this material. 

The degree to which mechanical power enters into the manufacture 
of goods in the different manufacturing sections of the country is 
shown in the lower part of this table. The average value added per 
horsepower is derived by dividing total value added by all manufac- 
turing in the region by the total installed horsepower in that region. 
This shows the contribution made by power equipment to the manu- 
facturing income of the region. The average value of product per 
horsepower is derived by dividing the total gross value of all manu- 
factured goods by the total installed horsepower in the region. This 
shows the gross value of marketable product for each horsepower of 
installed equipment. 

Comparison of New England and Other Manufacturing Sections in 
Average Production and Wages per Wage Earner and in Production 
per Horsepower in 1925 



Annual average 


New 
England 


Middle 
Atlantic 
division 


East 
North 
Central 
division 


South 
Atlantic 
division 


Entire 
United 
States 


Average wages per wage earner __ 


$1, 194. 00 
2, 617. 00 
5, 491. 00 
675.00 
1, 417. 00 


$1, 379. 00 
3, 503. 00 
7, 792. 00 
863. 50 
1, 920. 50 


$1, 428. 00 
3, 526. 00 
8, 121. 00 
822.00 
1, 893. 50 


$902. 00 
2, 363. 00 
5, 405. 50 
574.00 
1,313.00 


$1, 280. 00 


Average value added per wage earner 


3, 194. 00 


Average value of product per wage earner ._. 


7, 480. 00 


Average value added per horsepower 


748.50 


Average value of product per horsepower ... 


1, 753. 00 







152 INDUSTRIAL STRUCTURE OF NEW ENGLAND 

TYPES OF MANUFACTURES 

The diversity of New England manufactures is greater than is 
generally appreciated. New England is associated in the popular 
mind largely with textiles. This viewpoint has been given emphasis 
for so long that the general public does not appreciate the fact that 
textiles comprise but slightly more than one-fourth of the total in- 
dustrial activity of the region, and that other manufactures outweigh 
the importance of textiles nearly 3 to 1. Again, the prosperity of 
New England has been regarded by many to hang upon the boot and 
shoe industry; yet all the leather industries, together with all the 
rubber manufactures of the region, comprise less than 12 per cent of 
the contribution made by all of New England's factories and mills. 
All leather and rubber manufactures have only a little over one-third 
the importance of all the metal industries and less than one-half the 
importance of textiles. 

It is a fact not generally recognized that the industries in which 
metals are the principal material are of more significance to New 
England, as a source of income, than all the textile manufactures. 
This includes the various kinds of machinery, iron and steel manu- 
factures, the nonferrous metals, and jewelry. These metal industries 
overshadowed textiles by nearly $138,000,000 in the value added by 
manufacture, and made up nearly 32 per cent of the New England 
total in 1925. The metal-using industries thus mean more to the 
region as a source of income than the industries depending upon any 
other kind of basic material. Indeed, the metal industries account 
for nearly one-third of the contribution of all New England manu- 
facturing. 

The industries included under metals, textiles, leather, and rubber 
comprise together about 71 per cent of the total New England income 
from manufacturing. The remaining manufactures of New England 
have a collective importance greater than that of textiles, comprising 
29 per cent of the New England total in comparison with 27 per cent 
for textiles. Paper and printing are of substantial importance, with 
approximately 10 per cent of the New England total. The manufac- 
ture of foodstuffs is of approximately equal importance to the 
chemical industries, these two groups together making up nearly 10 
per cent additional. 

The contribution by other industries not included in the groups 
heretofore mentioned comprises somewhat over 9 per cent of the New 
England total income from manufactures. In the remaining groups 
the principal ones are manufactures in which wood is the basic 
material, and stone products, with respective contributions of over 
3 and over 2 per cent. Miscellaneous products not included in 
any classified group make up a little over 3 per cent of the total. 
Manufactures of transportation equipment were slightly less than 2 
per cent. The remaining portion, amounting to somewhat less than 2 
per cent of all manufacturing, includes the products of railroad repair 
shops, the making of musical instruments, and tobacco manufactures. 

The relative importance of the major groups of manufactures, 
based upon the nature of the principal materials used, may be readily 
Been from the next table. In the last two columns the total contribu- 
tion of each to the New England income, as indicated in the value 



MANUFACTURES 153 

added by manufacture, is given in dollars and in percentage of the 
total. The other columns afford comparisons of number of estab- 
lishments, wage earners and wages paid, cost of materials, and total 
value of the output. These groups of manufactures are made for 
convenience in comparing different broad types of industry. Each 
group contains numerous lines of manufacture which are treated 
separately further on in this report. The relative importance of the 
broad groups is shown in Figure 18. 

The figures for the major groups of New England manufactures 
afford some exceedingly significant comparisons of the number of 
establishments, wage earners and wages, cost of materials, and output. 

The number of establishments in the metal industries greatly sur- 
passes the number engaged in textile manufacture. Establishments 
engaged in making foodstuffs also exceed the number in textile manu- 
facture and are not greatly below the number engaged in metal 
manufactures. 

The number of wage earners employed in the textile industries sur- 
passes considerably the number engaged in metal manufactures. 
These two groups, metals and textiles, together accounted for 65 per 
cent of all the wage earners employed in New England manufacturing. 
In the amount of money paid in wages textiles surpassed the metal 
industries by a relatively slight amount. Each of these groups con- 
tributed slightly less than one-third of the total wages paid in all 
New England manufactures. 

When cost of materials is considered there is a conspicuous con- 
trast between the metal industries and the textile group . The total for 
metals was only slightly more than half the total cost of materials for 
the textile industries ; yet the metal industries contributed considerably 
more to the New England income from manufacturing than did the 
textiles. The value added by manufacture in the metal industries 
was considerably greater than its cost of materials, the latter repre- 
senting about 42 per cent of the total product, while value added in 
the processes of manufacture was 58 per cent. With textiles the 
condition is reversed, the cost of materials being much greater than 
the value added by manufacture. Materials comprised about 60 per 
cent of the total value of the product, while the processes of manufac- 
ture contributed only 40 per cent. 

The industries in the paper and printing group show pronounced 
contrasts between proportions in the number of establishments, the 
number of wage earners, and the value of the output. There is a 
relatively high proportion in the number of establishments and a 
low proportion of wage earners, thus indicating the prevalence of 
small-size establishments in this line, and a relatively small number 
of w r age earners. The outlay for wages and the cost of materials were 
both low in proportion to the contribution which this group made to 
the total of New England industry. The paper and printing group 
represents two distinct forms of activity. Paper manufacture is pre- 
vailingly a large-scale operation, while printing establishments are 
relatively small. Hence these contrasts are concealed when the two 
are combined in a major group. 

In the manufacture of foodstuffs the number of establishments is a 
far greater proportion of the New England total than is the contribu- 



154 



INDUSTRIAL STRUCTURE OF NEW ENGLAND 



ALL METALS 
ALL TEXTILES 
LEATHER & RUBBER 
PAPER & PRINTING 
FOODSTUFFS 
CHEMICALS 
ALL OTHER 



v/yM/'///)^ 



a*^*p^ 



VALUE ADDE1D BY MANUFACTURE! - 1925 



MILLIONS OF DOLLARS 



100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 




NEW EN GLAND 3URVEY 



J_L 



Figure 18. — New England manufactures grouped according to nature of materials 





VAIUF APPFP FY MANUFACTURE. IQ?* 








PER CENT OF NEW ENGLANO TOTAL 






ALL NEW ENGLAND 
MANUFACTURES 

TEXTILES and Their Products 

MACHINERY 

BAPER, PRINTING, 

and Reloted Industries 

IRON AND STEEL Products 
LEATHER and Its Products 
NON-FERROUS METAL Products 


10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 












V/////////////////////////////. W////////////////////////. 








' 






W///MM/S///A 












V/AiW/A 












X*&'A 












rj»XX 






7w\ 


















FOOD and Kindred Products 


23 


NEW ENGLAND MANUFACTURES 

BY 








CHEMICALS and Allied Products 
RUBBER Products 39751 


23 


GROUPS OF INDUSTRIES 








22 










MISCELLANEOUS Mfrs. 3177. 


2 






LUMBER ond Allied Products 

JI4T. 


i 






STONC, Cloy, ond Glass P">du?*5 


a 






TRANSPORTATION Equipment^ 


2 






RAILROAD Repolr Shops .em 


i 






MUSICAL Instruments, etc. JMX 
TOBACCO Monufoctures JJ* 


j NEW ENGLANO SURVEY 
1 U.S. DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE 

BUREAU Of fOflflCN AM) DOMESTIC COMMERCE 
oortcsiic connCRCC division 











Figure 19 



MANUFACTURES 



155 



tion of this group to the total value added by manufacture. The 
proportions of wage earners and of wages were relatively low. In 
contrast, the cost of materials was relatively high. The contribution 
of foodstuffs to the total product of New England manufactures 
and to the income therefrom was thus considerably greater than its 
proportion of wage earners and wages. 

In the manufacture of chemicals the proportion of wage earners 
and of wages was also relatively low in the contribution which this 
group made to the New England income from manufacturing. The 
remaining industries not included in these designated groups made up 
a decidedly high proportion of the number of establishments, com- 
prising over 21 per cent of the New England total. But their con- 
tribution to the income from manufacturing, 9.3 per cent of the New 
England total, was relatively high in comparison with the cost of 
materials which they used. 

Importance of Major Groups of New England Manufactures 
[Ranked by nature of materials according to value added by manufacture in 1925] 





Nature of material 


Establishments 


Wage earners 


Total wages 


Rank 


Num- 
ber 


Per 
cent 


Average 
number 


Per 
cent 


Thou- 
sands of 
dollars 


Per 
cent 


1 


Metal and related industries 


3,662 
2,579 
1,464 
2,349 
3,498 
671 
3,950 


20.2 
14.2 

8.1 
12.9 
19.2 

3.7 
21.7 


317, 025 
412, 544 
139, 466 
79,838 
40,706 
26, 418 
106, 219 


28.2 
36.8 
12.4 
7.1 
3.6 
2.4 
9.5 


427, 183 
435, 736 
158, 767 
108, 003 
48, 297 
34, 221 
127, 102 


31.9 


2 


Textiles 


32.5 


3 


Leather and rubber.. 


11.8 


4 


Paper and printing 


8.1 


5 


Foodstuffs _ 


3.6 


6 


C hemicals 


2.6 




All other 


9.5 




Total New England 






18, 173 


100.0 


1, 122, 216 


100.0 


1, 339, 309 


100.0 









Rank 


Nature of material 


Cost of materials 


Value of products 


Value added by 
manufacture 


Thousands 
of dollars 


Per 

cent 


Thousands 
of dollars 


Per 

cent 


Thousands 
of dollars 


Per 

cent 


1 


Metal and related industries 


676, 365 
1,212,488 
406, 798 
264,427 
289, 730 
153, 083 
221, 966 


21.0 
37.6 
12.6 
8.2 
9.0 
4.7 
6.9 


1, 613, 126 
2, 010, 896 
753, 166 
554, 399 
435, 281 
297, 407 
496, 735 


26.2 
32.6 
12.2 
9.0 
7.1 
4.8 
8.1 


936, 761 
798, 408 
346, 368 
289, 972 
145, 551 
144, 324 
274, 769 


31.9 


2 


Textiles _ 


27.2 


3 


Leather and rubber 


11.8 


4 


Paper and printing 


9.9 


5 


Foodstuffs ._ 


5.0 


6 


C hemicals 


4.9 




All other 


9.3 




Total New England 






3, 224, 856 


100.0 


6, 161, 009 


100.0 


2, 936, 153 


100.0 









AVERAGE SIZE AND OUTPUT OF ESTABLISHMENTS 

The relative importance of the individual establishment in these 
major groups of manufacture is indicated in the next table, where 
the factors of wage earners, wages, cost of materials, value of products, 
and value added by manufacture are given as an average per estab- 
lishment. The prevailing large size of textile establishments is 
indicated by the high average number of wage earners, as well as by 
the wages paid per plant, by the cost of materials, and the value of the 
output. In each of these items the average per establishment is 
higher for textiles than that for any other group. 



156 



INDUSTRIAL STRUCTURE OF NEW ENGLAND 



In wages paid per establishment the metal industries rank next after 
textiles. The leather and rubber group exceeds the metals group in 
the average number of wage earners per plant. In the average cost of 
materials used per plant metals are surpassed not only by textiles and 
by the leather and rubber group, but by the chemicals group as well. 
In the average value of output per plant metals are surpassed by tex- 
tiles and by leather and rubber, but in the average value added by 
manufacture metals are surpassed only by textiles. 

Average Size and Output per Plant in Major Groups op New England 
Manufacture in 1925 





Total 
number 
of es- 
tablish- 
ments 


Average per establishment 


Nature of material 


Wage 
earners 


Wages 


Cost of 
materials 


Value of 
products 


Value 
added by- 
manu- 
facture 


Metal and related industries 

Textiles 

Leather and rubber _ 


3,662 
2,579 
1,464 
2,349 
3,498 
671 
3,950 


86.5 
160.0 
95.3 
34.0 
11.8 
39.3 
26.9 


$116, 653 
168, 955 
108, 447 
45, 978 
13, 807 
51,000 
32, 178 


$184, 698 
470, 139 
277, 867 
112, 570 

82, 827 
228, 142 

56, 194 


$440, 504 
779, 719 
514, 458 
236,015 

124, 437 
443, 230 

125, 756 


$255, 806 
309, 580 
236, 590 
123,445 

41, 610 
215, 088 

69. 562 


Paper and printing 


Foodstuffs 


Chemicals 


All other . _ 






All New England manufacturing industries. 


18, 173 


61.8 


73, 698 


177, 453 


339, 020 


161, 567 



PRODUCTION PER WAGE EARNER IN MAJOR GROUPS 

The factors of wages, cost of materials, value of product, and value 
added by manufacture are shown as an average per wage earner in 
the next table. In average wages per wage earner there are relatively 
slight differences among the paper and printing group, the metals 
group, and chemical manufactures. These three groups stand out 
considerably above the others. The textile manufactures come lowest 
of all. In comparing the average wages in different groups, it should 
be borne in mind that the figures take no account of distinctions in 
the degree of skill and workmanship involved in the different lines of 
manufacture; neither are the proportions of male and female workers 
considered, nor the differences in seasonality of employment. There 
are great contrasts among these groups in these three respects. 

The average cost of materials per wage earner reflects the degree 
to which human labor enters into the manufacturing process. The 
lower this cost of materials the greater is the contribution by labor 
in the product. In this respect the three leading groups — metals, 
textiles, leather and rubber — are greatly overshadowed by the food- 
stuffs and the chemicals groups, and to a lesser degree by the paper 
and printing group. In the metals group the cost of materials per 
wage earner is below that in any other specified major group and 
far below the general average for all New England manufacturing. 
In textiles, and in the leather and rubber group, the cost of materials 
per wage earner is somewhat above the New England average. 
Foodstuffs stand far above the other major groups in cost of materials 
per wage earner. 

The average value of product per wage earner takes into account 
not only the purchased material, but also what the worker adds to 



MANUFACTURES 



157 



its value. In this respect foodstuffs and chemicals stand out far 
above any of the other groups; this would be expected from the high 
cost of materials per worker in these two groups. Textiles are con- 
siderably below the New England average in value of product per 
worker. Both the metals group and the leather and rubber group are 
somewhat below the average for all New England manufactures. 

The value which the effort of the wage earner contributes in the 
manufacturing process is the most significant indication of his pro- 
ductiveness. Here the chemicals group stands out far above any of 
the others. Paper and printing and the group of foodstuffs manu- 
factures are also conspicuously high. The metals group is above the 
New England average for all manufactures. The textiles group, 
on the other hand, is far below the average and is the lowest in the 
whole series. 

Average Production Per Wage Earner in Major Groups of New 
England Manufacture in 1925 





Total 
number 
of estab- 
lish- 
ments 


Total 
number 
of wage 
earners 


Average per wage earner 


Nature of material 


Wages 


Cost of 
mate- 
rials 


Value 

of 
prod- 
ucts 


Value 
added 

by 
manu- 
facture 


Metal and related industries 


3,662 
2,579 
1,464 
2,349 
3,498 
671 
3,950 


317, 025 
412, 544 
139, 466 
79, 838 
40, 706 
26,418 
106,219 


$1,347 
1,056 
1,138 
1,353 
1,186 
1,295 
1,195 


$2, 133 
2,939 
2,917 
3,312 
7,118 
5,795 
2,088 


$5,088 
4,874 
5,400 
6,944 
10, 693 
11, 258 
4,672 


$2, 955 


Textiles.. 


1,935 


Leather and rubber __. 


2,484 


Paper and printing __. 


3,632 


Foodstuffs _ __ 


3,576 


Chemicals 


5,463 


All other _ 


2,584 






All New England manufacturing industries. 


18, 173 


1, 122, 216 


1,193 


2,874 


5,490 


2,616 



DIVERSITY OF OUTPUT 

The diversity and the broad range of manufacturing activity in 
New England are indicated by the fact that there were 221 lines of 
its manufactures which were of sufficient size to be included in the 
census tabulations for 1927, comprising nearly two-thirds of the 348 
separate classifications for the whole United States. There were 
108 distinct lines of manufacture, each of which contributed over 
$3,000,000 to the New England income. In each of 84 of these 
separate lines over $5,000,000 was contributed to the value added by 
manufacture. There were 52 classes in this list in which upward 
of $10,000,000 was contributed to the New England income. Going 
on up the scale, there were 30 of these industries contributing 
upward of $20,000,000 each, and in each of 14 separate lines the 
value added by manufacture exceeded $50,000,000. Each of the 
five leading lines of New England industry contributed over $125,- 
000,000 to the region's income, and one of these, that of cotton goods, 
exceeded $250,000,000. Contributions of each of the 30 leading 
industries in 1925 are shown in Figure 20. 

The table on page 160 presents in compact form (a) the position of 
each of the 108 lines of industry, arranged in the order of importance 
of their contribution to the New England income in 1927; (6) total 



158 



INDUSTRIAL STRUCTURE OF NEW ENGLAND 



value of the product of each industry; (c) value added by manufactur- 
ing; (d) value added by manufacture as a percentage of the New 
England total for all manufacturing; and (e) value added by manu- 
facture as a percentage of the United States total for the specific 
industry. Industries whose totals in separate States can not be 
shown without disclosing operations of individual establishments are 
excluded from the table. 



INDUSTRY 



COTTOM GOODS. 

BOOTS & SHOES, 
Other than rubber. 

ELECTRICAL MACHINERY, 
apparatus 6 supplies. 

WORSTED OOODS. 

FOUNDRY 6 MACHINE SHOP. 

products. 
PAPER & WOOD PULP 



PRINTING 6. PUBLISHING. 
(Newspaper £ Periodical) 
RUBBER GOODS, 
tires and inner tubes. 



OYEIMG £ FINISHING TEXTILES 



SILK, Manufactures. 

PRINTING £ PUBLISHING. 

(Book £ Job) 
TEXTILE MACHINERY 

£ Parts. 
BOOTS £ SHOES. Rubber. 

BREAD, and other 
bakery products. 

GAS. manufactured. 



CUTLERY £ EDGE TOOLS. 

LEATHER, t, 
£ finisl 

JEWELRY. 

METAL WORKING MACHINERY. 

CONFECTIONERY. 

FURNITURE. 

MARBLE. oroniW 6 stone work. 

TOOLS. 

CLOTHING, men's 

LUMBER £ TIMBER PRODUCTS 

COTTOM, small wares. 




THIRTY INDUSTRIES 
EACH OVER S 20.000,000 
IN VALUE ADDED 
1925 



NEW ENGLAND S URVEY 
DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE 



Figure 20. — Leading- manufactures of New England 

It is seen that cotton goods, the largest single line of manufacture, 
contributed only 8.6 per cent of the total New England income from 
manufacturing. Next to this came boots and shoes, other than 
rubber, with 5.2 per cent, followed by electrical machinery, with 
4.9 per cent; foundry and machine shop products, with 4.8 per cent; 
worsted goods, 4.3 per cent. These five outstanding lines, each 
of which contributed over $125,000,000 to the New England income 



MANUFACTURES 159 

for manufacturing, together comprised only 27.8 per cent of the New 
England total. The next seven items in their importance in New- 
England were paper; woolen goods; printing and publishing of news- 
papers and periodicals; dyeing and finishing textiles ; brass, bronze, 
and other nonferrous products; rubber goods (other than boots and 
shoes) and rubber tires and inner tubes; book and job printing and 
publishing. The first 12 industries comprised 44.4 per cent of the New 
England total; the addition of the next 2 industries — bread and other 
bakery products, and textile machinery — brings the contribution of 
the first 14 industries in this list up to 48 per cent of the total for all 
New England manufactures. Each one of these 14 industries made 
a contribution to the New England income exceeding $50,000,000. 



160 



INDUSTRIAL STRUCTURE OF NEW ENGLAND 




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INDUSTRIAL STRUCTURE OF NEW ENGLAND 



CONTRIBUTION OF INDIVIDUAL INDUSTRIES TO NATION'S TOTAL 

The importance of New England's manufactures to the rest of the 
country is strikingly indicated by the large number of lines in which 
the section contributes an outstanding proportion of the Nation's 
total manufactures. In each of 59 principal lines of industry New 
England contributed in 1927 over $8,000,000 to the national income, as 
shown by the value added by manufacture. In this number there 
were 42 lines in which the New England contribution was upward of 
10 per cent of the Nation's total; in 24 of these the contribution from 
New England exceeded 25 per cent; and in 9 the region contributed 
more than one-half of the total national income. These lines are 
shown in the three sections of the following list, with their rank in 



ALL MANUFACTURES 

TEXTlLESaTHEIR PRODUCTS 
MACHINERY 

.PRINTING. 

and Related Ind 

IRON & STEEL PRODUCTS 
LEATHER and ITS PRODUCTS 
N0N FERROUS METAL PR0DVQS 

FOOD & KINDRED PRODUCTS 
CHEMICALS a ALLIED PRODUCTS 

RUBBER PRODUCTS 
MISCELLANEOUS MANUI 

LUMBER & ALLIED PRODUCTS 
STONE, CLAY & GLASS PRODUCTS 
TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT 

RAILROAD REPAIR SHOPS 

MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS ETC. 

TOBACCO MANUFACTURES, 
1ST 



VALUE ADDED BY MANUFACTURE. 1925 



PER CENT OF UNITED STATES TOTAL 




IFACTURES '//iffi/. 



NEW ENGLAND'S CONTRIBUTION 

TO 
UNITED STATES MANUFACTURES 




DOMESTIC COMMERCE: DIVISION 



Figure 21 

New England and the percentage relation which New England bears 
to the United States. 

New England's contribution in 1925 to the national income in each 
of the 16 classifications of manufactures made by the Bureau of the 
Census is shown in Figure 21. 

The articles in which New England contributed upward of half 
the Nation's total (Group A) include such lines of outstanding 
importance as woolen goods, worsted goods, textile machinery, and 
rubber boots and shoes, each of these exceeding 60 per cent of the 
total for the whole country. In cutlery, edge tools, and plated ware 
the New England portion exceeded 50 per cent; firearms were at the 
top of the list, with 74 per cent, and a number of others exceeded 
50 per cent. In all these articles the importance of New England 
manufacture is clearly evident. 

Besides these most prominent lines there were within the 60 leading 
New England manufactures 15 other products which contributed 



MANUFACTURES 165 

from one-fourth to one-half of the manufacturing income for the 
whole country. This group includes a number of the leading manu- 
factures of the whole country, among which are cotton goods, boots 
and shoes other than rubber, paper, hardware, jewelry, brass and 
bronze products, tools, and several other important lines. There are a 
number of other products of lesser local importance in which this 
section contributed upward of 25 per cent. These include, among 
others, clocks, rubber boots and shoes, boot and shoe cut stock not 
made in shoe factories, typewriters and supplies, hats of fur felt, 
dyeing and finishing textiles, stationery goods not elsewhere classified, 
corsets and allied garments. The New England income from the 
manufacture of needles and pins was slightly less than half that of the 
entire country from this source. The full list of items contributing 
from one-fourth to one-half of the United States total is given in the 
second part as Group B. 

The list of lines in which New England contributed from 10 to 25 
per cent of the total national income from their manufacture is a 
large one. It is presented as Group C in the following classification. 
Outstanding in this list are electrical machinery, foundry and machine- 
shop products, rubber goods, silk manufactures, leather manufac- 
tures, metal-working machinery, and confectionery. 

Group A. — New England Manufactures Contributing Over One-Hale of The 

United States Total 

Each exceeding $8,000,000 in value added, 1927 

Per cent of 
Industry and rank in New England : United States 

49. Firearms 74. 4 

5. Worsted goods 68.9 

29. Cotton small wares 64.7 

7. Woolen goods 63. 2 

39. Boot and shoe findings, not made in boot and shoe factories 63. 1 

14. Textile machinery and parts 62. 3 

58. Emery wheels and other abrasive and polishing appliances 61. 8 

20. Cutlery and edge tools, not including silver and plate 58. 7 

33. Plated ware 51.7 

Group B. — New England Manufactures Contributing From One-Fourth to 
One-Half of the United States Total 

Each exceeding $8,000,000 in value added, 1927 

Per cent of 
Industry and rank in New England : United States 

43. Clocks, time-recording devices and movements 48. 9 

18. Boots and shoes, rubber 46. 1 

52. Boot and shoe cut stock not made in shoe factories 45. 1 

30. Typewriters and supplies . 39. 4 

21. Jewelry 38. 

35. Hats, fur-felt 37.8 

1. Cotton goods 36.9 

15. Hardware, n. e. c 35.9 

2. Boots and shoes, other than rubber 34.3 

9. Dyeing and finishing textiles 33. 5 

10. Brass, bronze, and other nonferrous alloys, and copper 31. 6 

26. Tools, not including edge tools, machine tools, files, or saws 28. 9 

57. Stationery goods, n. e. c 28. 1 

6. Paper 26.8 

51. Corsets and allied garments 25.2 

61232°— 30 12 



166 INDUSTRIAL STRUCTURE OF NEW ENGLAND 

Each between $3,000,000 and $8,000,000 in value added, 1927 

Per cent of 
Industry and rank in New England — Continued United States 

71. Needles, pins, hooks and eyes, and snap fasteners 46.4 

96. Motor cycles, bicycles, and parts 35.6 

68. Wood, turning and carving 28.8 

100. Musical instruments, piano and organ materials 27. 8 

Group C. — New England Manufactures Contributing From 10 Per Cent 
to 25 Per Cent of the United States Total 

Each exceeding $8,000,000 in value added, 1927 

Per cent of 
Industry and rank in New England : United States 

41. Wire drawn from purchased bars or rods 24.4 

38. Pulp (wood and other fibers) ____ 24. 3 

54. Toys, games, and playground equipment 23. 3 

23. Metal-working machinery, including machine tools 20.9 

25. Granite, marble and slate, and stonework 20. 1 

22. Leather, tanned, curried, and finished 18. 9 

32. Soap 16. 9 

16. Silk manufactures 16.0 

47. Carpets and rugs, wool, other than rag 14.8 

3. Electrical machinery and supplies 14. 6 

53. Paper goods, n. e. c 14. 6 

27. Confectionery 13. 2 

36. Boxes, paper and other, n. e. c 12.8 

34. Steam-fitting and steam and hot-water heating appliances 12. 6 

17. Gas, manufactured, illuminating and heating 12. 4 

11. Rubber goods, tires, and inner tubes 12. 3 

4. Foundry and machine-shop products, n. e. c 10. 3 

44. Ship and boat building, including repair work 10. 

Each between $3,000,000 and $8,000,000 in value added, 1927 

_ . __ _ Per cent of 

Industry and rank in New England : United states 

89. Silversmithing and silverware 23. 2 

63. Cordage and twine 23. 1 

74. Envelopes 22, 2 

104. Carriages and sleds, children's 22. 2 

97. Felt goods, wool or hair 21. 4 

86. Canning and preserving, fish, crab, shrimp, oysters, and clams 21. 1 

75. Sewing machines, cases, and attachments 20.0 

87. Brushes, other than rubber 18. 5 

73. Housefurnishings, n. e. c 18. 

90. Sporting and athletic goods, not including firearms and ammuni- 

tion 17.0 

62. Fancy miscellaneous articles, n. e. c 16. 2 

82. Bolts, nuts, rivets, iron and steel, not made in rolling mills 13. 6 

61. Boxes, wood, except cigar boxes 13. 2 

72. Forgings, iron and steel, not made in steel works or rolling mills 12.3 

106. Screw-machine products 12. 

105. Engraving, steel and copper plate, and plate printing 11. 3 

69. Bookbinding and blank-book making 11. 1 

07. Wire work, n. e. c 10. 7 

107. Chocolate and cocoa products, not including confectionery 10.0 

CHANGES IN NEW ENGLAND MANUFACTURE 

This discussion presents the changes that have taken place from 
1 849 to 1 927 in the total income from New England manufactures. Its 
purpose is to show the growth of New England manufacturing as a 
whole at different periods and to indicate how this growth compares 
with national development and with the growth of manufacturing 
in other parts of the United States. No attempt has been made to 
adjust the figures for changes in the value of the dollar at different 
periods. These variations should be taken into account in making 



MANUFACTURES 



167 



comparisons of changes in the income from manufacturing at different 
times. Comparisons in this discussion deal with identical time inter- 
vals, and hence no adjustment for changes in dollar value is attempted. 
Tables are presented showing (1) New England's proportion of the 
national population and manufacturing in each census year since 
1849; (2) the change in total New England manufactures during 
each intercensal period, compared with the United States; (3) the 
periods of pronounced contrast and of slight contrast in the growth 
of manufacturing in New England and in the whole country; (4) 
the growth of manufacturing in different geographical divisions from 
1904 to 1914 and from 1914 to 1925; (5) changes in total manu- 
facturing of New England in these periods, compared with those 
for the whole United States; (6) changes in each of the 24 leading 
New England industries in these two periods. 

In the year of the first national census of manufactures, that of 
1849, over one-fourth of the national income from manufacturing 
was contributed by New England. At that time the borders of the 
six New England States included somewhat less than one-eighth of 
the total population of the country. Since the middle of the nine- 
teenth century there has been a continuous and fairly regular reces- 
sion in the relative position of this region, due to the increase of 
population in other parts of the United States, and to the expansion 
of manufactures accompanying the growth in population. The in- 
come from New England manufactures in 1927 comprised approxi- 
mately 11 per cent of the national total, and the population of New 
England was somewhat less than 7 per cent of the total. 

New England's share in the national population and manufactur- 
ing in each year for which official figures are available, from 1849 to 
1927, inclusive, is shown in the following table. 

New England's Portion of the Nation's Population and Manufactures, 
Census Years, 1849 to 1927 







New 






New 




New 


England 




New 


England 




England 


percent- 




England 


percent- 




percent- 


age of 




percent- 


age of 


Census year 


age of 
United 


United 
States 


Census year 


age of 
United 


United 
States 




States 


manu- 




States 


manu- 




popula- 


factures 




popula- 


factures 




tion 


(value 
added) 




tion 


(value 
added) 


1927 


16.90 
16.92 
16.96 
16.98 

7.00 
( 2 ) 

7.12 


10.80 
10.96 
12.12 
13.00 
12.90 
12.85 
14.00 


1904.- 


( 2 ) 
7.36 
7.47 
8.00 
9.05 
9.97 

11.76 


14.45 


1925 


1899. .. 


15.49 


1923. 


1889 


16.78 


1921 


1879 _ 


22.60 


1919 


1869 .. 


23.18 


1914 


1859. _.. 


26.11 


1909 


1849 


28.07 









i Estimated. 



2 No figures. 



The income from New England manufacturing, in terms of the 
actual dollars of value added by the manufacturing processes, shows a 
continuous advance in each census year, from the date of the first 
census of manufacturing, in 1849, up to the close of the World War 
period in 1919. Throughout these 70 years the total figures for the 
last year in each census period were in every instance greater than the 
figures for the end of the preceding census period. 



168 



INDUSTRIAL STRUCTURE OF NEW ENGLAND 



The most notable early periods of expansion were the two 10-year 
periods preceding 1869 and the decade ending in 1889. Previous to 
the World War the 10 years of greatest growth of New England manu- 
factures were those comprising the period from 1859 to 1869. The New 
England income from manufacturing was then increased by 81 per 
cent. It is obvious that this increase was due, in part, to the inflated 
dollar values following the Civil War period. Outside of this abnor- 
mal period the greatest increases in New England manufacturing 
took place in the decade ended in 1859, which showed an expansion 
of 71 per cent; in the period ended in 1889, with 58 per cent increase; 
and the 10 years preceding 1909, which also showed an increase of 58 
per cent. In contrast to these periods of conspicuous growth, the 
decade ended in 1899 showed an increase of only 7 per cent in its 
manufacturing income. In the five years from 1909 to 1914 also, 
the expansion was only 6 per cent. 

In adjacent columns of the following table are given the total 
value added by all manufacturing in New England and in the United 
States. In the last two columns of the table the figure for each 
census year is shown as a percentage of the figure for the preceding 
census. The percentage change in the different census periods is 
readily ascertained by observing the difference between the percent- 
ages and 100 per cent. The years where these percentages are over 
100 indicate an increase over the preceding census year; while the 
years in which the given percentage figures are below 100 are those 
in which there was a decline from the preceding census. 

New England Compared with Entire United States in Total Manufac- 
tures, Census Years, 1849 to 1927 





Value added by all manufactures 


Census year 


Value added by all manufactures 


Census year 


Millions of 
dollars 


Percentage of 

preceding 
census figures 


Millions of 
dollars 


Percentage of 

preceding 
census figures 




New 
England 


United 
States 


New 

England 


United 

States 


New 

England 


United 

States 


New 
England 


United 
States 


1927 


2.980 


27, 585 
26, 778 
25,778 
18, 272 
25,042 
9,878 
8,529 
6,294 


101.5 
94.0 
131.5 
73.5 
254.6 
106.3 
131.2 
120.4 


100.3 
103.9 
141.1 
73.0 
253.5 
115.8 
135. 5 
130.3 


1899 


756 
706 
446 
404 
223 
130 


4,831 
4,210 
1,973 
1,744 
854 
464 


107.1 
158.3 
110.4 
181.2 
171.5 


114.8 


1925 I 2, 936 


1889 


213.4 


1923 ! 3,125 


1879 


113.1 


1921 l 2, 376 


1869 


204.2 


1919. 3,231 


1859 


184.1 


1914 1.2fifl 


1849 




1909.- 

1904 


1, 194 
910 







i No data for "Coffee and spice, roasting and grinding" and "Automobile repairing" are included in the 
statistics here given for the years 1925, 1923, and 1921. The statistics given for the years from 1849 to 1919, 
inclusive, contain figures for these two industries. 

The time of greatest expansion of New England manufactures, as 
shown by the actual dollar value added, was the 5-year period from 
1914 to 1919, in which the value added by New England manufac- 
tures increased over one and one-half times. This abnormal expan- 
sion was followed, in the 6-year period from 1919 to 1925, by a net 
reduction amounting to 9 per cent of the 1919 income from New 
England manufacturing. 

The postwar deflation period, from 1919 to 1921, brought about a 
drop of over 26 per cent of the 1919 total. In the succeeding 2-year 
period, from 1921 to 1923, there was a substantial increase in the in- 



MANUFACTURES 169 

come from New England manufacturing, the advance comprising 
over 31 per cent of the 1921 figure. This, in turn, was followed in 
the two years from 1923 to 1925 by a drop of 6 per cent from the 
1923 figure. 

Contrasts between the changes in New England industry and the 
changes w^hich took place throughout the country as a whole in the 
different intercensal periods may be located by comparing their re- 
spective positions in the census years. The census figures show that 
in every interval up to 1914 the growth of manufacturing in New 
England was exceeded by the growth of manufacturing in the Nation 
as a whole. In other words, the industrial development of New 
England was so largely completed in the earlier years of the country's 
history that ever since the middle of the last century manufacturing 
has expanded in other parts of the country more rapidly than it has 
in New England. In the early days when new sections of the country 
were being opened up to settlement and development the energies 
and capital of the people were so fully absorbed by their immediate 
tasks that little effort was available for the development of manu- 
factures. New England, on the other hand, had already established 
manufacturing as its dominant activity, with highly developed com- 
merce and much accumulated capital. Its limited natural resources 
had favored the early growth and maturity of its manufactures. 

Throughout the different census intervals the prevailing condition 
has been one of substantially greater increase in manufacturing in- 
come for the country as a whole than for New England alone. In 
the 12 intercensal periods from 1849 to 1925 there were 7 intervals 
in which the national increase exceeded the increase in New England 
to a very considerable degree, while there were 6 intervals in which 
there was only slight contrast. 

The single period of most pronounced contrast was the 10-year in- 
terval from 1879 to 1889. In this period there was much wider 
difference between New England and the country as a whole than 
that for the postwar interval from 1921 to 1927. Considering the 
latter interval, the total 1927 income from manufacturing was 125 
per cent of the 1921 total for New England, while for the country as 
a whole the 1927 figures were 151 per cent of the total for 1921. Even 
when the difference in length of periods is taken into account, there 
was less contrast between New England and the entire United States 
in the growth of manufactures during the postwar period from 1921 
to 1927 than there was in the decade from 1879 to 1889. 

In the 9-year period from 1914 to 1923 covering the World War 
and the early postwar years, there was very slight contrast between 
New England and the entire country. The manufacturing income 
in New England showed a slightly greater increase from 1914 to 
1919 than was shown by the country as a whole; and in the defla- 
tion period from 1919 to 1921 the falling off of manufacturing income 
in New England was slightly less than the reduction for the country 
as a whole. 

The periods of contrast between New England and the entire 
United States in their respective changes in total manufacturing 
income are shown in the following table in two pairs of columns. 
The first pair shows the census intervals when there was substantial 
contrast between New England and the United States, while the 
second pair shows the periods of slight contrast, 



170 



INDUSTRIAL STRUCTURE OF NEW ENGLAND 



Periods of Contrast Between New England and the Entire United States 



[Total value added by manufacture in later year of each census interval expressed as 

ceding census year] 


percentage of pre- 


Census 
interval 


Substantial 
contrast 


Slight contrast 


Census 
interval 


Substantial 
contrast 


Slight contrast 


New 

England 


Entire 
United 
States 


New 

England 


Entire 
United 
States 


New 

England 


Entire 
United 
States 


New 
England 


Entire 
United 
States 


1925-1927 


Per 
cent 


Per 

cent 


Per 
cent 
101.5 


Per 
cent 
103,0 


1899-1904 

1889-1899 


Per 
cent 
120.4 


Per 
cent 
130.3 


Per 
cent 


Per 
cent 


1923-1925 


94.0 
131.5 


103.9 
141.1 


107.1 


114.8 


1921-1923 






1879-1889 

1869-1879 


158.3 


213.4 




1919-1921 


73.5 
254.6 


73.0 
253.5 


110.4 


113.1 


1914-1919 






1859-1869 _ 

1849-1859 


181.2 
171.5 


204.2 
184.1 




1909-1914 


106.3 


115.8 






1904-1909 


131.2 


135.5 















COMPARISON WITH OTHER SECTIONS 

Throughout the period from 1849 to 1925 the manufactures of 
New England were surpassed continuously by the three Middle 
Atlantic States of New York, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania. The 
Middle Atlantic section during that period continued to be the lead- 
ing manufacturing region of the country. From 1849 to 1889 New 
England's share of the Nation's total income from manufacturing 
fell from 28 per cent to less than 17 per cent. In this interval the 
Middle Atlantic division also fell back from 40 per cent of the 
Nation's total to 37 per cent. By 1925 it had fallen to 33 per cent. 

The development of manufacturing in the Middle West was such 
that by 1889 New England had been passed by the five States of 
the East North Central division (Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, 
and Wisconsin). These States then contributed 24 per cent of the 
Nation's total, in contrast to only 11 per cent in 1849. By 1925 
the advance of manufacturing in the East North Central division 
of States was such that they then contributed 31 per cent of the 
Nation's total and were approaching closely the Middle Atlantic 
States, whose contribution had receded to 33 per cent. Relative 
advances were made also by the States in the South Atlantic division 
(Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, West Virginia, North Carolina, 
South Carolina, Georgia, and Florida); by the West North Central 
States (Minnesota, Iowa, Missouri, North Dakota, South Dakota, 
Nebraska, and Kansas); and by the West South Central States 
(Arkansas, Louisiana, Oklahoma, and Texas). 

In 1849, 93 per cent of the Nation's manufacturing was located in 
States east of the Mississippi River, and only 7 per cent west of this 
dividing line. By 1889 the proportion of the Nation's manufacturing 
east of the Mississippi River was reduced to 87 per cent, and 13 per 
cent was in the other States. In 1925, 85 per cent of the Nation's 
manufacturing was located in the 26 States east of the Mississippi 
River, and 15 per cent was in the 22 States west of this dividing line. 



MANUFACTURES 



171 



Pre-War and Post- War Changes in Value Added by Manufacture in the 
Entire United States and in the Four Principal Groups of Manufactur- 
ing States 





Geographic division 


Percentage increase 




10-year 

period 

1904-1914 


11 -year 

period 

1914-1925 


Entire United States 


57.0 
39.5 
49.4 
76.1 
60.4 


176.8 




131.4 


Middle Atlantic 


158.8 


East North Central 


200.7 


South Atlantic __ __ 


191.6 







PRE-WAR AND POST-WAR PERIODS COMPARED 

It is instructive to compare the changes in New England manufac- 
turing during the abnormal 11-year period from 1914 to 1925 with 
the 10-year period from 1904 to 1914, which was a time of fairly stable 
industrial conditions. During the earlier period the income from 
New England manufactures increased by 39.5 per cent of its amount 
in 1904. There was an increase of 21 per cent in the number of wage 
earners. Wages increased 43 per cent, considerably more than the 
increase in total manufacturing income. The cost of materials in- 
creased by nearly one-half, considerably more than the increase in 
wages. The gross value of the total output increased 44 per cent, and 
there was an increase of invested capital of nearly 58 per cent. 

In the 11-year period from 1914 to 1925 there was an increase in 
wages of 113 per cent, but a slight falling off in the average number of 
wage earners employed. The cost of materials was not quite doubled, 
and the gross value of the output was more than doubled. The total 
net income from manufacturing, as shown in the value added by manu- 
facture, showed a considerably greater rate of increase than did the 
gross value of manufactured products. 

Changes from 1904 to 1914 and from 1914 to 1925 in Factors of Manu- 
facturing Activity in New England as Compared with the Entire 
United States 



Item 



1914 as percentage 
of 1904 



New 
England 



United 
States 



1925 as percentage 
©f 1914 



New- 
England 



United 
States 



Number of wage earners 

Wages paid 

Cost of materials 

Value of product. 

Value added by manufacture 
Capital invested 



121.2 
143.1 
148.5 
144.5 
139.5 
157.6 



128.7 
156.2 
169.0 
163.9 
157.0 
167.2 



98.4 
213.1 
194.5 
210.5 
231.4 



121.7 
264.1 
253.7 
263.1 
276.8 



CHANGES IN LEADING INDUSTRIES 

When figures of the output of individual industries are analyzed 
it is found that there are numerous important lines of New England 
activity whose advance from 1914 to 1925 exceeded that in other 
sections of the country. In the 24 leading lines of manufacturing 
there were 7 in which the increase from 1914 to 1925, as shown by 
the value added by manufacture, was greater in this section than the 
growth for the country as a whole, including New England. The 



172 



INDUSTRIAL STRUCTURE OF NEW KNOLAND 



MILLIONS OF DOLLARS 



uv,va;u 




















80,000 






































60,000 
50,000 
40.000 
30,000 

20,000 
10,000 












































































































£ 
















^* 




8,000 
















* , 


r 














X 


^r 




6,000 
5,000 
4.000 

3,000 
£.000 

1,000 








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60 
50 
40 
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NEW ENGLAND SURVEY 

U S DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE 

Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce 

Domestic Commerce Division 















(DD-3240-A) 



Figure 22. — Relative growth of manufacturing income, as indicated by value added by 
manufacture, east and west of the Mississippi River 



MANUFACTURES 



173 



MILLIONS OF DOLLARS 


IUU,UUU 

80,000 

60,000 
50,000 
40,000 
30,000 

20,000 

10,000 
6,000 

6,000 
5,000 
4,000 

3,000 
2,000 

1,000 
800 

600 
500 
400 

300 
200 

100 
80 

60 
50 

40 
30 

20 
10 








































































































































































































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^ NEW ENGLAND SURVEY 

U.S. DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE 

Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce 

Oomestic Commerce Division 






















< 

c 


r> <r> a> en O) o •*■ o *t at — rovnt- 

f lO ID b- CO C7> O O — — fNCXCViN 
O CO CO CO CO 00 O) Cn O) CDCnCDCDO) 

* ~~(D-D-3240-B) 



Figure 23. — Relative growth of manufacturing- income, as indicated by value added by- 
manufacture, in various geographic regions 



174 



INDUSTRIAL STRUCTURE OF NEW ENGLAND 



INDUSTRY 




COTTON GOODS 

FOUNDRY AND MACHINE 
SHOP PRODUCTS. TEXTILE 
MACHINERY. METAL 
WORKING MACHINERY 

BOOTS AND SHOES 
(other than rubber) 

ELECTRICAL MACHINERY. 
APPARATUS & SUPPLIES 



WORSTED GOODS 



PAPER AND WOOD 
PULP 



WOOLEN GOODS 



PRINTING & PUBLISHING. 
NEWSPAPER & PERIODICAL 



DYEING AND FINISHING 
TEXTILES. 

HARDWARE. {NOT 
ELSEWHERE CLASSIFIED) 

BRASS. BRONZE, COPPER 
AND OTHER NON-FERROUS 
ALLOYS. 

MISCELLANEOUS 
RUBBER GOODS 

PRINTING & PUBLISHING 
BOOK &JOB 

TEXTILE MACHINERY & 
PARTS (included in 

FOUNDRY AND MACHINE 
SHOP PRODUCTS.) 

SILK MANUFACTURES 



BREAD AND OTHER 
BAKERY PRODUCTS 



GAS. MANUFACTURED 



BOOTS AND SHOES 
(rubber) 



KNIT GOODS 



CUTLERY AND EDGE 
TOOLS. 



LEATHER . (tanned. 

CURRIED AND FINISHED) 

METAL WORKING 
MACHINERY (included in 

FOUNDRY AND MACHINE 
SHOP PROOUCTS) 

CONFECTIONERY 
(including chewing gum) 



Figure 24. — Changes in income contributed by leading New England industries, 
in 1904, 1914, and 1925 



MANUFACTURES 



175 



products of which this is true are cutlery and edge tools, the printing 
and publishing of books and job work, gas manufacture, rubber boots 
and shoes, worsted goods, woolen goods, and leather. 

Besides the products in which the New England advance stands 
out above that for the rest of the country there are a number of 
others in which the growth in New England was very substantial, 
although less than that for the country as a whole. Important lines 
in which New England shows substantial growth include electrical 
machinery and equipment; paper and pulp; newspaper and periodi- 
cal publishing; dyeing and finishing textiles; hardware, brass and 
bronze products; miscellaneous rubber goods; silk manufactures; and 
confectionery. 

The total value added to the New England income for each of the 
24 leading products is shown for 1904, 1914, and 1925 in the next 
table. The figures for 1914 are shown also as percentages of 1904, 
and those for 1925 as percentages of 1914. Comparison of the 
changes in the pre-war period with the change in the period since 
1914 may thus be easily made for each of these products. The table 
includes the corresponding figures for the entire United States, so 
that changes in New England may be compared with the national 
changes in each case. The changes in these specific products are 
discussed in the portions of this report that deal with the respective 
lines of industry. 

Changes in 24 Leading New England Manufactures, 1904 to 1914 and 

1914 to 1925 





Product and census year 


Value added by manufacture 


Rank 
in 
1925 


New England 


Entire United 
States 


1914 as percent- 
age of 1904 and 
1925 as percent- 
age of 1914 i 




Xew 
England 


Entire 
United 
States 


1 


Cotton goods: 

1904 „ 

1914 

1925 

Boots and shoes, other than rubber: 

1904 _ 

1914 

1925 

Electrical machinery, apparatus, and supplies: 

1904 

1914 .... 

1925.... 

Worsted goods: 

1904 

1914 

1925 

Foundry and machine-shop products: 

1904 

1914 

1925 

Paper and wood pulp: 

1904 1 

1914 

1925 

Woolen goods: 

1904 

1914 

1925 .__, 


$88, 169, 000 


$160,404,000 






2 


130,175,000 ! 244,967,000 
251,015,000 i 637,215,000 

67, 500, 000 122. 744. 000 


147.6 
192.8 


152.7 
260.1 


3 


100, 216. 000 
165,467,000 

12, 224, 000 
34, 928, 000 
153, 446, 000 

35, 612, 000 
58, 570, 000 
133, 122, 000 

63, 868, 000 
117,574,000 
132,938,000 

30, 343, 000 
40, 368, 000 
98, 817, 000 

35, 807, 000 
24, 618, 000 
91, 170, 000 


191, 404, 000 
443, 751, 000 

73, 972, 000 
180, 442, 000 
903, 310, 000 

56, 087, 000 
92, 868, 000 
195, 483, 000 

407, 827, 000 

508, 423, 000 

1,349,278,000 

77,464,000 
118,960,000 
366,022,000 

54,366,000 
40,120,000 ! 
141,906,000 \ 


148.5 
161.2 


155.9 
231.8 


4 


285.7 
439.3 


243.9 
500.6 


5 


164.5 
227.3 


165.6 
210.5 


5 


184.1 
113.1 


124.7 
265.4 


7 


133.0 i 153.6 
244.8 307.7 




68.8 1 
370. 3 | 


73.8 
353.7 



1 The accuracy of some of these percentages may be affected slightly by the incompleteness of census 
data for New England in 1914 and 1904, due to exclusion of certain returns to avoid disclosure of individual 
operations. 



176 



INDUSTRIAL STRUCTURE OF NEW ENGLAND 



Changes in 24 Leading New England Manufactures, 1904 to 1914 and 1914 

to 1925 — Continued 





Product and census year 


Value added by manufacture 


Rank 
in 
1925 


New England 


Entire United 
States 


1914 as percent- 
age of 1904 and 
1925 as percent- 
age of 1914 




New 
England 


Entire 
United 

States 


8 


Printing and publishing newspapers and period- 
icals: 

1904 

1914 


$20, 962, 000 
26,114,000 
71, 765, 000 

9, 739, 000 
15, 439, 000 
64, 463, 000 

15, 631, 000 
21, 035, 000 
62, 781, 000 

15, 096, 000 
21, 051, 000 
62, 699, 000 

18, 450, 000 
18, 170, 000 
59, 719, 000 

10, 241, 000 

19, 239, 000 
54, 941, 000 

12, 228, 000 
19, 715, 000 
54, 606, 000 

( 2 ) 

( 2 ) 

53, 747, 000 

30, 378, 000 

13, 334, 000 
51, 773, 000 

12, 876, 000 
22, 426, 000 
48, 775, 000 

8, 472, 000 
15, 863, 000 
36, 992, 000 

11,319,000 
15, 162, 000 
33, 149, 000 

6,114,000 
8, 501, 000 
33, 064, 000 

11,674,000 
13,313,000 
31,041,000 

14, 183, 000 
IS, 029, 000 
30, 313, 000 

( 2 ) 

( 2 ) 

28, 445, 000 

4, 528, 000 
8, 916,000 
25, 147, 000 


$238, 970, 000 

366, 824, 000 

1, 068, 121, 000 

29, 948, 000 
108, 093, 000 
461, 205, 000 

32, 130, 000 
46, 499, 000 
147, 550, 000 

31, 228, 000 
52, 586, 000 
187, 837, 000 

37, 291, 000 
47, 244, 000 

182, 084, 000 

57, 427, 000 
109, 569, 000 
324, 857, 000 

130, 037, 000 
210, 878, 000 
578, 198, 000 

( 2 ) 

( 2 ) 

82, 617, 000 

38, 065, 000 
29, 866, 000 
75, 368, 000 

113,610,000 
217, 636, 000 
600, 178, 000 

87, 965, 000 
143, 459, 000 
277, 037, 000 

59, 964, 000 
112,225,000 
356, 034, 000 

12, 587, 000 
17, 355, 000 
59, 701, 000 

61, 442, 000 
82, 956, 000 
155, 380, 000 

29, 048, 000 
41,890,000 

86, 931, 000 

( 2 ) 

( 2 ) 

121, 068, 000 

38, 277, 000 
09, 830, 000 
203,519,000 








124.6 
274.8 


153 5 




1925 . 


291 2 


9 


Rubber goods and rubber tires and inner tubes: 
1904 






1914 


158.5 
417.5 


360 9 




1925 


426 7 


10 


Hardware, not elsewhere classified: 

1904 






1914 


134.6 

298.5 


144 7 




1925 


317.3 


11 


Dyeing and finishing textiles: 

1904 






1914 


132.8 
297.8 


168.4 




1925 


357.2 


12 


Brass, bronze, copper, and other nonferrous alloys: 
1904 






1914 


98.5 
328.7 


126.7 




1925 


385.4 


13 


Silk manufactures: 

1904 






1914 


187.9 
285.6 


190 8 




1925 


296.5 


14 


Printing and publishing, book and job: 

1904 






1914 


161.2 
277.0 


162.2 




1925 


274.2 


15 


Textile machinery and parts: 

1904 _ 






1914 






1925 




16 


Boots and shoes, rubber: 

1904 








1914 _. 


43.9 
388.3 


78.5 




1925 


252.4 


17 


Bread and other bakery products: 

1904 






1914 


174.2 
217.5 


191.6 




1925 


275.8 


18 


Gas, manufactured: 

1904 






1914 


187.2 
233.2 


163.1 




1925... 


193.1 


19 


Knit goods: 

1904 






1914 


134.0 
218.6 


187.2 




1925 


317.2 


20 


Cutlery and edge tools: 

1904.. 






1914 


139.0 
389.0 


137.9 




1925 


344.0 


21 


Leather, tanned, curried and finished: 
1904 






1914 


114.0 
233.2 


135.0 




1925 


187.3 


22 


Jewelry: 

1904 






1914.. 


127.1 
168.1 


144.2 




1926 


207.5 


23 


Metal-working machinery, including machine 
tools: 

1904 






1914 








1 926 






24 


Contectio 
L904 








1914 


196.9 
279.7 


182.4 




1926 _ 


291.4 












. 



\ 



2^ umm 






,-../( 




D AMU' Cities over 10 ' 000 population and o 
r\MlNr\ one million dollars in value added 

Q 

Q 

Q 
D 



50 TO 100 MILLION DOLLARS 



25 TO 50 MILLION DOLLARS 



10 TO 25 MILLION DOLLARS 

|~1 5 TO 10 MILLION DOLLARS 
■ IT 



NEW ENGLAND SURVEY 



U. S. DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE 
j of Foreign and Domestic Commerce 
Domestic Commerce Division 



LOCALIZATION OF NEW ENGLAND MANUFACTURING 

(IN CITIES OVER 10.000 POPULATION) 



D.D. 3140-46 



61232°— 29. (Face p. 177.) 



MANUFACTURES 



177 



LOCALIZATION OF NEW ENGLAND MANUFACTURING 

The way in which manufacturing activity is distributed within 
New England is presented here according to three kinds of political 
subdivisions. It is shown first according to States. In the second 
part are given the figures for cities and towns. (See Fig. 25.) A spe- 
cial tabulation of the manufacturing establishments in each county, 
classified according to the type of manufacturing, is given in the 
third part. 

LOCALIZATION BY STATES 

The next table shows the magnitude of manufacturing as a whole in 
the individual States. This is followed by a series of tables, one for 
each of the six States, showing the rank and importance of the 
principal industries of the State. This shows at a glance the kinds 
of manufacturing activity which are dominant in each State and their 
relative importance, as indicated by the number of establishments, 
wage earners, wages, cost of materials, value of products, and value 
added by manufacture, together w T ith the percentage relation (accord- 
ing to value added by manufacture) which each named industry bears 
to the total for the State. (See figs. 26-32.) 

Another table shows the position of each State in each of the 25 
leading manufactures of New England. In some cases the figures for 
two or more States are combined. 



New England Industry, by States, All Manufactures, 1927 
[All values in thousands: i. e., 000 omitted] 





Number 

of es- 
tablish- 
ments 


Wage 
earners 


Wages 


Materials 


Products 


Value added by 
manufacture 


State 


Amount 


Per cent 

of New 

England 

total 


Massachusetts 


10, 037 
2,877 
1,497 
1,426 
1,028 
880 


578, 068 
240, 806 
120, 009 
68, 142 
65, 482 
26, 241 


705, 930 
304, 504 
138, 896 
74, 212 
72, 803 
32, 305 


1, 678, 812 
596, 014 
313, 107 
208, 866 
182, 106 
69, 957 


3, 317, 852 
1, 284, 738 
592, 233 
372, 094 
327, 528 
134, 030 


1, 639, 040 
688, 724 
279, 126 
163, 228 
145, 422 
64, 073 


55.0 


Connecticut . . 


23.1 


Rhode Island 


9.4 


Maine 


5.5 


New Hampshire 

Vermont 


4.9 
2.1 






Total- 


17, 745 


1, 098, 748 


1, 328, 650 


3, 048, 862 


6, 028, 475 


2, 979, 613 


100.0 







178 



INDUSTRIAL STRUCTURE OF NEW ENGLAND 



IN DUSTRY 




COTTON GOODS 
BOOTS & SHOES (OTHER THAN RUBBER) 
ELECTRICAL MACHINERY(APPARATU«S8rSUPPlE$) 

WORSTED GOODS 
FOUNDRY & MACHINE SHOP PRODUCTS 
RUBBER GOODS, TIRES 8t TUBES 
PRINTING &.PUBLISHIN6(NEWSPAPER&PEW0DICA^ 
PRINTINGS: PUBLISHING (BOOK fife JOB) 
WOOLEN GOODS 
GAS, MANUFACTURED 
PAPER AND WOOD PULP 
BOOTS fit SHOES(RUBBER) 
TEXTILE MACHINERY 6c PARTS 
BREAD & OTHER BAKERY PRODUCTS 
DYEIN6&FJNISHJNG TEXTILES 
LEATHER(TANNED,CURRIEDaFINlSHED) 
CUTLERY & EDGE TOOLS 
CONFECTIONERY 
KNIT GOODS 
FURNITURE 



Figure 26. — Rank of 



leading- industries in Massachusetts according: to value added 
by manufacture in 1925 



INDU STRY 



10 20 30 40 



MILLIONS OF DOLLARS 

50 60 70 80 90 100 HO 120 130 I40~ 



HARDWARE 

FOUNDRY fife MACHINE SHOP PRODUCTS 

BRASS, BRONZE & OTHER NONFERROUS ALLOYS 

ELECTRICAL MACHINERY APPARATUS & SUPPLIES 

SILK MANUFACTURES 

COTTON GOODS 

PLATED WARE 

TYPEWRITERS 8c SUPPLIES 

HATS, FUR FELT 

PRINTING &PUBUSHJNG(NEW5PAPER&PERI0BICAi 

WOOLEN GOODS 

RUBBER GOODS 

METAL WORKING MACHINERyOno.. MACHINE TOOL! 

AMMUNITION, AND RELATED PRODUCTS 

CORSETS 

STEAM FITTINGS 8t HEATING APPARATUS 

GAS. MANUFACTURED 
BREAD & OTHER BAKERY PRODUCTS 
PAPER & WOOD PULP 
TOOLS 



NEW E NGLAND SURVEY 
J S DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE 



Figure 27. — Rank of 



leading industries in Connecticut according to value added 
by manufacture in 1925 



MANUFACTURES 



179 







INDUSTRY 

COTTON GOOOS 

WORSTED GOODS 

DYEING AND FINISHING TEXTILES 

JEWELRY 

SILK MANUFACTURES 

TEXTILE MACHINERY AND PARTSl 

COTTON SMALL WARES 


MILLIONS OF DOLLARS 




10 EO 30 40 50 




i i i i 




RHODE ISLAND 






































































WOOLEN GOODS 














FOUNDRY St MACHINE SHOP PRODUCTS 














RUBBER GOODS 














ELECTRICAL MACHINERY, APPARATUS & SUPPLIES 














PRINTING AND PUBLISHING ( N ptmooicAL 8 ') 


■i 










■ 


GAS (manufactured) 














BREAD AND OTHER BAKERY PRODUCTS 


■i 












KNIT GOODS 














PRINTING AND PUBLISHING ( BOOK * JoB ) 


■ 












SHIP & BOAT BUILDING (steel and wooden) 


■ 












FANCY AND MISCELLANEOUS ARTICLES 


1 












LUMBER (planing mill products) 


I 












PAPER GOODS 

PAPER AND WOOD PULP 

BOOTS AND SHOES (other than robber) 

COTTON GOODS 


1 












MAINE 


































WOOLEN GOODS 
WORSTED GOOOS 
LUMBER AND TIMBER PRODUCTS 


























PRINTING AND PUBLISHING ( N g$So5SL *) 














BREAD AND OTHER BAKERY PRODUCTS 














CANNING & PRESERVING (fruits & vegetables) 














CANNING & PRESERVING (fish, etc.) 


■ 












WOOD (TURNED * CARVED) 














CAR CONSTRUCTION AND REPAIRS 


■ 












FOUNDRY A MACHINE SHOP PRODUCTS 


■ 












GRANITE, SLATE AND OTHER STONE 


■ 












LUMBER (PLANING MILL PRODUCTS) 


■ 












PRINTING AND PUBLISHING (book * job) 














SHIP AND BOAT BUILDING 














GAS ( MANUFACTURE©) 














LIME 




NEW ENGLAND SURVEY 




BOXES (wooden) 




U S DFPARTMFNT OF COMMFRCF 





Figure 29. — Rank of 20 leading industries in Rhode Island and in Maine according to 
value added by manufacture in 192$ 



180 



INDUSTRIAL STRUCTURE OF NEW ENGLAND 



INDUSTRY 



BOOTS AND SHOES (other than rubber) 

COTTON GOODS 

PAPER AND WOOD PULP 

WOOLEN GOODS 

FOUNDRY AND MACHINE SHOP PRODUCTS 

LUMBER AND TIMBER PRODUCTS 

TfcXTILE, MACHINERY AND PARTS 

KNIT GOODS 

BOXES (wooden) 

PRINTING AND PUBLISHING ( n p \^ S d*cal *> 

PRINTING AND PUBLISHING ( B job *) 

MARBLE. GRANITE AND OTHER STONE 

BREAD AND OTHER BAKERY PRODUCTS 

LUMBER (planing mill products) 

FURNITURE 

BOOT AND SHOE FINDINGS 

ELECTRICAL MACHINERY, APPARATUS & SUPPLIES 

GAS, (manufactured) 

NEEDLES. PINS. ETC. 

CLOTHING (mens) 

MARBLE, GRANITE. SLATE & OTHER STONE 

WOOLEN GOODS 

METAL WORKING MACHINERY (m^K? tools) 

LUMBER AND TIMBER PRODUCTS 

PAPER AND WOOD PULP 

KNIT GOODS 

FURNITURE 

FOUNDRY AND MACHINE SHOP PRODUCTS 

FLOUR, FEED. ETC. 

CAR CONSTRUCTION AND REPAIRS 

MINERALS AND EARTHS 

COTTON GOODS 

PRINTING AND PUBLISHING ("periodical *) 

BUTTER, CHEESE. ETC. 

TOOLS 

LUMBER ("planing mill products) 

BREAD AND OTHER BAKERY PRODUCTS 

PREPARED MEDICINES AND COMPOUNDS 

PRINTING AND PUBLISHING Q°5oS *) 

WOOD, (.TURNED AND CARVED) 




MILLIONS OF DOLLARS 



NEW HAMPSHIRE 



VERMONT 



nJEW E NGLAND SURVEY 
-U S DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE 



Figure 29. — Hank of 20 leading industries in New Hampshire and in Vermont accord- 
ing to value added by manufacture in 1925 



MANUFACTURES 



181 



Leading Industries of Massachusetts, Ranked According to Value Added 

by Manufacture, 1927 



Industry 



Es- 

tab- 

lish- 

ments 



Wage 
earners 



Wages 
(thou- 
sands 
of 

dollars) 



Cost of 
materials 
(thou- 
sands of 
dollars) 



Value of 
products 

(thou- 
sands of 

dollars) 



Value added by 
manufacture 



Thou- 
sands of 
dollars 



Cotton goods 

Boots and shoes, other than rubber.. 

Electrical machinery, apparatus, and 
supplies -. 

Worsted goods ._ 

Foundry and machine-shop products, 
n. e. c._ --- 

Printing and publishing, newspaper 
and periodical 

Printing and publishing, book and job. 

Rubber goods (other than rubber 
boots and shoes) and rubber tires 
and inner tubes -_ 

Paper - 

Boots and shoes, rubber 

Bread and other bakery products 

Woolen goods 

Dyeing and finishing textiles 

Textile machinery and parts 

Leather (tanned, curried, and fin- 
ished) 

Cutlery (not including silver and 
plated cutlery) and edge tools 

Gas, manufactured, illuminating and 
heating 

Knit goods _ 

Confectionery 

Furniture, including store and office 
fixtures 

Soap 

Clothing (except work clothes), men's, 
youth's, and boy's, n. e. c._ 

Clothing, women's, exclusive of cor- 
sets and allied garments and gar- 
ments made in knitting mills. 

Silk manufactures _ 

Jewelry 

Tools, not including edge tools, ma- 
chine tools, files, or saws 

Patent and proprietary medicines 
and compounds 

Boot and shoe findings, not made in 
boot and shoe factories 

Carpets and rugs, wool, other than rag. 

Boxes, paper and other, n. e. c 

Wire drawn from purchased bars or 
rods 

Boot and shoe cut stock, not made in 
boot and shoe factories 

Steam fittings and steam and hot- 
water heating apparatus 

Ship and boat building, steel and 
wooden, including repair work 

Car and general construction and re- 
pair, steam railroad repair shops.. _ 

Beverages 

Motor-vehicle bodies and motor- 
vehicle parts _. 

Petroleum refining 

Emery wheels and other abrasives 
and polishing appliances 

Stationery goods, n. e. c 

Slaughtering and meat packing, 
wholesale 

Marble, granite, slate, and other stone 
products 

Planing-mill products, not made in 
planing mills connected with saw- 
mills 

Machine tools... 

Paper goods, n. e. c 

First 45 industries 

All other 

State total for all industries 



163 



122 
75 



332 
681 



64 
80 
10 
1,044 
99 
68 
119 

115 

42 

41 
93 
148 

194 
23 

167 

277 
33 

135 

72 

54 

253 
10 

117 

15 

140 

24 

38 

16 
206 

52 
3 

14 

28 

40 
157 



147 
30 

54 



6,560 
3,477 



10, 037 



90,875 
55, 986 

24, 759 
35, 141 

19, 898 

5,664 
8,569 



10, 364 
12, 127 
12, 081 
8,473 
15, 923 
13,826 
12, 009 

10, 768 

3,407 

4,079 
9,660 
8,373 

8,077 
1,027 

6,488 



6,022 
7,357 
5,216 

4,589 

1,017 

5,157 
4,473 
5,300 

3,805 

2,606 

3,320 

4,185 

4,833 
1,182 

3,993 
1,077 

1,753 
2,608 

3,191 

2,166 



2,298 
2,159 
2,007 



457, 888 
120, 180 



578, 068 



88, 090 
65, 282 

33,904 
38, 667 

30, 059 

11,977 
13, 294 



13,298 
15, 608 
15, 471 
11,028 
19, 369 
16, 229 
16, 242 

14, 588 

4,174 

6,047 
9,339 
7,244 

11,027 
1,396 

7,393 



7,206 
7,616 
6,574 

5,838 

1,102 

5,822 
5,613 
5,135 

6,242 

3,008 

4,905 

6,479 

7,842 
1,651 

5,878 
1,615 

2,795 
2,656 

4,127 

3,820 



3,876 
3,315 
2,414 



555, 255 
150, 675 



705, 930 



145,631 
120, 354 

42, 198 
122, 809 

30, 760 

22, 077 
13,090 



56, 716 

50, 383 
18, 957 
37, 102 
40, 341 

51, 434 
15, 008 

47, 861 

5,883 

16, 202 
22, 316 
28, 308 

16, 682 
14, 437 

17, 097 



19, 071 
23, 219 
12, 206 

5,061 

6,477 

19, 868 
10, 638 
12, 505 

11,292 

40, 259 

4,531 

4,403 

11,891 
5,305 

10, 073 
32, 185 

5,510 
6,945 

51,140 

3,208 



6,595 
3,359 
11,015 



1, 252, 402 
426,410 



1,678,812 



284, 706 
237, 517 

139, 349 
195, 096 

94, 149 

72,314 

57, 852 



97, 718 
91,095 
56, 440 
73, 706 
73, 740 
84, 459 
46, 866 

77, 649 

33, 705 

38, 658 
43, 937 
49, 674 

36, 796 
33, 497 

33, 823 



35, 649 
38, 220 
26, 781 

19, 113 

20, 190 

33, 476 
22, 680 
24, 264 

22, 882 

50, 648 

14,807 

14, 152 

20, 984 
14, 160 

18, 719 
40, 291 

13, 481 
14, 763 

58, 797 

10, 833 

14, 138 
10, 830 
18, 241 



139, 075 
117, 163 

97, 151 

72,287 

63, 389 

50,237 
44, 762 



41,002 
40,712 
37, 483 
36, 604 
33, 399 
33, 025 
31,858 

29, 788 

27, 822 

22, 456 
21,621 
21, 366 

20, 114 
19, 060 

16, 726 

16, 578 
15, 001 
14, 575 

14, 052 

13, 713 

13, 608 
12,042 
11, 759 

11, 590 

10, 389 

10, 276 

9,749 

9,093 

8,855 

8,646 
8,106 

7,971 
7,818 

7,657 

7,625 



7,543 
7,471 
7,226 



2, 510, 845 
807, 007 



1, 258, 443 
380, 597 



3, 317, 852 



1, 639, 040 



Note.— The abbreviation n. e. c. indicates "not elsewhere classified." 
61232°— 30 13 



182 



INDUSTRIAL STRUCTURE OK XKW ENGLAND 



Leading Industries of Connecticut. Ranked According to Value Added by 

Manufacture, 1927 



Industry 



Foundry and machine-shop products 
n. e. c 

Brass, bronze, and other nonferrous 
alloy and manufacture of these al- 
loys and coppers, n. e. c 

Hardware, n. e. c 

Electrical machinery, apparatus and 
supplies 

Cotton goods 

Silk manufactures. __ 

Typewriters and supplies.- 

Hats, fur, felt _ __. 

Plated ware 

Printing and publishing, newspaper 
and periodical 

Rubber goods (other than boots and 
shoes) and rubber tires and inner 
tubes 

Machine tools.. 

Woolen goods 

Clocks, time-recording devices, and 
clock movements 

Bread and other bakery products... 

Corsets and allied garments 

Gas, manufactured, illuminating and 
heating 

Steam-fitting and steam and hot- 
water heating apparatus 

Tools, not including edge tools, ma- 
chine tools, files, or saws 

Worsted goods 

Cotton small wares 

Dyeing and finishing textiles 

Paper 

Firearms __ 

Needles, pins, hooks and eyes, and 
snap fasteners 

Cutlery (not including silver and 
plated cutlery) and edge tools 

Printing and publishing, book and 
job 

Engines, turbines, and water wheels 

Clothing, women's, exclusive of cor- 
sets and allied garments and gar- 
ments made in knitting mills 

Boxes, paper and other n. e. c 

Stamped and enameled ware, n. e. c. 

Wire drawn from purchased rods or 
bars 

Sewing machines, cases, and attach- 
ments 

Planing-mill products, not made in 
planing mills connected with saw- 
mills _ 

W'irework, n. e. c 

First 35 industries 

All other industries 

State total for all industries. _. 



Es- 

tab- 

lish- 

ments 



19 
33 

29 

9 
290 

17 



162 
13 



Wage 
earners 



1, 575 
1,302 



2,877 



16, 799 



20, 442 

18, 201 

14,500 
12, 639 
9,183 
8,721 
5>548 
5,536 

1,951 



4,419 
5,183 
5,938 

4,891 
2,099 
3,138 

1,447 

2,513 

2,830 
3,055 
2,733 
2,551 
1,898 
3,018 

2,353 

2,585 

1,721 
1,206 



2,404 
2,021 
1,881 

894 

1, 552 



967 
951 



177, 768 
63, 038 



240, 806 



Wages 
(thou- 
sands 

of 
dollars) 



24,206 



28, 538 
22, 299 

16, 999 
13, 140 
11,401 
10, 701 
7,999 
7,352 

3,520 



5,716 
7,364 
7,265 

5,751 
3,128 
2,805 

2,262 

3,536 

3,734 

4,397 
2,965 
3, 256 
2,753 
3,858 

2,712 

3,160 

2,438 
1,739 



2,223 
2,125 
1,999 

1, 395 

2,077 



1,503 
1,135 



Cost of 
materials 
(thou- 
sands of 
dollars) 



227, 451 
77, 053 



25, 327 



97, 279 
21, 174 

34, 799 
26, 021 
25, 417 
5,207 
20, 099 
10, 549 

5,320 



20, 072 
5,550 
15, 634 

4,101 
8,934 
6,838 

5,184 

2,900 

4,112 
14, 673 
6,139 
4,812 
9,228 
2,813 

2,358 

2,447 

2,512 
2,470 



3,737 
4, 592 
2,805 

3,600 

581 



2,490 
1,745 



411,419 
184, 595 



Value of 
products 
(thou- 
sands of 
dollars) 



86, 168 



152, 390 
68, 013 

75, 926 
49, 178 
47, 498 
26, 135 
37, 758 
26, 173 

20, 695 



33, 591 
19, 053 

27, 842 

16, 166 
17, 435 
15, 199 

13, 319 

10, 432 

11, 586 
22, 103 
13, 460 
11,779 
16, 154 

9,617 

8,482 

8,431 

8,260 
7,217 



8,192 
8,917 
6,961 

7,290 

3,959 



5,484 
4,726 



905, 490 
379, 249 



1,284,739 



Value added by 
manufacture 



Thou- 
sands of 
dollars 



55, 111 
46,839 

41, 127 
23, 156 
22, 081 
20, 928 
17, 659 
15,624 

15, 375 



13, 519 
13, 503 
12, 208 

12, 066 
8,501 
8,361 

8,135 

7,532 

7,474 
7,430 
7,322 
6,967 
6,926 
6,804 

6,124 



5,748 
4,747 



4,455 
4,325 
4,156 

3,690 

3,378 



2, 994 
2,981 



494,071 
194, 653 



688, 724 



Not*;.— The ahhreviation n. e. e. indicates " not elsewhere classsfied," 



Manufactures 



183 



Leading Industries of Rhode Island, Ranked Axjcording to \at.ik Added hy 

& I A N U V ACTU RE, 1 927 



20 



Industry 



Cotton goods 

Worsted goods 

Dyeing and finishing textiles 

Jewelry 

Silk manufactures 

Textile machinery and parts. 

Cotton small wares 

Woolen goods 

Foundry and machine-shop products, 

n. e. c 

Electrical machinery, apparatus, and 

supplies 

Printing and publishing, newspaper 

and periodical 

Rubber goods, other than tires, inner 

tubes, and boots and shoes 

Bread and other bakery products. _ . 
Gas, manufactured, illuminating and 

heating 

Knit goods 

Printing and publishing, book and 

job 

Fancy and miscellaneous articles, 

n. e. c 

Lace goods 

Bolts, nuts, washers, and rivets, not 

made in rolling mills 

Ship and boat building, steel and 

wooden, including repair work 

Paper goods, n. e. c 

Ice cream 

First 22 industries 

All other industries 

State total for all industries ._ _ 



Es- 

tab- 

lish- 

ments 



66 
71 
62 
188 
31 
41 
50 
24 

47 

14 

27 

133 

4 
21 



935 
562 



1,497 



Wage 
earners 



26, 203 
21,114 
9,590 
7,826 
6,500 
3,425 
4,191 
3,275 

2,184 

1,431 



2,044 
1,246 

766 
1,636 

782 

1,174 
846 

761 

600 
400 
143 



96, 846 
23, 163 



120, 009 



Wages 
(thou- 
sands 

of 
dollars) 



27, 587 
22, 338 
11, 521 
8,696 
7,853 
4,766 
4,151 
4,162 

3,290 

1,914 

1,342 

1,907 
1,651 

1,089 
1,783 

1,068 

906 
927 



456 
209 



109, 358 
29, 538 



138, 896 



Cost of 
materials 

(thou- 
sands of 
dollars) 



45, 669 
79, 525 

19, 566 
16, 587 

20, 698 
4,497 
8,523 

11, 597 

4,296 

7,572 

1,551 

4,769 
4,864 

3,204 
6,429 

1,201 

1,456 
1,143 

1,279 

1,304 
1,175 
1,203 



248, 108 
64, 999 



313, 107 



Value of 
products 
(thou- 
sands of 
dollars) 



90, 053 
118,310 
44, 979 
35, 451 
32,511 

15, 390 

16, 732 
19, 256 

10, 463 

13, 355 

6,682 



9,377 

7,512 
10, 725 

3,971 

3,505 
2,793 

2,740 

2,493 
2,345 
2,316 



460, 565 
131, 668 



592, 233 



Value added by 
manufacture 



Thou- 
sands of 
dollars 



44, 384 
38, 785 
25, 413 
18, 864 
11,813 
10, 893 
8,209 
7,659 

6,167 

5,783 

5,131 

4,837 
4,513 

4,308 
4,296 

2,770 

2,049 
1,650 

1,461 

1,189 
1,170 
1,113 



212, 457 
66, 669 



279, 126 



Per 

cent 

of 

State 

total 



15.90 
13.90 
9.10 
6.76 
4.23 
3.90 
2.94 
2.74 

2.21 

2.07 

1.84 

1.73 
1.62 

1.54 
1.54 

.99 

.73 
.59 

.52 

.43 
.42 
.40 



76.12 
23.88 



100.00 



Note. — The abbreviation n. e. c. indicates "not elsewhere classified.' 1 



184 



INDUSTRIAL STRUCTURE OF NEW ENGLAND 



Leading Industries of Maine, Ranked According to Value Added by Manu- 
facture, 1927 



Industry 



Es- 

tab- 

lish- 

ments 



Wage 
earners 



Wages 
(thou- 
sands 

of 
dollars) 



Cost of 
materials 
(thou- 
sands of 
dollars) 



Value of 
products 
(thou- 
sands of 
dollars) 



Value added by 
manufacture 



Thou- 
sands of 
dollars 



Paper 

Boots and shoes other than rubber _. 

Cotton goods 

Woolen goods 

Worsted goods 

Pulp (wood and other fiber) 

Lumber and timber products, n. e. c. 

Printing and publishing, newspaper 
and periodical 

Bread and other bakery products 

Foundry and machine shop prod- 
ucts, n. e. c 

Wood, turned and shaped, n. e. c 

Canning and preserving, fish, crabs, 
shrimps, oysters, andclams... 

Car and general construction and re- 
pairs, steam railroad repair shops.. 

Marble, slate, granite, and other 
stone products 

Canning and preserving, fruits and 
vegetables, pickles, jellies, pre- 
serves, and sauces 

Planing mill products, not made in 
planing mills connected with saw- 
mills 

Printing and publishing, book and 
job 

Gas, manufactured, illuminating and 
heating 

Ice cream 

Wooden goods, n. e. c 

Boxes, wooden, except cigar boxes 

Shirts 

Ship and boat building, steel and 
wooden, including repair work 

Boot and shoe findings, not made in 
boot and shoe factories 

Toys (not including children's wheel 
goods or sleds), games, and play- 
ground equipment 

Furniture, including store and office 
fixtures 

Beverages 

Leather, tanned, curried, and fin- 
ished 

Flavoring extracts and flavoring 
sirups 

Clay products (other than pottery), 
and nonclay refractories 

First 30 industries 

All other 

State total for all industries 



185 

53 
127 

31 
53 

62 

11 

40 



1,074 
352 

1,426 



8,132 
9,740 
10, 195 
6,140 
4,244 
3,752 
3,898 

973 
946 

1,048 
1,482 

1,888 

1,239 

924 

916 

499 

360 

234 
193 
414 
543 
602 



264 

344 

268 
95 

175 

30 

236 



11, 122 
9,044 
9,781 
7,525 
4,642 
5,018 
3,614 

1,205 
1,113 

1,364 
1,305 

905 

1,871 

319 

622 

618 

475 

330 
218 
425 
531 
398 

423 

238 



298 
105 

181 

22 

276 



53, 145 
19, 284 
17, 351 
16, 965 
11, 368 
30, 133 
4,291 

1,854 
3,584 

1,520 
2,006 

4,104 

1,812 

520 

3,517 

1,621 
502 

773 
1,411 

671 
1,298 

853 

525 
423 

383 

474 
405 

384 

346 

262 



88, 595 
36,663 
34, 414 
30, 025 
21, 849 
40, 280 
10,664 

6,596 
6,894 

4,272 
4,671 

6,589 

4,007 

2,697 

5,323 

2,952 

1,677 

1,875 
2,498 
1,654 
2,126 
1,647 

1,307 

1,132 



1,040 
873 

831 

777 
684 



35, 450 
17, 379 
17, 063 
13, 060 
10, 481 
10, 147 
6,373 

4,742 
3,310 

2,752 
2,665 

2,485 

2,195 

2,177 

1,806 

1,331 
1,175 

1,102 

1,087 
983 
828 
794 

782 

709 

707 

566 
468 

447 

431 

422 



60, 117 
8,025 



64, 287 
9,925 



181, 785 
27, 081 



325, 702 
46, 392 



143, 917 
19,311 



68, 142 



74, 212 



208, 866 



372, 094 



163, 228 



Note.— The abbreviation n. e. c. indicates "not elsewhere classified.' 



MANLTFACTHIIKS 



185 



Leading Industries of New Ha mps hike, Ranked According to Value Added 

by Manufacture, 1927 



Industry 



Cotton goods 

Boots and shoes, other than rubber __.. 

Woolen goods 

Foundry and machine shop products, 

n. e. c 

Paper 

Pulp (wood and other fiber) 

Textile machinery and parts 

Lumber and timber products, n.e.c 

Knit goods 

Boxes, wooden, except cigar boxes 

Printing and publishing, book and 

job 

Printing and publishing, newspapers 

and periodicals 

Planing-mill products, not made in 

planing mills connected with saw 

mills 

Bread and other bakery products 

Boot and shoe findings not made in 

boot and shoe factories 

Marble, granite, slate, and other 

stone products 

Furniture, including store and office 

fixtures 

Gas, manufactured, illuminating and 

heating 

Clay, products (other than pottery) 

and nonclay refractories 

W T ood, turned and shaped, n. e. c 

Cotton, small wares 

Needles, pins, hooks, and eyes, and 

snap fasteners 

Ice cream 

Electrical machinery, apparatus, and 

supplies 

Cooperage ._. 

First 25 industries 

All other -.. 

State total for all industries 



Es- 

tab- 
lish- 
ments 



17 
63 
35 

41 
24 
7 
9 
165 
16 
25 

37 

58 



771 

257 



1,028 



Wage 
earners 



14, 722 
12, 114 
5,007 

1,885 
2,487 
2,534 
1,053 
2,306 
2,032 
1,376 

829 

377 



770 

466 



572 



280 



276 
252 



378 
91 



253 
379 



52, 024 
13, 458 



65, 482 



(thou- 
sands 

of 
dollars) 



15, 142 
12, 151 
6,141 

2,692 
3,204 
3,064 
1,370 
2,500 
1,785 
1,376 

1,219 

578 



956 
620 

596 

1,046 

797 

350 

407 

282 
241 

402 
127 

226 
392 



57, 664 
15, 139 



72, 803 



Cost of 
materials 
(thou- 
sands of 
dollars) 



26, 772 
30,008 
13, 147 

2,717 

17, 670 
12, 873 
1,692 
6,140 
4,083 
3,689 

469 

478 



1,963 
2,072 

1,840 
546 

1,259 

907 

198 
330 

415 



353 
475 



130, 799 
51, 307 



182, 106 



Value of 
products 
(thou- 
sands of 
dollars) 



57, 721 
49, 853 
24, 143 

9,778 
24,616 
18, 545 

7,324 
10, 078 

7,093 

6,087 

2,554 
2,538 



3,856 
3,785 

3,532 

2,147 

2,647 

2,113 

812 
907 



642 
1,157 



974 



244. 777 
82, 751 



327, 528 



Value added by 
manufacture 



Thou- 
sands of 
dollars 



30, 949 
19, 845 
10, 996 

7,061 
6,946 
5,672 
5,632 
3,938 
3,010 
2,398 

2,085 

2,060 

1,893 
1,713 

1,692 

1,601 

1,388 

1, 206 

614 
577 
573 

553 
543 

534 
499 



113, 978 
31, 444 



145, 422 



Per 

cent 

of 

State 

total 



21.28 
13.65 
7.56 

4.86 

4.78 
3.90 
3.87 
2.71 
2.07 
1.65 

1.43 

1.42 

1.30 
1.18 

1.16 

1.10 

.95 

.83 

.42 
.40 
.39 

.38 
.37 

.37 
.34 



78.38 
21.62 



100.00 



Note.— The abbreviation n. e. c. indicates "not elsewhere classified." 



186 



INDUSTRIAL STRUCTURE OF NEW ENGLAND 



Leading Industries of Vermont, Ranked According to Value Added by 
Manufacture, 1927 



Industry 



Es- 

tab- 

lish- 

ments 



Wage 
earners 



(thou- 
sands 

of 
dollars) 



Cost of 
materials 
(thou- 
sands of 
dollars) 



Value of 
products 
(thou- 
sands of 
dollars) 



Value added by 
manufacture 



Thou- 
sands of 
dollars 



Per 

cent 
of 

State 
total 



Marble, granite, slate, and other 
stone products _ 

Machine tools _ 

Woolen goods 

Paper _. 

Lumber and timber products, n. e. e„. 

Knit goods 

Furniture, including store and office 
fixtures ._ 

Foundry and machine-shop products, 
n. e. c 

Cotton goods 

Wood, turned and shaped, n. e. c 

Printing*and publishing, newspapers 
and periodicals 

Car and general construction and re- 
pairs, steam railroad repair shops... 

Tools, not including edge tools, ma- 
chine tools, files, or saws 

Minerals and earths, ground or other- 
wise treated 

Feeds prepared for animals and fowls . 

Bread and other bakery products 

Patent and proprietary medicines and 
compounds 

Planing mill products, not made in 
planing mills connected with saw- 
mills 

Printing and publishing, book and 
40b 

Paper goods, n. e. c 

Gas, manufactured, illuminating and 
heating 

Ice cream 

Textile machinery and parts 

Toys (not including childrens wheel 
goods or sleds), games and play- 
ground equipment 

Butter 

Condensed and evaporated milk 

Pulp (wood and other fiber)... 

Lime 

First 28 industries.. 

All other 

State total for all industries 



203 
5 
15 
14 
127 
7 



716 
164 



5,205 
1,377 
2,619 
982 
1,652 
1,184 

1,183 

704 

1,008 

756 

243 

715 

459 

209 

148 
279 

132 



373 



201 

91 
46 
202 



97 
126 
170 



8,411 
1,997 
3,058 
1,196 
1,534 
1,103 

1,319 

1,081 
1,055 



361 

1,055 

474 

283 
165 
382 



428 

436 
201 

128 
71 
273 



329 
122 
117 
162 
202 



7,870 
2,469 
6,982 
5,767 
1,634 
2,425 

1,383 

1,012 

1,361 

970 

254 

703 

814 

287 
7,244 
1,456 



1,301 

367 
1,752 

343 
531 
193 



228 

2,867 

2,052 

632 

344 



21, 318 
7,240 

10, 940 
8,712 
4,552 
5,160 

3,508 

3,119 
3,146 
2,401 

1,461 

1,908 

1,933 

1,389 
8,300 
2,465 

1,597 



2,114 

1,141 
2,340 

870 

1,054 

678 



3,320 

2,486 

1,039 

700 



20, 862 
5,379 



26, 719 
5,586 



53, 857 
16,100 



105, 583 
28,447 



26, 241 



32, 305 



69, 957 



134, 030 



13, 448 
4,771 
3,958 
2,945 
2,918 
2,735 

2,125 

2,107 

1,785 
1,431 

1,207 

1,205 

1,119 

1,102 
1,056 
1,009 

981 



813 

774 
588 

527 
523 
485 



464 
453 
434 
407 
356 



51, 726 
12, 347 



20.99 
7.45 
6.18 
4.60 
4.55 
4.27 

3.32 

3.29 
2.79 
2.23 



1.88 

1.87 

1.72 
1.75 
1.57 

1.58 

1.27 

1.21 
.92 

.82 
.82 
.76 



.72 

.71 



.64 
.56 



80.73 
19.27 



64, 073 



100.00 



Note.— -The abbreviation n. e. c. indicates "not elsewhere classified." 



MANUFACTURES 



187 



COTTON GOODS 





MILLIONS OF DOLLARS 


20 40 60 80 100 120 140 


MASSACHUSETTS 
RHODE ISLAND 
NEW HAMPSHIRE 
CONNECTICUT 
MAINE 
VERMONT 




























































' 




















1 





BOOTS AND SHOES (OTHER THAN RUBBER) 



MASSACHUSETTS 

NEW HAMPSHIRE 

MAINE 

VERMONT e» CONNECTICUT 

RHODE ISLAND 




20 40 



60 



80 



100 120 140 



NO ESTABLISHMENTS 

i i i i I 



ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT 



MASSACHUSETTS 
CONNECTICUT 
RHODE ISLAND 
NEW HAMPSHIRE 
MAINE 
VERMONT 



20 



40 



60 



80 



100 



120 140 




STATISTICS NOT AVAILABLE 

I I I I I 
NO ESTABLISHMENTS 





WORSTED 


GOODS 


















20 40 60 80 \00 120 140 


MASSACHUSETTS 

RHODE ISLAND 

MAINE 

CONNECTICUT 

NEW HAMPSHIRE a VERMONT 








































■ 









FOUNDRY AND 


MACHINE 


SHOP 


PRODUCTS 










20 40 60 80 100 120 140 


MASSACHUSETTS 
CONNECTICUT 
RHODE ISLAND 
NEW HAMPSHIRE 

MAINE 
VERMONT 
























i 








■ 
■ 
1 
1 













NEW ENGLAND SURVEY 



(D-D-4202-46) 



U. S. DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE 



Figure 30.— Rank of New England States in leading industries according to value 
added by manufacture in 1925 



188 



INDUSTRIAL STRUCTURE OF NEW ENGLAND 



PAPER AND WOOD PULP 





MILLIONS OP DOLLARS 


20 40 


MAINE 

MASSACHUSETTS 
NEW HAMPSHIRE 
CONNECTICUT 
VERMONT 
RHODE ISLAND 










<1Eh 


TS 


















■ 
1 

NO ESTABLISH 

i i i 



WOOLEN 600DS 





20 40 


MASSACHUSETTS 
MAINE 






















CONNECTICUT 














NEW HAMPSHIRE 














RHODE ISLAND 


■ 












VERMONT 


■ 













PRINTING AND PUBLISHING 
NEWSPAPERS AND PERIODICALS 





20 40 


MASSACHUSETTS 














CONNECTICUT 














RHODE ISLAND 


■ 












MAINE 


1 












NEW HAMPSHIRE 


1 












VERMONT 


1 













RUBBER GOODS 
TIRES AND INNER TUBES 



MASSACHUSETTS 

CONNECTICUT 

RHODE ISLAND 

MAINE 

NEW HAMPSHIRE) 

AND VERMONT/ 



20 40 




STATISTICS NOT AVAILABLE 

I I I I I 
NO ESTABLISHMENTS 

J I I I l_ 



HARDWARE 





20 40 


CONNECTICUT 

MASSACHUSETTS 
RHODE ISLAND, MAINE. 

NEW HAMPSHIRE.^VERMOMT 














1 
1 













NEW ENGLAND SURVEY 
DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE 



DYEING AND FINISHING 
TEXTILES 




MILLIONS OF. DOLLARS 


20 40 


MASSACHUSETTS 
RHODE ISLAND 
CONNECTICUT 
MAINE AND ) 
NEW HAMPSHIRE) 
VERMONT 








T AVAILABLE 

1 1 
5HMENTS 

1 1 




















■ 

STATISTICS NO 

1 1 
NO E5TABLI 

1 1 



BRASS, BRONZE, 
COPPER, ETC. 





20 40 


CONNECTICUT 

MASSACHUSETTS 
MAINE, NEW HAMP-) 
SHIRE, e. VERMONT/ 














■ 













SILK MANUFACTURES 



CONNECTICUT 
MASSACHUSETTS 
RHODE ISLAND 
MAINE & NEW HAMPSHIRE 
VERMONT 



20 40 



NO ESTABLISHMENTS 
_J I I I I 



PRINTING AND PUBLISHING 
BOOK AND JOB 





20 40 


MASSACHUSETTS 
CONNECTICUT 
RHODE ISLAND 
NEW HAMPSHIRE 
MAINE 
VERMONT 
























■ 

1 

1 

1 

1 











TEXTILE MACHINERY 
AND PARTS 





20 40 


MASSACHUSETTS 
RHODE ISLAND 
NEW HAMPSHIRE 
CONNECTICUT 
VERMONT 
MAINE 










ILA 


3LE 










■ 
1 
1 
5TAT 


ISTIL 


5 NO 


T AYi 

... 



(DD-420ZA-46) 



Figure 31. — Bank of New England States in leading industries in 1925 



MANUFACTURES 



189 



BOOTS AND SHOES, RUBBER 



MILLIONS OF DOLLARS 



10 20 30 



MASSACHUSETTS 
RHODE ISLAND AND] 
CONNECTICUT J 

MAINE, NEW HAMPSHIRE) 
AND VERMONT J 



NO ESTABLISHMENTS 



LEATHER, TANNED, CURRIED, 
AND FINISHED 





MILLIONS OF DOLLARS 


10 20 30 


MASSACHUSETTS 
NEW HAMPSHIRE RHODE) 
ISLAND, AND VERMONT) 
CONNECTICUT! 
AND MAINE j 












1 

1 







BREAD AND OTHER 
BAKERY PRODUCTS 



* 


10 20 30 


MASSACHUSETTS 
CONNECTICUT 


























RHODE ISLAND 


■ 








MAINE 


1 








NEW HAMPSHIRE 


1 








VERMONT 


1 









JEWELRY 










10 20 30 


RHODE ISLAND 










MASSACHUSETTS 










CONNECTICUT 










MAINE 

NEW HAMPSHIRE] 

AND VERMONT J 


STATISTICS NOT AVAILABLE 

> L I 

NO ESTABLISHMENTS 

I i I 



GAS, MANUFACTURED 





10 20 30 


MASSACHUSETTS 
CONNECTICUT 
















RHODE ISLAND 


■ 








NEW HAMPSMIPE 


1 








MAINE 


i 








VERMONT 











METAL WORKING 
MACHINERY 



10 20 30 



CONNECTICUT 

MASSACHUSETTS 
NEW HAMPSHIRE] 
AND VERMONT j 
RHODE ISLAND 

MAINE 



STATISTICS NOT AVAILABLE 

I I I 

NO ESTABUSHMENTS 



KNIT GOODS 





10 20 30 


MASSACHUSETTS 














RHODE ISLAND 


■ 








NEW HAMPSHIRE 


■ 








CONNECTICUT 


1 








VERMONT 


1 








MAINE 


STATISTICS NOT AVAILABLE 
i i i 



CUTLERY AND EDGE TOOLS 



10 20 30 



MASSACHUSETTS 

CONNECTICUT 
MAINE, NEW HAMPSHIRE,! 
AND RHODE ISLAND / 
VERMONT 



STATISTICS HOT AVAILABLE 

I I I 

NO ESTABLISHMENTS 



NEW E NGLAND SURVEY 
U. S. DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE 



CONFECTIONERY 





10 20 30 


MASSACHUSETTS 

CONNECTICUT 

RHODE ISLAND, MAINE. NEW 

HAMPSHIRE.AND VERMONT 










1 
1 







FURNITURE 





10 20 30 


MASSACHUSETTS 










VERMONT 


■ 








CONNECTICUT 


I 








NEW HAMPSHIRE 


i 








MAINE AND ! 
RHODE ISLAND) 


1 









(D-D-4202-B~46) 



Figure 32.— Rank of New England States in leading industries in 1925 



190 



INDUSTRIAL STRUCTURE OF NEW ENGLAND 



Position of States in Leading New England Manufactures 

[Ranked according to value added by manufacture in 1927] 



Product 




1 . Cotton goods 



2. Boots and shoes other than rubber. 



3. Electrical machinery and supplies. 



4. Foundry and machine-shop products, n. 
e. s. 



5. Worsted goods.. 



6. Paper. 



7. W T oolen goods.. 



8. Printing and publishing, newspaper and 
periodicals. 



9. Dyeing and finishing textiles. 



10. Brass, bronze, and other nonferrous alloys 
and coppers. 



]]. Rubber goods and tires and inner tubes 
(other than rubber boots and shoes). 



12. Printing and publishing, book and job. 



Massachusetts . . 

Rhode Island 

New Hampshire. 
Connecticut- 
Maine 

Vermont 

Massachusetts . . 
New Hampshire . 
Maine 

Massachusetts . . 

Connecticut 

Rhode Island 

New Hampshire . 

Massachusetts.. 

Connecticut 

New Hampshire . 

Rhode Island 

Maine 

Vermont 

Massachusetts . . 

Rhode Island 

Maine 

Connecticut 

Massachusetts .. 
Maine 

New Hampshire 

Connecticut 

Vermont. 

Massachusetts .. 

Maine_„ 

Connecticut 

New Hampshire 

Rhode Island 

Vermont 

Massachusetts .. . 

Connecticut 

Rhode Island.... 

Maine... 

New Hampshire 
Vermont 

Massachusetts . . 
Rhode Island . . . 
Connecticut 

Connecticut 

Massachusetts.. 

Rhode Island 

New Hampshire 

Massachusetts. . 

Connecticut 

Rhode Island . . . 

Massachusetts. . 

Connecticut 

Rhode Island. .. 
New Hampshire 

Maine.. 

Vermont 



Value of 
product 



$284, 706, 000 
90, 054, 000 
57, 722, 000 
49, 178, 000 
34, 414, 000 
3, 146, 000 

237, 517, 000 
49, 853, 000 
36, 663, 000 

139, 349, 000 

75, 926, 000 

13, 355, 000 

887, 000 

94, 149, 000 
86, 168, 000 
9, 778, 000 
10, 463, 000 
4, 272, 000 
3, 119, 000 

195, 095, 000 
118, 310, 000 
21, 849, 000 
22, 103, 000 

91, 095, 000 
88, 595, 000 
24, 616, 000 
16, 154, 000 

8, 712, 000 

73, 740, 000 
• 30,025,000 
27, 842, 000 
24, 143, 000 
19, 256, 000 
10, 940, 000 

72, 314, 000 
20, 695, 000 
6, 682, 000 
6, 596, 000 
2, 538, 000 

1, 461, 000 

84, 460, 000 
44, 979, 000 
11,779,000 

152,390,000 

12,688,000 

663,000 

402,000 

97, 718, 000 
33, 591, 000 

9, 606, 000 

57, 852, 000 
8, 260, 000 
3,971,000 

2, 554, 000 
1,677,000 
1,141,000 



Value added by manu- 
facture 



State total 



$139, 075, 000 
44, 384, 000 
30, 949, 000 
23, 156, 000 
17,064,000 

1, 785, 000 

117,163,000 
19, 845, 000 
17, 379, 000 

97, 151, 000 
41, 127, 000 

5, 783, 000 
534, 00v> 

63, 390, 000 

60, 841, 000 

7, 061, 000 

6, 167, 000 

2, 752, 000 
2, 107, 000 

72, 287, 000 

38, 785, 000 

10, 481, 000 

7, 430, 000 

40, 712, 000 
35, 450, 000 

6, 946, 000 

6, 926, 000 

2, 945, 000 

33, 399, 000 
13, 060, 000 

12, 208, 000 
10, 996, 000 

7, 659, 000 

3, 958, 000 

50, 237, 000 
15, 375, 000 
5, 131, 000 

4, 742, 000 
2, 060, 000 

1, 207, 000 

33, 025, 000 
25, 414, 000 
6, 967, 000 

55,111,000 

5, 105, 000 

345, 000 

284, 000 

41,002,000 

13, 519, 000 

4, 837, 000 

44, 762, 000 

5, 748, 000 

2, 770, 000 
2, 085, 000 
1,174,000 

774,000 



MANUFACTUKKS 



191 



Position of States in Leading New England Manufactures — Continued 

[Ranked according to value added by manufacture in 1927] 



Product 



State 



Value of 
product 



Value added by manu- 
facture 



State total 



Percent 

' of New 

England 

total 



13. Bread and other bakery products. 



14. Textile machinery and parts.. 



15. Hardware, n. e. s_ 



16. Silk manufactures _ 



17. Gas, manufactured, illuminating and 
heating. 



18. Boots and shoes, rubber . 

19. Knit goods 



20. Cutlery and edge tools, not including 
silver and plate. 



21. Jewelry _ 

22. Leather, tanned, curried, and finished 



23. Metal w T orking machinery, including ma- 
chine tools. 



24. Furniture, including store and office fix- 
tures. 



25. Qranite, marble, slate, and other stone 
products. 



Massachusetts 

Connecticut.. 

Rhode Island 

Maine _. 

New Hampshire. . 
Vermont 

Massachusetts 

Rhode Island 

New Hampshire . . 

Connecticut 

Vermont 

Connecticut 

Massachusetts 

Rhode Island 

Connecticut 

Massachusetts 

Rhode Island 

Massachusetts 

Connecticut 

Rhode Island 

New Hampshire.. 

Maine 

Vermont 

Massachusetts 

Massachusetts 

Rhode Island 

New Hampshire.. 

Connecticut 

Vermont 

Maine.-. 

Massachusetts 

Connecticut 

Rhode Island 

Massachusetts 

Massachusetts 

Connecticut 

Maine-. 

Connecticut 

Massachusetts 

Vermont 

New Hampshire. . 

Massachusetts 

Connecticut. 

Vermont 

New Hampshire. . 

Maine ... 

Rhode Island 

Vermont 

Massachusetts 

Maine. 

New Hampshire . 

Connecticut. 

Rhode Island 



$73, 706, 000 
17, 435, 000 
9, 377, 000 
6, 894, 000 
3, 785, 000 
2, 465, 000 

46, 866, 000 
15, 390, 000 
7, 324, 000 

2, 328, 000 
678,000 

68, 013, 000 

3, 080, 000 

343, 000 

47, 498, 000 
38, 220, 000 

32, 511, 000 

38, 658, 000 
13, 320, 000 
7, 512, 000 
2, 113, 000 
1, 875, 000 
870,000 

56, 440, 000 

43, 937, 000 
10, 724, 000 
7, 093, 000 
5, 181, 000 
5,160,000 
90,000 

33, 705, 000 
8, 431, 000 

35, 451, 000 
26, 781, 000 

77, 649, 000 

1, 455, 000 

832,000 

21, 833, 000 

10, 830, 000 

7, 240, 000 

406,000 

36, 796, 000 
4, 466, 000 

3, 508, 000 
2, 647, 000 
1, 040, 000 

602,000 

21, 318, 000 
10, 834, 000 
2, 697, 000 
2, 147, 000 
1, 794, 000 
1, 389, 000 



$36, 604, 000 
8, 501, 000 
4, 513, 000 
3, 310, 000 
1, 713, 000 
1, 009, 000 

31, 858, 000 

10, 893, 000 

5, 632, 000 

1, 583, 000 

485, 000 

46, 839, 000 

1, 896, 000 

165, 000 

22, 082, 000 
15, 001, 000 
11, 813, 000 

22, 456, 000 
8, 135, 000 
4, 308, 000 

1, 206, 000 
1, 102, 000 

527,000 

37, 483, 000 

21, 621, 000 
4, 296, 000 
3, 010, 000 
2, 862, 000 

2, 735, 000 

43,000 

27, 822, 000 
5, 984, 000 

18, 864, 000 

14, 576, 000 

29, 788, 000 
487, 000 
447, 000 

15, 500, 000 
7, 471, 000 
4, 771, 000 

275,000 

20, 114, 000 
2, 679, 000 
2, 125, 000 
1, 389, 000 
566,000 
285, 000 

13, 448, 000 
7, 625, 000 
2, 177, 000 
1,600,000 
1, 245, 000 
952,000 



65.77 
15.28 
8.11 
5.95 
3.08 
1.81 

63.15 

21.59 

11.16 

3.14 

.19 

95.78 
3.88 
.34 

45.16 
30.68 
24.16 

59.51 
21.56 
11.42 
3.19 
2.92 
1.40 

100.00 

62.55 
12.43 
8.71 
8.28 
7.91 
.12 

82.30 
17.70 

56.41 
43.59 



1.59 
1.45 

55.32 
26.67 
17.03 



74.07 

9.87 
7.82 
5.11 
2.08 
1.05 

49.72 
28.19 
8.05 
5.92 
4.60 
3.52 



Note. — The abbreviation n. e. c. indicates " not elsewhere classified." 



192 INDUSTRIAL STRUCTURE OF NEW ENGLAND 

CONCENTRATION IN CITIES 

To show the importance of individual cities in the manufacturing 
activity of New England, data are presented in the following tables 
giving the total manufacturing income of each city and town for which 
separate totals are available for 1927. Along with this information 
is given the official estimates of total population as of July 1, 1925. 

In these tables each city is given its numerical rank according to 
value added by its manufactures and its rank according to population. 
Cities in which the numerical rank of manufactures is smaller than the 
numerical rank of population are those which depend upon manu- 
facturing for their income to a higher degree than their population 
alone would indicate; while cities in which the numerical rank of 
manufacturing is greater than their rank in population are those 
with lesser dependence on manufacturing as a source of income. 
For example, Cambridge, Mass., ranks fourth in manufacturing 
importance but is ninth in population, thus indicating a high degree 
of manufacturing activity in that city. Similarly, Waterbury, Conn., 
ranks eleventh in manufactures but thirteenth in population, again 
showing high manufacturing activity. On the other hand, Portland, 
Me . , ranks forty-fourth in manufacturing but seventeenth in population, 
indicating its lesser importance as a manufacturing city. 

Frequently a considerable amount of manufacturing activity takes 
place in areas immediately adjacent to a city, but outside of its 
corporate limits. In comparing the figures in these tables it should 
be borne in mind that they cover only the corporate limits of the city 
and exclude activities in adjacent territories. Sometimes several 
cities and towns are so close to each other that they form one large 
urban community in which the manufacturing activities of one city 
extend over the boundaries of another, yet in the New England 
form of town and city organization each retains its separate identity. 

RANK ACCORDING TO MANUFACTURING INCOME 

In the first series of tables that follow, 108 cities and towns are 
ranked in four arbitrary groups, according to the volume of their 
total income from manufactures. 

The first group comprises 26 cities whose total income from manu- 
facturing exceeded $25,000,000 each in 1927. These had over one- 
half (54 per cent) of the total manufacturing income of the six States. 
Of these 26 cities, 15 were in Massachusetts, 7 in Connecticut, 3 in 
Rhode Island, and 1 in New Hampshire. 

The second group includes 28 cities whose income from manufac- 
turing was between $10,000,000 and $25,000,000. They were dis- 
tributed by States thus: Massachusetts, 17; Connecticut, 7;«Rhode 
Island, 1 ; Maine, 2; and New Hampshire, 1. 

The third group contains 33 cities whose individual incomes were 
between $5,000,000 and $10,000,000. Sixteen of these were in 
Massachusetts, 5 in New Hampshire, 3 in Connecticut, 4 in Rhode 
Island, 3 in Maine, and 2 in Vermont. 

The fourth group contains 21 cities and towns, each of which had 
an income from its manufactures between $1,000,000 and $5,000,000. 
Fourteen of these were in Massachusetts. 3 in Maine, 1 in Rhode 
Island) 1 in Connecticut, 1 in New Hampshire, and 1 in Vermont. 



MANTJFACTUIIKS 



193 



This series of tables enables the reader to locate the rank and 
the manufacturing importance of any New England city. Ap- 
proximately 78 per cent of the total manufacturing activity of New 
England is accounted for by the 108 incorporated cities and towns 
included in the following tables. The distribution, by States, of the 
remaining 22 per cent follows : 

\i:w England Manufacturing in and Outside of Listed Cities 





Value added by manufacture, 1927 


State 


State total 
(thousands 
of dollars) 


In cities listed 


Outside of cities listed 




Thousands of 
dollars 


Per cent 
of total 


Thousands 
dollars 


Per cent 

of State 

total 


Massachusetts 


1, 639, 040 
688, 724 
279, 126 
163, 228 
145, 422 
64, 073 


1, 424, 892 

510, 652 

222, 465 

57, 688 

91, 686 

14, 556 


87.0 
74.1 
79.7 
35.3 
63.0 
22.7 


214, 148 
178, 072 
56, 661 
105, 540 
53, 736 
49, 517 


13.1 


Connecticut 


25.9 


Rhode Island 


20.3 


M aine 


64.7 


New Hampshire 


37.0 


Vermont . . . _ 


77.3 






Total 


2, 979, 613 


2, 323, 317 


78.0 


656, 296 


22.0 







Rank of New England Cities in Order of Manufacturing Activity 

Group 1.— CITIES EXCEEDING $25,000,000 IN VALUE ADDED BY MANUFACTURE 



City 


Value added by all 
manufactures, 1927 


Estimated popu- 
lation, 1925 




Rank 


Amount 


Rank 


Number 


Boston, Mass - 


1 
2 
3 
4 
5 
6 
7 
8 
9 
10 
11 
12 
13 
14 
15 
16 
17 
18 
19 
20 
21 
22 
23 
24 
25 
26 


$310, 021, 000 
105, 372, 000 
97, 371, 000 
90, 749, 000 
87, 360, 000 
70,115,000 
69, 953, 000 
64, 309, 000 
60, 656, 000 
57, 872, 000 
56, 342, 000 
55, 807, 000 
49, 638, 000 
43, 344, 000 
42, 687, 000 
42, 364, 000 
35, 104, 000 
33, 542, 000 
32, 907, 000 
31, 558, 000 
30, 778, 000 
30, 596, 000 
29, 904, 000 
29, 174, 000 
27, 400, 000 
25,419,000 


1 
2 
3 
9 
6 
4 
5 
12 
10 
7 
13 
15 
8 
18 
19 
21 
11 
16 
25 
29 
20 
47 
34 
33 
50 
35 


. 779, 620 


Providence, R. I . 


267, 918 


Worcester, Mass 


190, 757 


Cambridge, Mass . 


119, 669 


Bridgeport, Conn.. 


1 143, 555 


New Haven, Conn 


178, 927 


Hartford, Conn.. . 


160, 197 


Lynn, Mass 


103, 081 


New Bedford, Mass 


119, 539 


Springfield, Mass.. - -- 


142, 065 


Waterbury, Conn 


100,000 


Lawrence, Mass - 


93, 527 


Fall River, Mass .. 


128, 993 


Pawtucket, R. 1 


69, 760 


New Britain, Conn 


68, 039 


Holyoke, Mass 


60, 335 


Lowell, Mass 


110, 296 


Manchester, N. H 


83, 097 


Woonsocket, RI - 


49, 681 


Pittsfield, Mass --- 


46, 877 


Brockton, Mass - 


65, 343 


Watertown, Mass . 


25, 480 


Chicopee, Mass . 


41, 882 


Everett, Mass 


42, 072 


Bristol, Conn - 


24, 652 


Stamford, Conn . - 


40, 737 







L94 



INDUSTRIAL STRUCTURE OF NEW ENGLAND 



Kank of New England Cities in Order of Manufacturing Activity — Oontd. 

Group 2.— CITIES BETWEEN $10,000,000 AND $25,000,000 IN VALUE ADDED BY MANUFAC- 
TURE 



City 



Value added by all 
manufactures, 1927 



Rank 



Amount 



Estimated popu- 
lation, 1925 



Rank Number 



Meriden, Conn 

Haverhill, Mass 

Nashua, N. H 

Fitchburg, Mass 

Norwalk, Conn 

D anbury, Conn 

Chelsea, Mass 

Somerville, Mass 

Maiden, Mass 

Salem, Mass 

Taunton, Mass 

Quincy, Mass 

Peabody, Mass 

Attleboro, Mass 

Torrington, Conn... 

Norwood, Mass 

Waltham, Mass 

Portland, Me 

Lewiston, Me 

Ansonia, Conn 

Southbridge, Mass.. 
North Adams, Mass 
Framingham, Mass. 
Middletown, Conn.. 
Leominster, Mass... 
Central Falls, R. I.- 
Gardner, Mass 

Norwich, Conn 



$24, 636, 000 
23, 898, 000 
21,132,000 
20, 342, 000 
18, 609, 000 
16, 497, 000 
16,464,000 
16,223,000 
16, 053, 000 
15, 942, 000 
15,760,000 
15,451,000 
15, 062, 000 
14, 531, 000 
14,195,000 
13, 787, 000 
13,290,000 
13,261,000 
12, 922, 000 
12,501,000 
12, 070, 000 
11,732,000 
11,141,000 
11,074,000 
10, 972, 000 
10, 641, 000 
10, 457, 000 
10, 038, 000 



36, 292 
49, 232 
29, 723 
43, 609 
29,743 
1 18, 943 
47,247 
99, 032 
51, 789 
42,821 
39, 255 
60, 055 
19,870 

20, 623 

24, 533 

14, 151 
34, 746 
75, 333 
34, 932 
19, 052 

15, 489 
22, 717 

21, 078 

22, 911 

22, 120 

25, 403 
18, 730 

23. 118 



Group 3— CITIES BETWEEN $5,000,000 AND $10,000,000 IN VALUE ADDED BY MANUFAC- 
TURE 



Berlin, N. H 

Auburn, Me 

Beverly, Mass 

Northampton, Mass. . . 

Bristol, R. I 

Naugatuck, Conn 

Clinton, Mass 

Amesbury, Mass 

Cranston, R. I 

Plymouth, Mass 

Newton, Mass 

West Springfield, Mass 

Westfield, Mass 

Woburn, Mass 

< oncord, N. H 

Biddeford, Me 

Laconia, N. H 
Newbury port, Mass. - 

Basthampton, Mass 

\\ atfrville, Me 

North bridge, Mass 

New London, Conn 

Weymouth, Mass 

WiUimantic, Conn 

tovidence, R. I.. 

Dover, N. B 

Barre, Vt 

( Greenfield, Mass ... 

Koene, N. II 

( tloucefter, Mass 

Burlington, Vt, 

Webetei 

West Warwick, R. I 



of L920, 



59, 737, 000 


70 


9, 570, 000 


74 


9, 132, 000 


58 


9, 091, 000 


52 


9, 059, 000 


99 


8, 826, 000 


76 


8, 804, 000 


89 


8, 638, 000 


106 


8, 439, 000 


40 


7, 918, 000 


95 


7, 820, 000 


23 


7, 796, 000 


82 


7, 785, 000 


66 


7, 128, 000 


72 


7, 012, 000 


59 


6, 977, 000 


71 


6, 973, 000 


105 


6, 631, 000 


79 


6, 451, 000 


103 


6, 445, 000 


88 


6, 274, 000 


105 


6, 266, 000 


43 


6, 090, 000 


75 


6, 087, 000 


97 


5,917,000 


46 


5, 828, 000 


96 


5, 590, 000 


107 


5, 475, 000 


83 


5, 437, 000 


101 


5, 286, 000 


54 


5, 223, 000 


53 


5, 134, 000 


93 


5, 094, 000 


73 



18, 552 

18, 073 
22, 685 
24, 145 

12, 707 

16, 370 

14, 180 
11, 229 
34, 471 

13, 176 
53, 003 

15, 326 

19, 342 
18. 370 

22, 546 
18, 532 
11,300 
15, 656 
11,587 

14, 424 
JO, 051 
29, 103 

17, 253 
12,952 
26,088 

i 13, 029 
i 10,008 

15, 246 
11,855 

23, 375 

24, 089 
13,389 

18, 215 



MANtrFACTTJRES 



195 



Hank of New England Cities in Ordeb <>k Manufacturing Activity — Contd. 

GROUP i. CITIES AM) TOWNS BETWEEN $1,000,000 AND $5,000,000 IN VALUE ADDED 

in MANUFACTURE 



City 



Value added by all 
manufactures, 1927 



Rank 



Amount 



Estimated popu- 
lation, 1925 



Rank Number 



Adams, Mass 

Augusta, Me 

Marlboro, Mass 

Rutland, Vt 

Winchester, Mass 
Braintree, Mass... 
Wakefield, Mass.. 

Milford, Mass 

Danvers, Mass 

Medford, Mass 

I>erby, Conn 

Methuen, Mass... 

Bangor, Me.. 

Melrose, Mass 

Portsmouth, N. H 

Natick, Mass 

Newport, R. I 

Bath, Me 

Arlington, Mass.. 
Brookline, Mass.. 
Dedham, Mass... 



89 
90 
91 
92 
93 
94 
95 
96 
97 
98 
99 
100 
101 
102 
103 
104 
105 
106 
107 
108 



941,000 
706,000 
512, 000 
733, (XX) 
691,000 
599, 000 
477,000 
378,000 
345,000 
192,000 
647,000 
497,000 
493,000 
358, 000 
025,000 
012, 000 
692, 000 
315,000 
267,000 
048, 000 
045,000 



92 

87 
77 
7S 

104 
94 
80 
85 

102 
27 

100 
63 
45 
64 



13, 525 

14, 625 
16, 236 
15,752 

1 1 . 666 

13, 193 
15,611 
14,781 
11,798 
47. 627 

12, 509 
20, 606 

26, 644 
20, 165 

14, 871 
12, 871 

27, 757 
i 14, 731 

24, 943 
42, 681 
13,918 



i Census of 1920. 



LOCALIZATION BY COUNTIES 



In order to show the local importance and type of manufactures in 
different sections of the various States, there is presented here a table 
containing the number of manufacturing establishments in each of 
the 67 counties of New England in 1925. The total number of manu- 
facturing establishments of all kinds is shown for each State and each 
county in the first column of the table. 

The Biennial Census of Manufactures for 1925 published no figures 
for individual counties. The table following was worked up from 
unpublished census data for presentation here, in order to show the 
location of New England manufacturing activity in as great detail as 
is possible from official sources. It is appreciated that a simple 
enumeration of manufacturing plants is not an accurate indicator of 
the volume of manufacturing activity^ within a county, because a single 
large establishment may be more important than a dozen smaller 
plants. But since each establishment is a separate business unit, this 
compilation by counties will be of distinct commercial assistance in 
locating these units. 

Note. — The Market Data Handbook of the United States, recently published by the 
Department of Commerce (Domestic Commerce Series No. 30), includes 1927 data for 
each county in New England showing the number of establishments and wage earners, 
volume of manufacturing, and additional data on industry and marketing. 



196 



INDUSTRIAL STRUCTUIJK OF NEW ENGLAND 



Number of Establishments in Each County of New England, by Major 
Groups of Manufacture, 1925 





S 


Metals 




















P 






o 

•S3 

a 

03 










.2 


a> 






be 




V} 

o 

1 


a> 

i 


03 

i >» 

a 




State and county 


>> 

a 


T3 

a 

1 


en 
& 

O 
u 

1 


3 

Xi 

o 




< 


a 


o 


o 




l 


3 


08 


E 


f£ 


XL 

O 


!■ 


o 


< 


Massachusetts.. . 


10, 237 


828 


455 


436 


1,489 


1,135 


67 


375 


1,067 


1,837 


475 


760 


335 


978 


Barnstable. .. 


35 
239 


1 

15 


1 

5 


1 


2 
35 








5 
21 


10 
54 


2 

4 


8 
43 


3 
20 


? 


Berkshire 


8 




17 


17 


Bristol 


837 


77 


38 


118 


157 


14 


2 


16 


62 


184 


27 


40 


23 


79 


Dukes 


3 

1,517 
















1 
92 


1 
243 


""63" 


1 
57 






Essex. 


112 


30 


18 


87 


661 


4 


22 


30 


98 


Franklin 


148 


13 


18 


1 


13 


3 




10 


13 


26 


4 


34 


3 


10 


Hampden 


642 


69 


33 


24 


63 


8 


1 


66 


84 


124 


19 


21 


27 


103 


Hampshire... 
Middlesex 


140 


10 


6 


1 


23 


2 


1 


11 


13 


27 


4 


23 


7 


12 


1,693 


148 


83 


76 


222 


98 


22 


69 


167 


359 


117 


137 


52 


143 


Nantucket. _. 


4 
439 
















1 
42 


2 

56 


1 
24 








Norfolk 


28 


13 


12 


75 


30 


11 


17 


16 


83 


32 


Plymouth 


448 


28 


32 


7 


28 


138 


10 


11 


35 


58 


27 


46 


8 


20 


Suffolk 


2,813 


175 


109 


134 


549 


125 


11 


97 


451 


499 


133 


173 


51 


306 


Worcester 


1,279 


152 


87 


44 


235 


48 


5 


39 


80 


194 


50 


161 


28 


156 


Connecticut 


2,977 


310 


258 


211 


424 


31 


23 


99 


274 


572 


89 


240 


117 


329 


Fairfield 


698 


90 


66 


45 


135 


9 


6 


21 


55 


121 


26 


32 


19 


73 


Hartford 


635 


77 


74 


41 


48 


5 


1 


30 


71 


121 


16 


42 


32 


77 


Litchfield 


167 


15 


14 


13 


12 




1 


3 


16 


43 


1 


30 


7 


12 


Middlesex 


144 


13 


14 


11 


24 


1 


2 




7 


22 


6 


13 


6 


25 


New Haven.. 


906 


82 


80 


95 


84 


8 


12 


22 


101 


180 


26 


68 


39 


109 


New London. 


234 


15 


9 


5 


62 


6 


1 


16 


13 


52 


10 


17 


11 


17 


Tolland 


66 
127 


3 
15 






21 

38 






4 
3 


2 
9 


11 
22 


1 
3 


11 

27 


3 


10 


Windham 


1 


1 


2 





6 


Rhode Island 


1,627 


120 


67 


300 


417 


13 


9 


31 


106 


277 


56 


60 


39 


132 


Bristol 


40 

79 

42 

1,397 


5 

4 

2 

109 






11 

45 

1 

330 




2 


1 


2 
7 
9 
84 


14 
12 
16 
215 






2 
2 

""28" 


3 


Kent 


1 




3 
2 
50 


2 
4 
50 


3 


Newport 








8 


Providence. .. 


66 


300 


13 


6 


30 


116 


Washington. _ 


69 








30 




1 




4 


20 


1 


4 


7 


2 


Maine 


1,615 


44 


19 


17 


139 


57 


2 


58 


116 


468 


36 


457 


78 


124 


Androscoggin 


177 
59 
296 


5 
2 
10 






18 
2 
18 


17 
1 

8 


1 
.... 


10 
1 
13 


13 
4 
33 


55 
28 
84 


5 
2 
10 


31 
16 

57 


13 
1 
11 


9 


Aroostook 






2 


Cumberland . 


6 


14 


31 


Franklin 


52 
56 
140 


2 






2 
3 

14 


1 
1 
7 


.... 


1 


2 
2 
11 


13 
20 

42 


...... 


28 
15 
30 


1 

13 
6 


2 


Hancock 






2 


Kennebeck--. 


9 


2 






9 


7 


Knox. 


78 
35 
117 
168 


2 


1 




12 

1 
1 
17 


1 






5 
2 
6 
14 


21 
11 
27 
37 


2 

...... 


8 
11 
63 
41 


10 
1 
2 
4 


16 


Lincoln 






9 


Oxford 


1 
6 






3 

4 


.... 


4 
9 


10 


Penobscot 


4 


2 


22 


Piscataquis . 


39 








7 


1 






3 


6 




18 


4 




Sagadahoc. . 


39 


3 






5 


2 




4 


2 


7 


2 


9 


3 


2 


Somerset 


94 




2 




18 


3 




4 


4 


25 




34 


2 


2 


Waldo 


51 
93 
121 

1,113 








4 
2 

15 

113 


1 


--- 


1 
1 
1 

39 


2 

4 
9 

89 


8 
50 
34 

191 


1 
33 


32 
24 
40 

357 


2 
2 
3 

63 


1 


Washington.. 


1 
3 

61 


2 
2 

15 


..... 
20 


4 


York 


7 
87 


- — 


5 


New Hampshire . 


45 


Belknap 


57 


7 


1 


3 


13 


1 




1 


3 


9 


1 


17 




1 


Carroll 


53 
125 








10 

4 


1 
6 






4 
3 


3 

8 


""16" 


29 
63 


5 
5 


1 


Cheshire 


8 


1 


1 




8 


8 


Coos 


51 
111 


3 
5 


1 


..... 


2 

14 


2 
4 


--" 


4 

5 


4 
14 


15 

8 


2 
1 


15 
51 


1 
3 


2 


Grafton 


5 


Hillsborough. 


275 


23 


5 


4 


28 


27 




6 


22 


61 


7 


60 


20 


12 


Merrimack... 


151 


7 


4 


8 


17 


3 




5 


11 


30 


3 


42 


13 


8 


Rockingham. 


125 


3 


1 


1 


5 


26 




1 


11 


24 


5 


38 


8 


2 


Strafford 


113 


3 


1 


1 


12 


15 




7 


12 


20 


3 


27 


7 


5 


Sullivan 


52 


2 


1 


1 


8 


2 





2 


5 


13 


1 


15 


1 


1 


Vermont 


1,039 


43 


20 


8 


51 


6 




21 


67 


238 


22 


287 


243 


33 


Addison 


40 
62 
















4 
3 


16 

8 


..... 


16 

18 


2 

5 


2 


Bennington 


2 


4 


1 


10 






5 


4 


( alcdonia 


88 
106 


3 

6 


1 
3 


2 








1 
2 


4 
12 


28 
33 


3 
4 


26 
24 


18 
2 


?, 


Chittenden.. 


8 


2 




10 


Essex. 


15 
53 














1 

1 


1 
5 


3 

18 


...... 


9 
12 


1 
5 




Franklin.... 


2 




2 


2 


1 




2 


Grand Isle 


4 

u 

55 


















4 
7 
18 










Lamoille 


2 






1 


1 






2 
3 


1 


17 
29 


3 
1 


1 


Orange 








1 


3 


Orleans 


53 
117 
222 


3 

8 
4 


2 
2 
4 


..... 


2 

6 

7 








4 

7 
7 


14 
25 
23 


..... 
3 


21 

18 
27 


7 
43 
145 




Rutland 








3 


Washington. 








2 


Windham 


90 
99 


1 
12 


2 

2 


1 
1 


2 
13 






10 


9 
6 


17 
24 


1 

1 


40 
30 


3 

8 


4 


Wind or 


2 















METAL MANUFACTURES 

The industries which depend primarily upon metals for their raw 
materials comprise the most important group of all New England 
manufactures when regarded as a source of revenue to the region. 
It is estimated that in their contribution to value added by manufac- 
ture the metal industries now represent about one-third of the New 
England manufacturing activity. These industries contain a larger 
number of establishments than any other type of manufacturing in 
New England and pay in wages nearly as much as all the textile 
industries. 

In dealing with this large and varied group of industries the plan 
is first to present a brief summary for the group as a whole and then 
to discuss separately each of the major branches of metal manu- 
facture. 

The discussions are based upon two main sources of information. 
The first is a detailed analysis of data from the Biennial Census of 
Manufactures, which provides the most complete summaries obtain- 
able. This basic information is amplified by replies from a large 
number of concerns in response to a questionnaire covering their 
manufacturing and marketing experience and practice. Upward of 
1,100 New England concerns in the various metal industries cooper- 
ated in providing the information summarized in the following pages. 
The discussion thus presents a fairly representative picture of the 
metal industries of New England. 

The metal industries provide a manufacturing income to the region 
between 900 million and a billion dollars a year, as shown by the 
value added by manufacture. The amount for 1925 was $936,761,000, 
which represented 31.9 per cent of the income from all New England 
manufacturing activity. These industries gave employment to an 
average of 317,000 workers in that year and paid more than $427,- 
000,000 in wages. Their importance as a market for materials used 
in manufacturing, including fuel, power, and supplies, is shown by 
an outlay of $676,365,000. As a provider of commodities for the 
Nation's consumption, the importance of the New England metal 
industries is indicated by a gross value of products considerably in 
excess of one and one-half billion dollars. 

While these industries are foremost as a source of revenue to New 
England, they are surpassed in the number of wage earners by the 
textile group. The metal industries accounted for a little more than 
one-fourth of the total wage earners engaged in manufacturing, 
while textiles employed somewhat over a third. Although the metal 
industries accounted for but 28.2 per cent of the total number of wage 
earners, they paid 31.9 per cent of all the wages. The average wage 
in the metal industries of New England was considerably higher 
than that in other types of manufacturing, being $1,347.50 per 
worker, in contrast to an average of $1,133 per wage earner for all 
61232 °— 30 14 197 



198 



[NDUSTRIAL STRUCTURE OF NEW ENGLAND 



other manufacturing. In proportion to the value added by manufac- 
ture, wages in this group rank higher than in any other general 
group. 

CHARACTERISTICS OF THE GROUP 

The metal industries comprise a wide variety of products. The 
Biennial Census of Manufactures gives figures for 83 distinct metal 
industries in the United States, and of this number there are 55 in 
New England which are important enough to have separate statistics. 
Their products find a way into markets which are largely industrial. 
They are thus affected to a great extent by general industrial con- 
ditions of the country. They are less subject to variations in demand 
than are manufactures of goods for personal consumption. With a 
few exceptions, such as jewelry and silverware, the metal industries 
make articles whose merit depends upon utility and service rather 
than preference and style. 

In the metal industries there are numerous links in the manufac- 
turing chain, so that the products of one stage of manufacture pro- 
vide the raw material for the next stage ; hence New England manu- 
facturers find a portion of their market within the region in the other 
industries as equipment and accessories. Because of the relatively 
high concentration of numerous lines of metal manufacture in New 
England the major portion of the market, however, lies outside. It 
is naturally of principal importance in the more highly industrialized 
portion of the eastern United States, bounded by the Potomac, Ohio, 
and Mississippi Rivers. 

In a surprisingly large number of cases New England metal manu- 
facturers cater to a nation-wide market. The location of sales and 
of competition, as indicated by 1,108 manufacturers in the metal in- 
dustries of New T England, is summarized in the following table, 
which shows the number of companies reporting business in the 
different geographical regions. Of the 1,108 replies received, 1,036 
reported a portion of their sales in New England, and 502 of these 
gave New England as a source of competition; 579 concerns reported 
the major portion of sales as being outside the area, while 418 con- 
cerns reported the major portion of their sales within New England. 
As sources of sales and competition the States nearest New England 
are naturally of greatest importance, the order being the Middle 
Atlantic, the East North Central, and the South Atlantic States. 
Next in importance come the Pacific Coast States, which are followed 
by the other geographic divisions of the West and South. 

Location of Markets and of Competition as Indicated by New England 
Metal Manufacturers * 



Geographic division 


Firms re- 
port in^ 
sales In 

divisions 
listed 


Firms re- 
porting 
competi- 
tion from 
divisions 
listed 


Geographic division 


Firms re- 
porting 
sales in 

divisions 
listed 


Firms re- 
porting 
competi- 
tion from 
divisions 
listed 


gland 


1,036 
600 
386 

ISO 
170 


602 
300 
247 
62 
27 


East South Central 


130 

122 
110 
79 
91 


33 


M Iddle Atlantic 


West North ('entral 


27 


ortb ( 'entral 


West South Central. 


23 


Soul h Atlanl Ic 


M own tain 


19 




Foreign countries 


41 









i Reported \>y 1,108 flrau In the metal industries of New England. 



MKTAI, MANUFACTURES 199 

FACTORS INFLUENCING LOCATION 

Regarding the factors which in the minds of manufacturers have 
been of importance in determining their location in New England, 
labor ranked first and markets second among 1,135 questionnaire 
replies that were analyzed. The large numbers of highly skilled New 
England workmen stand out as a very important asset in the metal 
industries. Analysis of 631 answers showed the various reasons in 
the minds of these manufacturers in the following frequency: Labor 
conditions, 411; accessibility of markets, 369; accessible raw mate- 
rials (mainly semifabricated products), 272; transportation facil- 
ities, 201; banking facilities, 192; freight rates, 170. In most cases 
a combination of reasons was given. In a great many cases personal 
reasons, such as home and family connections, affection for a par- 
ticular locality, or the fact that the business had been established 
there by a predecessor, were given as the determining reasons in the 
mind of the manufacturer. Availability of local capital was oft cm 
an important factor. 

Labor stands first as a factor influencing location in the greater 
number of separate lines of metal manufacture. With the heavier 
and less highly fabricated metal industries, location of markets was 
given as the principal reason for plant location. This includes such 
enterprises as foundries, structural iron work, sheet metal, and wire 
work. In several of the machinery lines, particularly textile ma- 
chinery, the near-by market afforded by other industries was the 
principal reason for the given location. 

RAW MATERIALS 

The materials consumed by New r England metal industries have a 
considerable variety. The principal items are iron and steel, in 
stages of partial manufacture ranging from pig iron and blank cast- 
ings to bar and sheet iron and steel and forgings, also brass, bronze, 
copper, tin, and other nonferrous metals, as well as precious metals. 
With a few exceptions, none of the New England metal industries 
start the manufacturing process as far back as the reduction and 
refining of metallic ores, although a few blast furnaces for reduction 
of iron ore existed there during and immediately after the World 
War. The principal present exception is the recently established 
blast furnace at Everett, Mass., which turns out pig iron for use 
by the metal-working industries of New England. 

In the last analysis these industries depend upon outside sources 
for their raw materials. But in most instances each industry car- 
ries through one stage in a series of manufacturing operations wherein 
all but the first stage uses as raw materials the manufactured product 
of a preceding stage. The blast furnace referred to, having a cen- 
tral location as regards distribution of its product throughout New 
England, with a position on tidewater whereby it may transport 
all its raw materials by water — limestone from the coast of Maine, 
iron ores from Newfoundland, Sweden, Cuba, Brazil, or other tide- 
water sources, and by-product coke from near-by New England 
.sources — marks an important step in the local production of the 
basic materials for New England metal industries. 



200 



INDUSTRIAL, STRUCTURE OF NEW ENGLAND 



SEASONAL VARIATION 

Seasonal activity in the metal industries is less marked than in 
some other lines of New England manufacture. There is little sea- 
sonal variation in the market and in supplies of raw materials or in 
other phases of production. Fluctuations in employment follow, 
in general, the swing of business activity, and particularly that of 
industrial activity throughout the country. 

INCENTIVE METHODS OF WAGE PAYMENT 

The use of incentive methods of wage payment in the metal indus- 
tries of New England has found in some lines a high degree of devel- 
opment, while in others it appears to have very little place. Analy- 
sis shows that certain industries have made outstanding progress in 
this respect while others are somewhat backward, as is pointed out in 
the discussion of the individual types of manufacture. Conditions 
of manufacture are so varied with different types of products that no 
uniform degree of such employment can be expected to find practical 
application. 

TREND OF ACTIVITY 

The general trend of activity in the New England metal industries 
has been upward in the last few years. There are a few exceptions 
where drastic readjustments have taken place. Growth in electrical 
machinery, in metal-working machinery, and in hardware and tools, 
was marked during the years following the severe postwar slump — a 
period when the country was oversupplied with machinery from war- 
time activity. According to compilations by the Electrical World, 
based upon monthly consumption of electrical energy by an identical 
group of large New England manufacturing plants, the metal indus- 
tries have had a substantial and continuing upward trend since 1925. 

MARKET FOR PRODUCTS 

The market for products of New England metal industries in- 
cludes a wide range of consumers. In the case of industrial equip- 
ment this market is of three distinct kinds. First is the field pro- 
vided by demands for new equipment for industrial expansion. In 
addition, there is a large field for replacements of old equipment, 
resulting from obsolescence and depreciation. 

The classification of the market for representative New England 
metal products, according to the type of consumption and use, would 
run approximately as follows : 



Industrial : 

Machinery. 

Foundry and machine-shop prod- 
ucts. 

Engines and waterwheels. 

Brass and bronze products. 

Copper, tin, sheet iron, wirework, 
etc. 

Forgings. 

Steam fittings. 
Personal: 

Cutlery. 



Personal — Continued. 

Jewelry. 

Plated ware. 

Silverware. 

Clocks and watches. 

Firearms. 
General : 

Hardware and tools. 

Plumbers' supplies. 

Typewriters. 

Sowing machines. 

Needles, pins, etc. 



METAL MANUFACTURES 201 

Methods for reaching the markets for these products are prevail* 
ingly through direct dealing with the manufacturing consumer in 
the case of industrial equipment, and either through wholesale houses 
or direct to the retailer in the case of goods for personal or general 
consumption. Because each line of manufacture differs somewhat 
from the others in its marketing methods, these methods are dis- 
cussed under each industry. 

PRINCIPAL CLASSES 

The most important of the metal industries in New England is the 
manufacture of machinery and mechanical equipment. This includes 
as its major items electrical equipment, textile machinery, machine 
tools, and a variety of special types of machinery. This group of 
manufactures in 1925 contributed upward of one-fourth (28 per 
cent) of the revenue derived from all the metal industries. 

Next in order is the great variety of products included in the 
foundry and machine-shop group. These contributed 17 per cent 
of the manufacturing revenue from all the metal industries. 

The group including hardware, cutlery, and mechanics' tools ranks 
third in importance, contributing 12.7 per cent of the total. Manu- 
factures of brass, bronze, and other nonferrous materials are about 
one-half as important as the hardware group. 

Jewelry, silverware, and plated ware are of nearly as great im- 
portance collectively as the brass and bronze manufactures, contribut- 
ing not quite 6 per cent of the manufacturing income for all the 
metal industries. 

Manufactures of automotive equipment, motor cycles, bicycles, and 
parts together represent 3.7 per cent of the total income for metals. 

These five classes make up the outstanding metal manufactures of 
New England and together comprise about 70 per cent of the reported 
total manufacturing income from all the metal industries. Besides 
the lines enumerated, there are a number of others which make up a 
substantial group, constituting more than one-fourth of the total. In 
these the principal items are firearms, clocks, and watches, a variety 
of iron and steel products, besides steel shipbuilding and railroad- 
repair shops and equipment. 

MACHINERY GROUP 

ELECTRICAL1MACHINERY AND APPLIANCES 

The electrical-equipment industries of the United States are largely 
concentrated in six States, ranking as follows: New York, Illinois, 
Pennsylvania, Ohio, New Jersey, and Massachusetts. These six 
States in 1925 produced more than three-fourths of the total output 
for the country. In that year New England production was 15.6 
per cent of the national total, while the Middle Atlantic States pro- 
duced 41 per cent and the East North Central States 37.5 per cent. 
These three groups of States thus accounted for over 94 per cent of 
the output of the country. 

In this branch of machinery manufacture are included establish- 
ments which are engaged in the making of machinery, apparatus, and 
supplies for use in the generation, transmission, and utilization of 



202 



INDUSTRIAL STRUCTURE OF NEW ENGLAND 




LOCATION OF ESTABLISHMENTS 
MAKING 

ELECTRICAL MACHINERY 

AND APPLIANCES 



NEW ENGLAND STATES 

1927 

D0T5AND FIGURES SHOW NUMBER IN EACH COUNTY 



/>' cA> <-£) 



O P4406 *€ 



Figrure 33 



Metal manufactures 203 

electric power. The industry thus includes a very considerable 
variety of products, such as generators, transformers, control appa- 
ratus, electric motors, batteries, electric lamps, radio apparatus, 
switchboards, insulated wire, signal apparatus, searchlights, electri- 
cal appliances, and various other devices used in the electrical 
industries. 

PIA.CE IN METAL-USING GROUP 

The manufacture of electrical machinery and appliances is the 
leading metal industry of New England, representing about 15 per 
cent of the total value of products in the group of metals and 
related industries, and more than 1G per cent of the income derived 
from all the metal manufactures. The electrical equipment indus- 
tries ranked third among all manufacturing industries of New Eng- 
land in their output in 1925, representing about 4 per cent of the 
value of all manufactured products of the area and 5.2 per cent of 
the revenue. 

The electrical industries of New England in 1927 employed a little 
less than 41,000 wage earners and paid upward of $53,000,000 in 
wages. The average wages per wage earner in 1925 were $1,321, in 
comparison with the average of $1,241 in 1923 and of $589 in 1914. 
In comparison with other regions, however, average wages in this 
industry in 1925 were less in New England than for the country as 
a whole, the figures being $1,321 and $1,350, respectively. 

The electrical industries in 1927 contributed to the income of the 
people of New England, as shown by the value added by manufac- 
ture, approximately $144,600,000, and their products had a gross 
value of $229,516,000. A relatively high contribution by the manu- 
facturing processes is indicated for New England in the ratio shown 
by value added by manufacture to value of gross output ; in 1925 the 
value added by manufacture was 70 per cent in New England, com- 
pared with 58 per cent in the Middle Atlantic States and 57 per cent 
in the East North Central States. The average value of product 
per wage earner in New England was $5,835, compared with $6,540 
for the rest of the United States. 

This industry shows a considerable reduction in the 2-year interval 
1925 to 1927. In Rhode Island there was an increase in output and 
in manufacturing income amounting to about $1,000,000. The other 
producing States, however, show a decline. 

IMPORTANCE IN" SEPARATE STATES 

The importance of electrical manufacturing industries in the States 
of New England in 1927, and the trend of growth, as indicated 
by figures for 1904, 1914, and 1925, are shown in the following table. 
Massachusetts is the leading State in New England, with 61 per 
cent of the output of the region and two-thirds of the regional income 
from this type of manufacturing, and is followed in turn by Con- 
necticut, Rhode Island, New Hampshire, and Maine. (See fig. 33.) 



204 



INDUSTRIAL STIIUCTUKE OF NEW ENGLAND 



Manufacture of Electrical Machinery, Apparatus, and Supplies in New 
England States, 1925 and 1927 





Estab- 
lish- 
ments 


Wage 
earners 


Thousands of dollars 


State and year 


Wages 


Cost of 
materials 


Value of 
products 


Value 
added by 
manu- 
facture 


Massachusetts: 

1927 


122 
116 

70 
65 

14 
15 

6 
8 


24,759 
25, 065 

14,500 
14, 171 

1,431 
1,302 

253 
640 


33, 904 
35, 109 

16, 999 
17, 074 

1,914 
1,699 

226 

528 


42, 198 
43, 794 

34, 799 
34, 246 

7,572 
7,624 

353 
1,158 


139, 349 
147, 057 

75, 926 

78, 366 

13, 355 
12, 432 

887 
2,414 


97, 151 


1925 


103, 263 
41, 127 


Connecticut: 

1927 


1925 


44, 120 

5,783 
4,807 

534 


Rhode Island: 

1927 


1925 


New Hampshire: 

1927 


1925 


1,256 




Total: 

1927 -.. 


212 
204 
153 
120 

1,777 
1,739 

11.7 


40, 943 
41, 178 
23, 993 
11, 997 

241, 566 
239, 921 

17.2 


53,043 
54, 411 
14, 136 
6,317 

336, 239 
323, 835 

16.8 


84, 922 
86, 822 
29, 091 
14,184 

645, 762 
636, 692 

13.6 


229/516 
240, 269 
64, 019 
26, 407 

1, 637, 307 
1, 540, 002 

15.6 


144, 595 
153, 446 
34, 928 
12, 224 

991, 545 
903, 310 

17.0 


1925 > .-. 


1914 2.. _ 


1904 _ 


United States total: 

1927 


1925. .._ 


New England as per cent of United 
States: 1925 







i Not including 1 establishment in Maine. 
» Not including 1 establishment in Vermont. 



GROWTH IN RECENT YEARS 

This industry has had a very rapid growth in the last 25 years, in 
which New England has experienced a fair share of the national 
increase. The value of products of the electrical industries increased 
ninefold from 1904 to 1925 in the country as a whole, and it increased 
in New England in the same period more than eight times. The 1925 
output in New England was 275 per cent greater than in 1914 and 
57 per cent more than in 1919. 

Establishments in New England as a whole averaged considerably 
larger in number of w 7 age earners than for the rest of the country, the 
average being more than 200 wage earners per establishment in New 
England, in comparison with 129 wage earners for the rest of the 
United States. This is a reversal of the situation in 1904, when New 
England establishments employed an average of 100 wage earners, 
while in the rest of the United States the average was approximately 
194 per establishment. The greater average size of establishments 
in New England is indicated by an average output of $1,177,788 per 
plant, in comparison with $840,732 for the rest of the United States. 
This is accounted for in part by the presence of several very large 
concerns. 

EXPERIENCES OF MANUFACTURERS 

In response to a special inquiry regarding their manufacturing 
ana marketing experience, replies were received from 49 New Eng- 
land companies in this Line, representing about one-fourth of the 
total number reported by the census. 



METAL MANUFACTURES 205 

She and age of establishments. — For these 49 establishments the 
average period of operation was 20 years. About one-third of the 
ij umber had been established within the last 10 years. With a few 
exceptions they had been engaged in the manufacture of electrical 
equipment throughout their entire existence. These exceptions in- 
cluded plants which had previously made automobiles, jewelry, arms, 
ammunition, and silk goods. Branch plants were reported by 6 com- 
panies, 2 of the branches being located in England and 1 in Ger- 
many. Several of the reporting establishments are branches of 
large companies whose headquarters are outside New England. 
About one-third of the reporting companies had made additions to 
their plant equipment since 1921, with increases ranging from 5 per 
cent up to several times their original capacity. The average output 
of 40 firms reporting their activity for 1925 was a little over 75 per 
cent of maximum capacity. 

Manufacturing practices. — Methods of payment by piecework or 
other incentive practices were indicated by two-fifths of these re- 
porting companies, with a variation in the proportion of workers 
employed under such a plan of from 20 to 100 per cent in individual 
cases. Moderate seasonal fluctuation was indicated in this industry 
by the figures of total numbers of workers on pay rolls at different 
quarterly periods, there being less than 10 per cent variation in the 
total number of wage earners employed by these reporting com- 
panies at different periods. Several plants reported the filling in of 
slack periods by the manufacture of radio apparatus or by making 
regular products for stock. Makers of lamps, in particular, re- 
ported the manufacture of goods for stock in the summer months, 
when they experience a lull in regular orders. 

Sales and marketing. — Reports from these companies indicate that 
the general trend of combined sales has been decidedly upward since 
1921, with a large increase each year. Increased sales were attrib- 
uted, in individual cases, to demands for new products, to new sales 
methods, to the extension of territory, and to lowered production 
costs. About one-seventh of the companies replying indicated a 
downward trend in total sales during the last few years, the chief 
reason for such decreases being given as a change in the nature of 
demand for their products. 

An increase of sales m the New England market was indicated by 
more than four-fifths of the reporting companies. These increased 
regional sales w T ere attributed to improved quality of product, to the 
growth of building activity, and to greater sales effort. One manu- 
facturer reported an increase of 200 per cent in New England sales 
as a result of special sales efforts. A few concerns whose sales in 
New England have been decreasing attribute the change to the mov- 
ing of factories to the West, to the transfer of their sales activity 
to other industrial centers, and to the decline in street railways. 

The majority of sales, as reported by these 47 companies, were 
made outside New England. Sales in "the Middle Atlantic States 
were reported by 33 concerns ; in the East North Central States by 
26; and in the South Atlantic States by 12; while a number of 
companies reported a nation-wide market. Eight concerrts reported 
that the majority of their sales were made within New England. 
On the basis of aggregate sales reported by 34 companies, a little 



206 INDUSTRIAL STRUCTURE OF NEW ENGLAND 

less than 20 per cent of the total sales in 1925 were made within 
Xew England. Competition from within New England was indi- 
cated by about half the reporting companies, while 19 companies 
reported competition from the Middle Atlantic States and 11 others 
from the East North Central States. 

Brands, trade-marks, and advertising. — The use of a brand or 
trade-mark on products is the prevailing practice of this industry. 
Two-thirds of the companies replying stated that their entire out- 
put bears an identification mark. The use of advertising was re- 
ported by over four-fifths of the reporting companies, most of which 
rely upon national advertising mediums in which trade journals 
are most common. Direct mail, dealer helps, and magazines are 
used to a considerable extent. Expenditures for advertising by the 
reporting companies represented 2 per cent of their aggregate sales 
in 1925, and the ratio of selling costs, exclusive of advertising, to the 
total value of the product in the same year was 12.7 per cent. 

Distribution channels. — The principal channels through which 
electrical products are distributed are wholesale firms and direct 
sales to the consumers of the goods, the latter being manufacturers 
who use this equipment in making their product. Sales agents were 
reported in a lesser number of cases. Several concerns also made 
sales direct to retailers, while two companies had exclusive dis- 
tributors, and one made sales direct by mail. 

TEXTILE MACHINERY AND EQUIPMENT 

The textile-machinery industry is closely related to the industries 
which manufacture textile products; its fortunes therefore depend 
largely upon conditions existing in textile manufacture. Textile 
machinery includes mechanical equipment for all stages of textile 
manufacture, such as the machinery for preparing raw fibers and for 
the preparation of yarn for weaving and knitting ; looms and knit- 
ting machinery ; machinery for bleaching, dyeing, printing, mercer- 
izing, and finishing; and other miscellaneous machinery, attachments, 
and parts used in textile manufacture. 

The country's manufacture of textile machinery and mechanical 
equipment for use in textile manufacture is largely centered in New 
England, nearly two-thirds of the national output being produced 
in this region. The obvious reason for this high concentration is 
the nearness of market in textile-manufacturing establishments. In 
fact, the industry, having had its early start in departments of tex- 
tile mills and in plants established adjacent to them, is one of long 
standing in New England. Of 68 companies which reported their 
period of operation, 52 had been in business for more than 25 years; 
of this number 31 had been in operation more than 50 years, and 
15 of these more than 75 years, including 4 concerns established for 
more than a century. Of the entire number 16 companies had come 
into existence within 25 years, and 6 of these within the last 10 years. 
More than half of the reporting companies were under their original 
management. Of the 68 concerns 4 indicated branch plants, all 
located witfain New England, and all but one had been established 
previous to 1924. 

The States of Massachusetts and Rhode Island represent about 
four-iifth- of this industry in New England ? and Massachusetts con- 



METAL MANUFACTURES 



207 



tributes about two-thirds of the total. New Hampshire is also of 
considerable importance, and there are establishments of substantial 
size in Connecticut and in Maine. (See fig. 34.) 

This industry in L927 contributed not far from $53,500,000 to the 
revenue of New England, as shown by the value added by manufac- 




TEXTILE MACHINERY 8c PARTS 



NEW ENGLAND STATES 

1927 
DOT5 SHOW NUMQE.R IN EACH COUNTY 



<^> Q^> 



Figure 34 



turing; and its product had a gross value of more than $75,500,000. 
There were 186 establishments engaged in making textile ^machinery 
and equipment, which gave employment to upward of 17,000 wage 
earners and provided a pay roll exceeding $23,000,000. The industry 
provided a New England market for materials, including fuel, power, 
and supplies, exceeding $22,000,000. 



208 



INDUSTRIAL STKUCTUIlK OF XKW KX(JLAXI) 



Comparison of the census figures for 1927 with those for 1925 
shows for all New England, exclusive of Maine, a reduction of 
$2,916,000 in the gross value of the product. The falling off in the 
net manufacturing revenue, however, was relatively slight, amount- 
ing to only $290,000. The number of establishments was reduced 
from 193 to 186, and the number of wage earners fell off from 
19,014 to 17,141 — a loss of 1,873 workers. In total wages paid there 
was a reduction of $1,711,000. The falling off in activity was con- 
fined to the two principal producing States — Massachusetts and 
Khode Island ; there was an increase in New Hampshire, Connecticut, 
and Vermont. Census figures for the individual States are given 
for 1927 and 1925 in the following table. No comparable informa- 
tion is available for earlier years because this industry was not seg- 
regated from other branches of machinery manufacture previous to 
1925. 

Manufacture of Textile Machinery and Parts in New England States, 

1925 and 1927 





Estab- 
lish- 
ments 


Wage 
earners 


Thousands of dollars 


State and year 


Wages 


Cost of 
materials 


Value of 
products 


Value 
added by 
manu- 
facture 


Massachusetts: 

1927 


119 
123 

41 
47 

9 

8 

13 

12 

4 
3 


12,009 
13, 687 

3,425 
3,781 

1,053 
912 

452 
420 

202 
214 


16,242 
17, 769 

4,766 
5,005 

1,370 
1,284 

527 
546 

273 
285 


15,008 
16, 584 

4,497 
5,752 

1,692 
1,593 

745 
612 

193 
214 


46, 866 
51, 411 

15,390 
17, 508 

7,324 
6,934 

2,328 
1,973 

678 
675 


31, 858 

34, 827 

10, 893 

11, 757 


1925 


Rhode Island: 

1927 


1925 


New Hampshire: 

1927 


5,632 
5,341 

1,583 


1925... _.. 


Connecticut: 

1927 


1925... ._. 


1,361 
485 


Vermont: 

1927 


1925 


462 






Total: 

1927» 


186 
193 

367 
379 

50.9 


17, 141 
19, 014 

26, 154 
27, 869 

68.2 


23, 178 
24, 889 

36, 481 
37, 464 

66.4 


22, 135 
24, 755 

36, 181 
39, 037 

63.4 


75, 586 
78, 502 

116, 921 
121, 653 

64.5 


53, 451 


1925 1 


53, 747 


United States total: 

1927 


80,740 


1925 


82, 616 


New England as per cent of United 
States: 1925... . 


65.1 







1 Not including 3 establishments in Maine. 



experiences of manufacturers 



In reply to a special inquiry information regarding volume of 
^ale.s, employment, and marketing practices was submitted by 58 
companies, with an aggregate employment in 1925 of 5,756 wage 
earners, thus representing more than one-fourth of the whole indus- 
try. Thirty-two of these concerns report an average employment of 
less than 25 persons each, and 19 of this number employed less than 
10 wage earners each. There were V6 concerns employing between 
25 and 100 workers, and 8 employed between 100 ana 250. There 



METAL MANUFACTURES 209 

were 5 other concerns each employing 250 workers or more, whose 
aggregate employment represented 62 per cent of the total reported 
number of w r age earners. One concern had a pay roll exceeding 2,000 
workers. As to volume of individual sales, there were 21 companies 
whose individual business in 1925 was less than $50,000; 13 concerns 
with annual sales between $50,000 and $100,000 ; 7 between $100,000 
and $250,000; 7 others between $250,000 and $500,000; 6 between 
$500,000 and $1,000,000; and 3 with individual sales exceeding 
$1,000,000. 

Plcfrit practices. — About one-third of these companies reported the 
use of some form of incentive method of wage payment for their 
factory workers, while two-thirds of the number stated that they 
did not employ any such method. The largest employer in the group 
paid 70 per cent of its workers on an incentive basis, and the average 
proportion of factory workers reported by all the companies was 
slightly over 60 per cent. Reports from these companies do not indi- 
cate any pronounced seasonal variation in employment, but it fluc- 
tuates w r ith conditions in the textile industries. A number of manu- 
facturers reported special efforts to maintain steady employment 
throughout the year by the development of supplementary products, 
aimed to reach a wider market. A few reported repair work as a 
means of keeping employment uniform; the majority, however, did 
not indicate any form of supplementary employment. Twenty-four 
of the concerns indicated the manufacture of a single type of product, 
while 18 others reported diversified production or the addition of 
secondary products. 

Ratio of production. — The ratio of production in 1925, as indicated 
by reports of 48 companies, was 53.3 per cent of maximum plant 
capacity. Twenty-one of these establishments reported operations 
at 75 to 100 per cent of the maximum, and 25 concerns between 
50 and 75 per cent. Additions to plant capacity since 1921 were 
reported by 11 concerns, the increase ranging from 10 to 100 per 
cent; 3 concerns reported a doubling of capacity; and 3 others in- 
creased more than one-half. Of 10 concerns whose sales in 1925 
showed an increase over those for 1923, 6 were operating at 75 
per cent, or upward, of full capacity ; and of 10 concerns whose sales 
showed a decrease in 1924 and 1925, 5 reported operations of 50 
to 75 per cent of capacity, and 5 at less than half capacity. One 
of the plants, whose capacity had been increased by 100 per cent, 
reported a continuous decrease in sales since 1921. 

Sales <md irwfrketinff. — On the basis of reports from 50 companies, 
representing approximately $12,000,000 in sales in 1925, about 31 per 
cent of these total sales were made within New England. Twenty- 
seven of these companies reported the majority of their sales within 
New England and 23 reported less than one-half in that section. Of 
the total number of 68 replies 35 concerns stated that the proportion 
of their sales in New England had decreased since 1921 and 19 stated 
that thev had increased, while 7 concerns reported that their New 
England sales in 1925 represented about the same portion of their 
total business as in 1921. The principal reasons given for increased 
sales were more efficient machinery, improved quality of product, 
better sales effort, and a better-known product. Companies having 
decreased sales in New England attributed the change to the de- 



210 INDUSTRIAL STRUCTURE OF NEW KX(;l.\NI) 

pressed condition of tin 1 textile industry, to competition in the South, 
to changes in demand for textile equipment, and to fully stocked 
mills. 

Markets outside New England, ranked according to importance, 
were the Middle Atlantic States, the South Atlantic States, the East 
North Central States, and the East South Central States. 

No great amount of competition outside New England was indi- 
cated by the reporting companies. Only a small amount was re- 
ported from the regions just mentioned, thus reflecting the continu- 
ing position of New England as the principal source of textile 
machinery for the country as a whole. 

Twenty firms, out of the total of 68, reported sales in foreign coun- 
tries, the range in exports being from 1 to 31 per cent in individual 
concerns. Only one concern reported exports exceeding 25 per cent 
of total business. Of 15 concerns giving full information regarding 
exports, with aggregate business in 1925 of $5,600,000. the average 
proportion of their exports was 13.4 per cent. 

Methods of distribution. — The principal method of distribution 
indicated is direct to the consumers of the textile equipment, who 
are naturally manufacturers of textile products. Nearly three- 
fourths of the reporting concerns sell their products entirely through 
this direct channel. Other distribution channels mentioned were 
wholesalers, direct to retailer, exclusive distributors, or resident 
agents. The method of distribution is determined largely by the 
nature of the product manufactured. 

Trade-marks and advertising 1 . — Use of trade-marks on practically 
the entire output was reported by 37 of the 68 reporting companies. 
Most of the concerns reported advertising in some form as an aid 
in marketing their product. Of 57 concerns indicating the mediums 
used 35 reported national advertising and 13 used local mediums. 
The principal medium is the trade journal, supplemented by direct 
mail. A few reported the use of magazines and newspapers where 
the product was for household use. 

Changes and improvements. — Changes and improvements in vari- 
ous departments or phases of their manufacturing organization are 
indicated by a substantial number of reporting companies. These 
improvements have been in the direction of executive control, meth- 
ods of wage payment, plant maintenance, and accident prevention. 
Significant quotations from individual companies are as follows: 

" Better methods of wage payment have greatly reduced labor costs." 

" Better accounting methods have aided materially in controlling purchases." 

" Standardization of products, materials, equipment, and performance have 

been of greatest Importance to us." 

" Reduced costs have resulted from standardization of products." 
" Expenses have been cut by reduction in number of executives." 
" We have developed new and better machines to meet changes in styles of 

hosiery." 

" Best results have come from an entirely new sales policy." 

"A better product at reduced cost has increased our number of satisfied 

customers," 

One manufacturer whose business is mainly in the South attributes 
the decrease of his New England sales to "labor laws, high taxes, 
and freight rates, and the efforts of Large corporations to reap big 
profit-, in contrast to the smaller owner-managed firms of the South." 
In contrast to this opinion another manufacturer expressed himself 



METAL MANUFACTURES 211 

as follows: "Trade reports to the contrary, it seems to us that the 

textile-finishing plants in New England have increased during this 
period, although probably not in proportion to our increased volume 
of sales. Superior quality and greater sales energy are partly 
responsible." 

MACHINE TOOLS 

The manufacture of machine tools and of other machinery used in 
metal working is an industry in which New England contributes 
upward of one-fourth of the total national output. The products 
of this line of manufacture are power-driven machines for cut- 
ting, shaping, or otherwise working metals, including such items 
as drills, gear cutters, grinders, lathes, planers, hammers, milling 
machines, punching machines, presses, simpers, and screw machines; 
bending, boring, and broaching machines; and various other ma- 
chines used in metal working. The principal products of this indus- 
try in New England come under the heading of machine tools, which 
are designed for more or less general use rather than for the making 
of special articles. This industry bears a close relationship to the 
entire machinery industry, and is substantially important because 
it is the source of much of the machinery used in other manufactures. 

The first concern of any particular importance for building ma- 
chine tools was founded in Providence, R. L, in 1833. Plants were 
also established in Worcester, Mass., in that year and in 1849. Other 
early concerns in this line were established at Fitchburg, Mass., in 
1838; in Windsor, Vt., in the same year; and at Hartford, Conn., 
in 1860. These early New England plants were followed shortly 
afterward by establishments in Newark, N. J., and in Philadelphia. 
The industry did not become established in the Middle West until 
after the Civil War. 

LEADING PRODUCING STATES 

New England, the Middle Atlantic States, and the East North 
Central States produce practically all the machine tools and other 
metal-working machinery made in the United States. In 1899 the 
New England States produced about 32 per cent of the national total ; 
New York, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania together, 26 per cent; 
Ohio, 30 per cent; and Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, and Wisconsin 
most of the remaining 12 per cent. 1 

The contribution of New England to the national total, both in 
1904 and 1914, was approximately 35 per cent, while the contribu- 
tion of Ohio advanced from 25 per cent in 1904 to 29 per cent in 
1914. The Middle Atlantic States receded from 24 per cent in 1904 
to 18 per cent in 1914; while the East North Central States, exclu- 
sive of Ohio, advanced from 16 to 18 per cent in the same years. The 
relative importance of the Middle Atlantic States has thus decreased, 
while that of the East North Central States, outside of Ohio, in- 
creased. The proportions of the machine-tool business located in 
New England and in Ohio, respectively, have greatly changed since 
1889. 

2 As reported by Eric Obcrg in " Machinery," Sept., 1927, pp. 43-47. 



212 



INDUSTRIAL. STRUCTURE OF NEW ENGLAND 



In 1925 the contribution of New England in metal-working ma- 
chinery and machine tools was estimated to be 30 per cent of the 
total national value of products of these industries, and 32 per cent 
of the national income from this source, as shown in value added by 




LOCATION Or ESTABLISHMENTS 
MAKING 

MACHINE TOOLS 



NEW ENGLAND STATES 

1927 
DOTS SHOW NUMBER IN EACH COUNTY 






(PO 4 + 24 -46) 



Figure 35 



manufacture. The highly fabricated nature of the industry in 
New England is shown by the fact that value added by manufacture 
comprised 73 per cent of the gross value of its manufactured products, 
while the average for the United States as a whole was 69 per cent. 



METAL MANUFACTURES 213 



IMPORTANCE IN NEW ENGLAND 



Census figures for this industry show a very substantial increase 
from 19*25 to 1927. In the four States for which separate figures 
are available — Connecticut, Massachusetts, Vermont, and New 
Hampshire — there was an increase of more than $14,000,000 in the 
gross value of the output and of more than $12,000,000 in the net 
manufacturing income. The number of wage earners in these four 
States showed an increase of 1,325 workers, and wage payments in 
1927 were $1,700,000 greater than in 1925. In number of establish- 
ments there was a reduction in Massachusetts from 36 to 30, an 
increase in Connecticut from 37 to 42, and a decrease of 1 each 
in Vermont and New Hampshire. The gross value of the output 
in Connecticut increased by more than $5,000,000, and the net manu- 
facturing income of the State showed an increase of more than 
$3,000,000. There were corresponding reductions in the figures for 
Massachusetts. In Vermont and New Hampshire the industry 
showed substantial increases. 

Although complete figures are not obtainable for all the States of 
New England, it is estimated that the total value of the output in 
this industry in 1925 exceeded $50,000,000, and that it contributed 
to the New England manufacturing income between $30,000,000 and 
$40,000,000 as shown by the value added by manufacture. These 
figures include an estimate for eight establishments in the State of 
Ehode Island for which census figures are not published. Statistics 
indicate that this State produced about 8 per cent of the United 
States total, which would indicate a total production in 1925 valued 
at upward of $14,000,000, and a contribution to the State income of 
upward of $10,000,000, as shown by the value added by manufacture. 

The industry is of some importance in each State of New England 
except Maine, but its importance in New Hampshire is relatively 
slight, with a product of less than $500,000. In Vermont it ranks 
third in importance among that State's manufactures, with an out- 
put of more than $6,500,000 and a contribution to the State income 
from the manufacturing processes of considerably more than $4,000,- 
000. Connecticut leads in individual State output and in State in- 
come from this source, but the three States of Connecticut, Massa- 
chusetts, and Rhode Island are not far apart in importance as pro- 
ducers. In each of these the income derived from the manufacture 
of metal- working machinery exceeded $10,000,000 in 1925. (See 
fig. 35.) 

Nearly 8,000 workers were employed and nearly $12,000,000 were 
paid in wages in the four States of Connecticut, Massachusetts, New 
Hampshire, and Vermont. In these four States the industry pro- 
vided a market for materials, including fuel, power, and other pur- 
chased supplies, exceeding $10,000,000. The importance of the manu- 
facture of metal-working machinery in each of the States for which 
separate figures are obtainable is shown for 1925 and 1927 in the 
next table. 

61232°— 30 15 



214 



INDUSTRIAL STRUCTURE OF NEW ENGLAND 



Manufacture of Metal-Working Machinery, Including Machine Tools, in 
New England States, 1925 and 1927 





Estab- 
lish- 
ments 


Wage 
earners 


Thousands of dollars 


State and year 


Wages 


Cost of 
materials 


Value of 
products 


Value 
added by 
manu- 
facture 


Connecticut: 

1927 


42 
37 

30 

36 

5 
6 

4 
5 


5,720 
4,208 

2,159 
2,530 

1,377 
1,159 

78 
72 


8,218 
6,433 

3,315 
3,721 

1,997 
1,720 

135 
92 


6,333 
3,956 

3,359 
4,063 

2,469 
2,318 

131 
100 


21, 833 
16, 488 

10, 830 
15, 459 

7,240 
6,673 

406 
302 


15,500 


1925 


12, 492 


Massachusetts: 

1927 


7,471 


1925 


11, 397 


Vermont: 

1927 


4,771 


1925 


4, 355 

275 


New Hampshire: 

1927 


1925 


202 






Total: 

1927 ! 


81 
84 

417 

378 

22.2 


9,334 
7,969 

41, 394 

36, 825 

25.3 


13, 666 
11,966 

62, 324 

55, 931 

21.4 


12, 291 
10, 438 

56, 976 

54, 524 

19.1 


40,309 

38, 883 

191, 262 
175, 592 

22.1 


28, 017 


1925 2 


28, 445 


United States total: 

1927 


134,285 


1925 


121,068 


New England as per cent of United 
States: 1925 ._ _ __. 


23.5 







1 Not including 7 establishments in Rhode Island. 

2 Not including 8 establishments in Rhode Island. 



RAW MATERIALS 



The principal raw materials purchased by manufacturers in this 
line are steel, gray-iron castings, pig iron, and some other metals. 
Supplies of gray-iron castings, as indicated by replies of representa- 
tive companies, are purchased almost entirely from New England 
foundries, while pig iron has heretofore been purchased mainly out- 
side .the area. Purchases of steel were evenly divided between New 
England and other sections, while other metals were reported gen- 
erally as being purchased within New England. 



LABOR COSTS 



In the manufacture of machine tools labor costs are an important 
item, the ratio of this item to the total value of product for the coun- 
try as a whole in 1925 being approximately 31 per cent. The pro- 
ductiveness of labor in this industry, as shown by the average value 
of product per wage earner, was considerably greater in New England 
than in some other sections of the country, the figure for New Eng- 
land in 1925 being $4,879 and for the United States as a whole 
$4,768, a difference of more than $100 in favor of New England. 
While the average annual wage per wage earner is greater than 
(hat for the New England metal industry as a whole, yet the average 
wage for- workers in the machine-tool industry was slightly less in 
1025 than the national average, the figures being $1,501 in New 
England in contrast to $1,519 for the entire United States. 



\l ETAL MAN tJFAOTTTRES 215 

EXPERIENCED OF mam km i i k 

Size and age of establishments. — The average age of these concerns 
was about 32 years, and all but three had been established prior to 
1921. In all but one case the concerns had been engaged in the 
manufacture of machine tools as a primary product since the found- 
ing of the business. The general practice is to concentrate opera- 
tions in a single establishment, as only one concern reported the 
operation of a branch plant. An indication of some tendency to 
changes in plant management in this industry appears from the fact 
that about one-fifth of the companies reporting had come under new 
management since 1921. 

Manufacturing practices. — Replies were received from 47 com- 
panies regarding their manufacturing and sales practices. Use of 
incentive methods of wage payment, such as a piecework basis, appear 
to have received a lesser degree of emphasis in the metal-working 
industries than in some other lines of manufacture in New England. 
Of the 47 companies reporting, three-fourths indicated no incentive 
plans of wage payment in operation. Of the remaining one-fourth 
of the concerns, the general average, per plant, of factory employees 
paid on the piecework basis was 10 per cent, although individual con- 
cerns in the group reported as high as 75 per cent. 

Variation in seasonal activity does not appear well defined in this 
industry. Production responds rather to the general trend of indus- 
trial conditions, w T hich influence the demand for various types of 
machine-tool equipment. Approximately one-fourth of the reporting 
group of manufacturers report the development of supplementary 
products, but these were designed more as a means of increasing the 
total volume of business than of overcoming seasonal variations. 

Saled and marketing. — The trend of sales in this line, as shown by 
reports from this representative group of manufacturers, has been 
generally upward since 1921. The principal market for machine 
tools is outside New England. Of 46 companies indicating the loca- 
tion of their market, 36 stated that the majority of their sales were 
outside this area, and 7 small concerns had their principal market 
within New England, while 3 companies made one-half their sales 
within the area. Sales were reported in all the geographic divisions 
of the country. Thirty concerns stated that they sold in the Middle 
Atlantic States, and an equal number reported sales in the east 
North Central States. Competition from this latter section was 
indicated more frequently than from any other group of States, 21 
firms specifying this region, in contrast to 18 which reported com- 
petition from local sources. Only six companies mentioned competi- 
tion as coming from the Middle Atlantic States, and very little com- 
petition was indicated from other sections. 

Sales to the New England market, as indicated by the returns 
from 33 counties, comprised approximately 10 per cent of their 
aggregate business in 1925, with a range from 1 to 100 per cent in 
individual cases. A substantial number of the group reported an 
increase of sales to the New England market in the last few years. 

Sales- to foreign countries were reported by 30 concerns, ranging 
in individual cases from 1 per cent up to 34 per cent of total sales, 
the average for the group being 11 per cent. 



Steam engines, pumps, and com- 
pressors. 

Turbine and centrifugal machinery. 

General classification, including ma- 
chine tools, textiles, printing presses, 
and of her specialty lines. 



210 [NDTJSTRIAL STRUCTURE OF XKW EKGLAND 

In the distribution of products of the machine-tool industry tin- 
principal method ot sale is direct dealing with the user of the prod- 
uct — that is, with manufacturers of various types of machinery. 
Some concerns, however, market their output through wholesale 
dealers and sales agents. 

The nature of the market is indicated by the following classifica- 
tion of the principal types of manufactures represented in the sales 
of one of the larger New England makers of machine tools : 

Automotive industry. 

Railroads. 

Agricultural implements. 

Diesel and gas engines. 

Electric motors, generators, and dy- 
namos. 

Gears and pulleys. 

Cranes, elevators and conveying ma- 
chinery. 

Trade-marks and advertising. — A high proportion of the com- 
panies reporting the manufacture of machine tools market their 
product under a company brand or trade-mark. National adver- 
tising is generally employed, four-fifths of the companies indicating 
this practice, in which trade journals and direct mail advertising are 
the prevailing mediums. The outlay for advertising represented an 
average of 1.8 per cent of total sales; selling costs, outside of adver- 
tising, were 11.3 per cent. 

Changes a?id improvements. — A number of companies report the 
use of research, which has been of considerable value in the creation 
of better designs, in standardizing tools, and in bringing about more 
effective control of production as well as a better understanding of 
their customers' requirements. Frequent inventories to determine 
the condition of plant equipment and the advisability of replacement 
with more modern designs have been found profitable. This applies 
particularly to the utilization of special tools, giving greater speed 
and accuracy, which remove bottle necks in the flow of production. 
In this industry, where manufacturing is done largely on special 
order, these factors are particularly important as a means of avoiding 
waste and inefficiency in the use of materials, labor, and capital. 

The reports indicated that this industry, in general, has been active 
in effecting improvements in manufacturing and selling activities. 
This is brought out in special comments by individual manufacturers, 
of which the following statements show trie general tendency : 

" Standardization of materials and product lias reduced our costs." 

"Continuous employment enables us to hold our organization together, even 
in slack periods." 

"We have reduced our inventory by production control and by correlating 
schedules with sales policies." 

" Minimum investment in inventories and of maximum shipments, plus quality 
and cost reduction, lias resulted in increased profits." 

"By Improved construction we have increased the satisfaction of customers 
and reduced returns of merchandise." 

"Much of our work is special; Improvements in design to reduce cost or to 
Increase efficiency of machines claim most of our attention." 

Considerable attention was indicated by the reporting concerns to 
the improvement of sales and marketing methods and of plant 
management; a substantial Dumber also indicated interest in the 
fuller development of export business. 



MET \l. M \N CJFACTURES 217 

MISCELLANEOUS MACHINERY 

Tn addition to the types included in electrical, textile, and metal- 
working machinery, a great variety of other special and general ma- 
chinery is made in New England. Conspicuous in this group are 
typewriters, of which the State of Connecticut contributed 37 per- 
cent of the national output; paper-mill and pulp-mill machinery, 
of which the State of Massachusetts produces more than one-fourth 
of the national value; blowers and fans, of which Massachusetts and 
Connecticut produce more than 40 per cent of the total; and pumps 
and pumping equipment, which is of considerable importance in 
Massachusetts, and somewhat so in Connecticut. 

No complete data are available for these kinds of machinery; 
imt all available figures of the 1925 production in the States of New 
England are presented in the following statement. Some of these 
products are included in the totals for foundry and machine-shop 
products. 

Special Classes of Machinery Peoduced in New England in 1925 

Typewriters and parts : 

Connecticut) $18, 471, 000 

Total United States 50,190,000 

Pumps and pumping equipment: 

Massachusetts 13, 357, 000 

Connecticut 3, 268, 000 

Total United States 121, 299, 000 

Engines ( steam or internal-combustion) , water wheels and parts : 

Massachusetts , 6, 163, 000 

Connecticut 4, 155, 000 

Total United States 317,255,000 

Blowers and fans: 

Massachusetts 1 „ aoa AAA 

Connecticut } 6 ' 629 > 00 ° 

Total United States 16,210,000 

Paper-mill and pulp-mill machinery: 

Massachusetts 5, 541, 000 

Tdtal United States 21,209,000 

Printing presses : 

Connecticut 3, 226, 000 

Total United States 69,217,000 

Meters, gas and water : 

Connecticut j o 886 000 

Massachusetts J 

Total United States 24,502,000 

Woodworking machinery : 

Massachusetts 2, 560, 000 

Total - 39, 620, 000 

Packaging machines: 

Connecticut ] 

Massachusetts [ 2, 051, 000 

New Hampshire J 

Total United States 4,387,000 

Confectionery and ice-cream machinery: 

Massachusetts 1, 619, 000 

Total United States 5, 143, 000 

Leather-working machinery, other than shoe machinery: 

Massachusetts 1. 557, ,000 

Total United States 2,222,000 

Laundry machinery: 

Massachusetts 998,000 

Total United States 24,198,000 



218 INDUSTRIAL STRUCTURE OF STEW ENGLAND 

Cars and trucks, industrial : 

Massachusetts $906, 000 

Total United States 24,267,000 

Stone-working machinery : 

Vermont 689, 000 

Total United States 1,736,000 

Elevators and elevator machinery: 

Massachusetts 680,000 

Total United States 47, 430, 000 

Transmission machinery : 

Massachusetts 619,000 

Total United States 15,350,000 

Hat-making machinery: 

Connecticut 307,000 

Total United States 522, 000 

EXPERIENCES OF MANUFACTURERS 

One hundred and forty-four companies in Massachusetts, Connecti- 
cut, and Rhode Island submitted replies to questionnaires cover- 
ing their experience in making and marketing these various types 
of machinery. The broad range of products covered in these replies 
is shown by the following summary of types reported: Paper- 
mill and pulp-mill machinery, 17 companies ; power-transmission ma- 
chinery, 17 ; woodworking machinery, 16 ; shoe machinery, 9 ; elevator 
and conveying machinery, 8 ; rubber-working machinery, 7 ; printing- 
press machinery, 5 ; stapling machinery, 5 ; paper-box machinery, ele- 
vator machinery, addressing and mailing machinery, baking machin- 
ery and equipment, hat-making machinery, 4 companies each ; laun- 
dry machinery, leather-working machinery, confectionery and ice- 
cream machinery, 3 companies each; refrigeration and ice-making 
machinery, packing machinery, chemical-plant machinery, marking 
machinery, blowers and fans, envelope machinery, bookbinding ma- 
chinery, stone-working machinery, 2 companies each. 

In addition to these, the following were represented by one com- 
pany each: Celluloid-working machinery; crushing, grinding* and 
separating machinery; cooling and conditioning machinery; bottling 
machinery; oil-mill machinery; cranberry-picking machinery; auto- 
matic-wrapping machinery; hydraulic machinery; sugar-mill ma- 
chinery; glass-cutting machinery; grain-handling machinery; agri- 
cultural machinery ; road-making machinery ; snow-removing equip- 
ment; brake-lining machinery; mechanical-tube cleaners; vacuum 
cleaners; lawn mowers; scales and balances. Approximately one- 
half of the reporting concerns indicated the manufacture of a single 
type of machine, while one-half made multiple or supplementary 
products in addition to the specified main product. 

Age and size of establishments. — About half of these companies 
had originated within the last 25 years; 43 had been in operation in 
New England 1 x 'tween 25 and 50 years; 28 over 50 years, and 12 of 
these from 75 years to nearly a century. Almost half of the 137 con- 
cerns which stated the period of present management indicated some 
change within the last 10 years. 

As indicated by reports from 105 concerns which stated their sales 
volume, there were 47 with annua] sales of less than $50,000 and 16 
with sales between $50,000 and $100,000. Business between $100,000 
and $250,000 was reported by 28 concerns, and a volume between 
$250,000 and $500,000 by 17 others. There were also 8 companies 



METAL MANUFACTURES 219 

whose individual sales were between $500,000 and $1,000,000 and 5 
with annual sales exceeding $1,000,000 each. The largest individual 
sales volume reported by a company was nearly $4,000,000. All but 
one of the companies whose sales exceeded $1,000,000 in 1925 had been 
in operation more than 70 years. Six of the companies reported 
branch factories. One company making conveying machinery re- 
ported a branch plant in Ohio. A Connecticut concern making a 
variety of heavy machinery has a branch plant in eastern New York. 
A Vermont manufacturer of stone-working machinery reported a 
branch in New York. The other reported branches were located in 
New England. 

The total pay roll reported by 121 concerns was 5,433 wage earners. 
Seventy of the companies had an average of employees of less than 
25 persons each; 21 had between 25 and 50 workers, 20 between 50 
and 100, and 10 companies employed more than 100 workers each, of 
which 3 had a pay roll exceeding 250 workers each. The largest 
company employed nearly 700 wage earners. Of the 121 reporting 
companies, more than three-fourths had an individual pay roll of 
less than 50 wage earners. 

Raw materials. — The principal raw materials reported by this 
group of machinery manufacturers are steel, iron, and the nonf errous 
metals. One hundred and thirty companies reported the purchase 
of steel in its raw and semif abricatecl forms ; 127 firms reported pur- 
chases of cast iron, pig iron, and castings ; and 93 concerns reported 
the purchase of brass, bronze, copper, and other non ferrous metals 
in the raw or semif abricated forms. The majority of the concerns 
indicated that they purchase these supplies outside New England. 

Plant capacity. — Increases in plant capacity since 1921 were indi- 
cated by 29 of the 144 concerns, the increases ranging from small 
amounts up to a trebling of capacity. Increases were more frequent 
in plants turning out a variety of products than with those making 
a single product. Most of the increases were in small concerns. Out- 
put in 1925, as shown by the figures of 97 concerns, averaged 70 per 
cent of their maximum capacity in that year. Forty-three of these 
latter companies were run at upw r ard of 75 per cent, and 36 stated 
that their operations were from 50 to 75 per cent of full capacity; 
while 18 concerns reported operations at less than half of maximum 
capacity. 

Manufacturing practices. — The use of incentive methods of wage 
payment does not prevail to any great extent in this form of manu- 
facturing. Of 120 companies indicating their practices in this regard, 
96 stated that no incentive methods were used. The average for 16 
concerns giving figures for proportion of wage earners paid by incen- 
tive methods was 37 per cent of their total pay roll. Six of these 
companies stated that more than 50 per cent of their employees were 
paid in this manner. This included two large companies which re- 
ported 60 and 80 per cent, respectively. 

Sales and marketing. — Aggregate sales of 112 concerns submitting 
annual sales figures for 1923, 1924, and 1925 showed a net increase in 
1925 of 3.1 per cent over 1923 and of 11 per cent over 1924. Appar- 
ently no single factor accounted for individual contrasts in sales 
trends in these years. Increases in sales were attributed by individ- 
ual companies to improvements and new models, to better services 



220 INDUSTRIAL, STRUCTURE OF NEW ENGLAND 

to customers, and to increased sales efforts and advertising. De- 
creases in individual cases were attributed to depression in certain 
major New England industries, to changes in types of machines used, 
to new purchasing policies of customers, to competition, and to 
freight rates. 

Location, of markets. — The New England market is decidedly of 
secondary importance in this reporting group of manufacturers. 
With the 102 concerns whose aggregate sales were nearly $23,000,000, 
less than 25 per cent of the total sales were made within New Eng- 
land. The order of importance of different sections of the United 
States as a market was indicated to be as follows : Middle Atlantic 
States, East North Central, South Atlantic, and East South Central 
States, and the States on the Pacific coast. The sources of competi- 
tion mentioned most frequently were the East North Central States 
and the Middle Atlantic States. Several concerns stated that their 
sharpest competition came from within New England. 

Nearly half of these companies reported that they had some export 
business, the percentages ranging, in individual cases, from 1 up to 55 
per cent of total sales. The majority of these concerns stated that 
their exports were less than 10 per cent ; but seven of them reported 
exports of 25 per cent or more. For 58 companies (whose aggregate 
sales exceeded $19,000,000) which gave figures on exports, the amount 
exported represented 9.6 per cent of the total sales. 

Distribution methods. — On the basis of these replies of repre- 
sentative machinery manufacturers, the most common method of 
distribution is by direct sales to the consumer of the machinery. Out 
of 136 reports there were 103 concerns which indicated this channel. 
A small number reported exclusive distributors and a few have their 
own sales offices. 

Brands and tra$e-marks. — The majority of the reporting com- 
panies reported the use of an identifying brand or trade-mark. Of 
81 concerns indicating this practice, there were 61 whose entire prod- 
uct was specifically marked and 13 others which reported that half 
or more of their products were thus identified. On the other hand, 
there were 14 companies reporting that none of their product was so 
identified, while the others did not indicate their practice in this 
respect. 

Advertising. — Of 105 concerns replying there were 67 which adver- 
tised through national mediums and 21 through local mediums, while 
8 used both forms and 9 reported no advertising of any kind. Most 
of the concerns reporting these advertising mediums were selling 
their products direct to the consumer. The principal mediums, as 
in other mechanical lines, were trade journals and direct mail. 

Changes and improvements. — The changes and improvements in- 
dicated by these machinery manufacturers are mainly changes in 
production and selling practices. Many of the companies reported 
that they have effected savings through the standardization of prod- 
ucts and materials. Cutting down the costs of production through 
reforms in internal management and through the use of cost-account- 
ing systems was indicated in several instances. The reports indi- 
cated that, in general, manufacturers in this industry are finding it 
necessary to change their products materially in order to meet new 
demands and keep up will) progress in this field. Several concerns 



METAI, MANUFA(TI'i;KS 221 

reported advance in making their products more widely known. 
Education of possible purchasers to the advantages and use of labor- 
saving machinery is the line of effort stressed in another instance. 
One firm states that it is continually investigating the possibility for 
developing products to keep employment and production regular 
throughout the year. By using up-to-date tools or tools of special 
types a small manufacturer reports success in meeting the competition 
of larger concerns. 

On the other hand, one manufacturer states that the placing on the 
market of second-hand machines (which were used during the war 
when quantity production was necessary) at prices much below those 
for new machines, has had a harmful effect upon the selling of new 
products. Another manufacturer of machinery states that most of 
the new factory expansion is in the more centrally located regions 
of the country, and that a lack of industrial construction and expan- 
sion in New England retards the market for mechanical equipment 
there. A maker of paper-mill and pulp-mill machinery states that 
since the decrease of materials for paper making in New England, 
the paper mills are locating in other sections nearer the sources of 
supply. 

A manufacturer of leather-w T orking machinery states that many 
concerns in this line have started up in Pennsylvania, New York, 
and New Jersey, and that these are supplying the market formerly 
supplied by New England manufacturers. Another maker of a simi- 
lar line states that the machinery is now made to a great extent in 
plants of former customers. A manufacturer of woodworking ma- 
chinery says his market is affected by slack periods in the textile 
industry, because his customers in turn manufacture supplies for 
the textile mills. A maker of ventilating fans, whose market is with 
the textile and leather trades, finds that the slackness in these indus- 
tries has affected their purchases of supplies. One envelope-ma- 
chinery company complains of foreign competition. 

FOUNDRY AND MACHINE-SHOP PRODUCTS 

This group of New England manufactures is a very broad one 
embracing the lines which employ foundry and machine-shop 
processes that are not clearly segregated. The foundry, as ordi- 
narily defined, is an establishment which casts metals in various 
shapes, while the machine shop uses power-driven tools for cutting 
and shaping metals. Many of these establishments make a great 
variety of products, and thus there is considerable overlapping be- 
tween the present classification and other specific lines. The industry 
discussed here includes many foundries making castings of steel, 
malleable iron, or gray iron, and machine shops whose principal 
products are machinery and repair work not covered in other classi- 
fications. Foundries which are operated in conjunction with machine 
shops are included in this section, but independent foundries making 
castings for sale are treated separately. 

This industry caters largely to local trade, and thus depends prin- 
cipally upon a local market. On account of the variety of products 
there is an extensive and varied market outlet. Nominally the job- 
bing foundry has a local market because the service requirements 
of its trade demand close touch between foundry and consumer. 



222 



INDUSTRIAL STRUCTURE OF NEW ENGLAND 



The machine shops are not so dependent on local trade, particularly 
those making specialty products. 

Foundries and machine shops are well distributed throughout New 
England, and they are of considerable importance in each State, 




^\^^fe)^> FOUNDRY* MACHINE SHOP PRODUCTS 



NEW ENGLAND STATES 

1927 
DOTS AND F10UR£S SHOW NUMBER /N £ACH COUNTr 



<£±> Q^) 



(p0+4Z3-4t) 



Figure ! 



although the principal volume is naturally found in the regions 
where mills and factories abound, since these provide much of the 
market. As a source of revenue the industry is of approximately 
equal importance in Connecticut aitd Massachusetts, the contribution 
in L927 exceeding $60,000,000 m each Shite. It is likewise of ap- 



METAL MANUFACTURES 



223 



proximately equal importance in New Hampshire and Rhode Island, 
producing an income exceeding $6,000,000 in each case. In Maine 
and Vermont the manufacturing income from this source was in 
the neighborhood of $2,000,000 for each State. 

The total addition to the New England income from this type 
of manufacture in 1927 exceeded $142,000,000, and the output had a 
gross value of nearly $208,000,000. It gave employment to more than 
42,500 wage earners, who were paid in wages $62,693,000. > Of the 
814 establishments in New England there are almost 500 in the 
State of Massachusetts. 

The figures of activity in this line of New England manufacture 
for 1927 show a substantial increase over 1925. Although the num- 
ber of establishments fell off from 830 to 814, there was an increase 
of 366 in the average number of wage earners employed, and an 
increase of $1,724,000 in total wages. The gross value of the product 
in this 2-year interval shows an increase of $8,808,000 and the net 
New England income from manufacture increased more than 
$9,000,000, accompanied by a slight reduction in the total cost of 
materials. Each of the six States shows a substantial increase in 
the gross value of its product, and each State except Rhode Island 
shows considerable increase in net income. 

In the following table are presented the census figures for the 
individual States in 1927 and 1925, together with the corresponding 
New England totals for 1914 and 1904. 

Manufacture of Foundry and Machine-Shop Products in New England 

States, 1925 and 1927 





Estab- 
lish- 
ments 


Wage 
earners 


Thousands of dollars 


State and year 


Wages 


Cost of 
materials 


Value of 
products 


Value 
added by- 
manu- 
facture 


Massachusetts: 

1927 __ 


496 
500 

175 
184 

47 
49 

41 
40 

31 
33 

24 
24 


19, 898 
19, 541 

16, 799 
16, 980 

2.184 
2^154 

1,885 
1,788 

1,048 
968 

704 
721 


30, 059 
28, 920 

24, 206 

24, 214 

3,290 
3,079 

2,692 
2,574 

1,364 
1,206 

1,081 
976 


30, 760 
31,046 

25, 327 

26, 665 

4,296 
3,966 

2,717 
2,435 

1,520 
1,027 

1,012 
1,066 


94, 150 
90, 638 

86, 168 
83, 722 

10, 463 
10, 201 

9,778 
8,618 

4,272 
3,089 

3,119 

2,875 


63, 390 


1925 


59, 592 


Connecticut: 

1927.... 


60, 841 


1925 


57, 057 


Rhode Island: 

1927 


6,167 


1925 


6,235 


New Hampshire: 

1927. 


7,061 


1925 


6,183 


Maine: 

1927 


2,752 


1925 


2,062 


Vermont: 

1927 


2,107 


1925.. 


1,809 






Total: 

1927 


814 

830 

1,274 

1,264 

8,318 
8,154 

10.2 


42, 518 
42, 152 
62, 508 
58, 892 

397,814 
397, 838 

10.6 


62, 692 
60, 969 
41, 395 
33, 417 

591,065 
570, 801 

10.7 


65, 632 

66, 205 
43, 623 
35, 959 

872, 790 
883, 708 

7.5 


207, 950 
199, 143 
120, 283 
99, 827 

2, 259, 794 
2, 232, 986 

8.9 


142, 318 


1925 


132, 938 


1914 


76, 660 


1904 


63, 868 


United States total: 

1927.... 


1,387,004 


1925 


1, 349, 278 


New England as per cent of United States: 
1925 


9.9 







224 INDUSTRIAL STRUCTURE OF NEW ENGLAND 

EXPERIENCES OF MANUFACTURERS 

Special replies regarding operating practices were obtained from 
136 establishments turning out various types of foundry and ma- 
chine-shop products. All States are represented in these replies, 
although most were from Massachusetts and Connecticut. Most of 
these companies indicated the manufacture of multiple or supple- 
mentary articles in addition to a specified main product, and several 
turned out a great variety of articles. 

Size and age of establishments. — Small and middle-sized estab- 
lishments predominate in this group, although there were a number 
of large concerns. In the total of 112 companies which indicated 
sales volume in 1925, there were 33 with individual sales of less than 
$50,000; 24 with sales between $50,000 and $100,000; 21 between 
$100,000 and $250,000; and 13 between $250,000 and $500,000. In 
addition to these concerns there were 7 companies with an annual 
value between $500,000 and $1,000,000 each, and 14 exceeding $1,000,- 
000 in individual sales. The aggregate volume of these 14 largest 
concerns represents approximately 70 per cent of the total sales of 
the 112 companies. Most of these large individual concerns had been 
in operation upward of 50 years. The largest one did an annual 
business approaching $10,000,000'. 

In terms of workmen employed, the total for the 112 companies 
was 10,713 wage earners. Over half of these companies employed 
less than 25 workmen each, and a quarter of them from 25 to 100 
workers each. There were 11 concerns employing more than 250 
workers, whose aggregate represented 63 per cent of the total for 
the whole reporting group. One establishment had a pay roll of 
more than 1,000, but over two-thirds of the establishments had an 
average pay roll of less than 50 wage earners. 

Branch plants, located in different parts of the country, were re- 
ported by 10 of these companies. A maker of automatic sprinkler 
systems has a branch in the Middle West, and a concern making 
chilled-iron car wheels has branch plants in several Western States, 
while a concern making cast-iron brake shoes has branches in several 
parts of the country. A manufacturer of paper and pulp mill equip- 
ment reports a branch plant in Quebec. 

Raw materials. — The chief raw materials reported by this group 
of manufacturers are steel, iron, and nonferrous metals. Seventy- 
five concerns reported the purchase of raw or semifabricated steel, 
and 63 the purchase of cast or pig iron, while 41 reported purchases 
of semimanufactured iron in the form of castings, sheets, pipe, etc. 
Fifty-seven companies reported purchases of brass, bronze, or cop- 
per, while other nonferrous metals or alloys were mentioned in 36 
cases. The majority of these companies stated that orders for the 
purchase of their raw materials were placed with New England con- 
cerns or with New England agents. 

Sales ctnd mwrkets. — The trend of sales in this line from 1921 to 
1925, as indicated by figures of aggregate sales of 105 concerns, 
showed in 1925 an increase of 4.4 per cent over 1924, but a decrease 
of 4.9 per cent compared with 1923. The industry thus showed its 
highest activity in 1923, which was not quite reached by that of 1925. 
Numerous individual concerns showed substantial increase in volume 



METAL MANUFACTUKKS 225 

of sales in this period, but a considerable number showed decreases. 
Reasons given for increased sales volume were the development of 
new products (36 firms), new sales methods (34 firms), extension 
of sales territories (30 firms), and lowered manufactured costs (21 
firms). Other concerns attributed increased sales to lower overhead 
costs, increased demand, more advertising, and quality of goods. 
Decreased volume of business was attributed generally to changes in 
nature of demand, to competition with other sections, to general 
overproduction, and to high cost of labor and materials. 

Utilization of plant capacity. — The utilization of plant capacity 
as indicated by reports from 93 companies in 1925 was 72.5 per cent 
of the maximum possible output. Slightly more than half of these 
companies were running at 75 per cent, or upward, of full capacity 
and only five establishments reported operating at less than half 
capacity. Increases in plant capacities since 1921 were reported in 
several instances. Seven concerns reported a doubling of capacity 
and one other an even greater increase. Several others reported 
increases from 25 to 50 per cent. Three companies reported a reduc- 
tion of plant capacity. 

Location of markets. — Sales figures from 97 firms, with an aggre- 
gate volume in 1925 of $39,550,000, indicate that about 35 per cent 
of their aggregate sales were made within New England. Of the 
total number of 112 companies indicating the locality of their market, 
64 stated that more than half of their sales were made within New 
England, while the rest indicated less than half in that section. 
Markets outside New England, according to the frequency with 
which they were mentioned, were in the Middle Atlantic, the East 
North Central, the South Atlantic, the South Central, and the Pacific 
Coast States. The sources of competition mentioned most often 
were the Middle Atlantic and the East North Central States. Many 
of the companies find their principal sources of competition within 
New England. 

Foreign sales were indicated by 53 concerns, and 42 of these gave 
the foreign sales in terms of percentage of their total business. There 
was a wide range — from less than 1 per cent in a small concern up to 
70 per cent in a concern doing a million-dollar business. For these 42 
companies whose aggregate sales in 1925 exceeded $33,000,000 the 
total reported exports amounted to 12 per cent. With 31 of the com- 
panies indicating foreign sales, exports amounted to less than 10 
per cent, and with 19 of these they were less than 5 per cent of the 
total business. There were 4 other concerns which reported exports 
of more than 25 per cent of their total sales, and 3 of these reported 
more than 50 per cent. 

Distribution methods. — Since the local market is an important out- 
let in this line of manufacture, it is to be expected that distribution 
of the product would be made largely by the manufacturer direct 
to the trade, with secondary dependence upon wholesale distributors 
or sales representatives. The method of distribution varies to a 
considerable extent with the nature of the product. 

Trade-marks and advertising. — About two-thirds of the firms re- 
ported that they used an identification brand or trade-mark in mar- 
keting all or a portion of their output. Only five firms stated that 
they did not use any trade-mark on their products. Almost all the 



226 INDUSTRIAL STRUCTURE OF NEW ENGLAND 

reporting companies made use of some form of advertising, only 11 
out of the 136 companies definitely indicating that they did not 
advertise. Trade journals are the' principal advertising medium, 
but direct mail is used almost as frequently. Personal calls and 
direct soliciting by telephone are frequently mentioned. One manu- 
facturer of automatic sprinklers found it unnecessary because he 
relies upon insurance brokers to recommend his product. 

Changes and improvements. — Efforts to effect improvements in 
various sorts of manufacturing activities were indicated by many 
manufacturers. These improvements follow, in general, those in- 
dicated in other lines of mechanical manufacture, with particular 
attention to accident prevention, the provision of various safeguards, 
improvement of working conditions, standardization of products, and 
provision for continuous plant maintenance. 

A manufacturer of regulators and valves reports that by standardi- 
zation of products he has increased production without increased 
number of employees. Another concern reports that slack periods 
have been reduced and output has been kept more uniform by the 
installation of a cost- accounting system, whereby a careful checking 
is possible on labor, materials, and stocks of castings in anticipation 
of needs. In this industry, as in numerous others, the importance 
of developing better methods of selling is recognized by the attention 
which a majority of the concerns are giving to these problems. 

In this type of manufacture seasonal periods are the result mainly 
of general business conditions or* of slack periods in certain major 
industries on which the market for products of this industry depends, 
rather than of inherent seasonal demands for foundry and machine- 
shop products. Some companies have added supplementary products 
to tide them over otherwise slack periods. 

One manufacturer, whose former market was the textile indus- 
try, has adapted his equipment to make products used by other 
industries. The replies indicate a considerable amount of transition 
in this industry to new or modified types of products. The automo- 
bile has provided a new demand for certain lines of equipment and 
accessories. A company making engines attributes decreased sales 
to the increased use of electrical equipment operated from central 
power stations. A change in the type of prime mover has thus 
curtailed the amount of possible business. Purchased power and 
central heating plants are said by a manufacturer of steam regula- 
tors and other steam specialties to have decreased the market for 
these articles. A manufacturer of leather-working machinery finds 
his sales affected by changes in the market for leather manufactures, 
while a maker of tanning machinery reports decreased demand for 
his product resulting from the use of fabric and rubber as substitutes 
for leather. A company making supplies for street railways attrib- 
utes decreased sales to recent changes in modes of transportation. 

INDEPENDENT FOUNDRIES 

Aside from the foundries connected with machine-shop activities 
that arc included in the foregoing discussion there is a considerable 
number of separate foundries making castings for sale. The great- 
est number of these are makers of gray-iron castings; a lesser number 



METAL \l w CJFACTUBES 227 

make steel castings, and some make castings of brass, bronze, and 
other metals, as well as iron and steel products. 

Sixty-four foundries turning out castings as their sole or main 
product gave information regarding their manufacturing activities. 
Of these, 41 were classified as iron foundries, 5 as steel foundries, and 
18 made castings of brass, bronze, and other metals, in addition to 
iron. The greater part of this foundry activity is concentrated in 
Massachusetts and Connecticut, but the returns include also plants 
in Maine, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, and Vermont. All the 
reporting steel foundries had come into operation within the last 
few years. Changes in management within the past 10 years were 
reported in 15 cases. 

The size of business done by the 58 individual companies in this 
reporting group is indicated by the following figures: Nine com- 
panies w r ith individual sales of less than $50,000; 15 firms with sales 
between $50,000 and $100,000; 20 between $100,000 and $250,000; 
9 between $250,000 and $500,000; and 5 exceeding $500,000 but less 
than $1,000,000. As to. the size of pay rolls of these 58 companies, 
whose aggregate was 3,177 wage earners, there were 20 concerns 
employing fewer than 25 workers each ; 15 companies employing be- 
tween 25 and 50 workers; 14 employing between 50 and 100; and 9 
employing over 100. Thus, more than three-fifths of the companies 
represented in these reports had an individual pay roll of fewer than 
50 wage earners. Three iron foundries in Connecticut each reported 
a single branch plant within New England. 

PRODUCTS AND RAW MATERIALS 

As reported by 64 companies in this group, there were 37 which 
made only a single product — castings — and 27 concerns which made 
supplementary products in addition. Among the supplementary or 
special products reported by iron foundries are sash and elevator 
weights, steel and composition castings, bronze tablets, chucks, and 
customwork. The important raw materials reported by the iron 
and steel foundries are pig iron, coke, sand, and scrap. Foundries 
making nonferrous castings report the purchase also of aluminum, 
brass, bronze, copper, tin, zinc, lead, white metal, and spelter in indi- 
vidual cases. Scrap is purchased in the local markets. The sources 
of coke are divided between New England and other sections. Most 
of the foundries state that their molding sand comes from sources 
outside New England. Miscellaneous supplies aside from those men- 
tioned were obtained mainly from local markets. 

SALES TRENDS 

The trend of sales indicated by 5G companies which gave figures 
for the years 1921 to 1925 showed for the latest year an increase of 
20 per cent over 1923 and of 33 per cent over 1924. Decreases in 
business w T ere attributed by several concerns to high cost of labor 
and materials, competition with other regions, changes in nature of 
demand, and local business conditions. Individual concerns whose 
sales showed an increase attributed their growth to new sales 
methods, to extension of territory, to general conditions of railroads, 
to improved quality of castings, and to better general business con- 
ditions. 



228 INDUSTRIAL STRUCTURE OF NEW KNCJLAND 

The principal market and the chief sources of competition were 
reported to be New England in almost every instance. Jobbing 
foundries have their market limited almost entirely to local trade. 
A few iron foundries reported sales and competition in the Middle 
Atlantic and East North Central States, with occasional sales in 
other sections. All the steel foundries sell their products in New 
England, finding some competition from the Middle Atlantic States. 
Sales within New England, as indicated by 57 concerns replying, 
represented 81 per cent of their aggregate business, which amounted 
to nearly $10,000,000. A few concerns reported less than half of 
their volume of business as arising within New England. The ma- 
jority of the companies reported that their proportion of sales to the 
New England market is increasing. 

Very little export business is indicated. A single iron foundry 
reported foreign sales, and the amount in this case was very slight. 

Actual production, in terms of maximum capacity, as based on 
reports from 44 companies, in 1925 was 63.5 per cent of the maximum 
possible capacity. There were 10 companies reporting an increase 
in plant capacity since 1921 and two reporting reductions, while 36 
plants reported no change. 

DISTRIBUTION METHODS 

Distribution methods of these foundries run generally parallel to 
those of the larger group of foundry and machine-shop products. 
Selling direct to the trade is the prevailing method; a few concerns 
sell through wholesale dealers. 

Trade-marks and advertising. — Only a small portion of the report- 
ing companies indicated the use of an identifying mark on their 
products. Advertising is generally confined to local mediums and to 
direct mail methods. One concern reported the use of personal 
solicitation and magazine advertising, and another depended entirely 
upon a business directory. 

NEW ENGLAND MARKET FOR IRON AND STEEL 

Note. — The section on the Now England market for iron and steel was prepared by 
Edwin Bates, of the Domestic Commerce Division of the Bureau of Foreign and Domestic 
Commerce. 

This analysis of the market for iron and steel in New England is 
based on a series of interviews with New England representatives of 
iron and steel concerns and with contractors and engineering organi- 
zations; also upon such published reports as are available. 2 

The extensive industrial development of New England, together 
with the fact that its iron and steel industry is limited, forms the 
basis for an extensive market for iron and steel products in the 
region. According to a survey made in 1923, and allowing 10 per 
cent for increased consumption since then, the New England States 
consume annually about 1,760,000 tons of iron and steel products for 
all purposes. Some of these products are in finished form, such as 
sheets, plates, wire, and bars, but there is a considerable tonnage 

3 Special assistance was given in the present report by Mr. Herbert i\ Simonds, Boston 
representative of the Pentoo Publishing Co. A report on steel distribution in New 
England, prepared by Mr. Simonds, appeared in the Iron Trade Review for Feb. 22, 1923, 

pp. 581-685. 



METAL MANUFACTURES 229 

purchased in the semimanufactured state, such as blooms, billets, 
and slabs. New England purchases also an important tonnage of 
pig iron to be converted into cast-iron products or into steel for 
local uses. A considerable volume of iron ore is transported to sea- 
board points to be converted for the manufacture of iron and steel. 
The demands of the New England market for various iron and 
steel products used in the industries of the region are first considered. 
The demands of the market for these materials in building and con- 
struction activities are discussed separately. 

SHEET STEEL 

The wide range of small metal manufacturers in New England 
makes an extensive market for steel sheets of various types. Follow- 
ing are some of the manufactured products in which sheets are con- 
sumed to a greater or less degree : Ice boxes, gas stoves, automobile 
bodies, optical case stock, range boilers, stove pipe, containers for 
maple sugar and sirup, electrical sheets, radio instruments, ventilat- 
ing machinery, skylights, textile machinery, metal lockers and filing 
cases, ferrotype plate, culverts, billboards, window boxes, ash and 
oil cans, poultry supplies, paint cans and pails, vegetable, fruit, 
and other cans, office trays and furniture, car roofs and metal ceil- 
ings, railway lanterns, and hot-water bottles. The present annual 
consumption of sheets in New England for these purposes is esti- 
mated at 188,500 tons. 

Under the heading of sheets are included blue annealed sheets, tin 
plate, galvanized sheets, and black sheets. Sheets are defined as 
being less than one-eighth of an inch in thickness; all products ex- 
ceeding this thickness are classed as plates. The heavy-machinery in- 
dustries of New England require the blue annealed sheets rather than 
the black sheets ; according to members of the trade, the market for 
blue annealed sheets is greatly on the increase. In the estimate of 
tonnage for 1923, blue annealed sheets accounted for 66,000 tons ; tin 
plate, 55,400 tons ; galvanized sheets, 38,000 tons ; and black sheets, 
12,000 ions.,. 

The market for galvanized steel roofing in New England has 
shown practically no increase during recent years. This has been 
attributed largely to the rather stationary condition of New England 
agriculture, but partly, also, to the fact that steel has to be shipped 
in from outside sources. Some members of the trade feel that less 
sales pressure has been exerted in the sale of galvanized roofing in 
the New England States than in some other sections — for example, 
Ohio and Pennsylvania. 

STEEL PLATES 

The total annual consumption of steel plates in New England is 
estimated to be about 60,500 tons. Of this amount from 27,500 to 
33,000 tons are used for structural purposes, and a similar amount 
is estimated to be consumed in shipbuilding, in gas and water works, 
and in locomotive and car repairing. New England at the present 
time thus offers a limited market for steel plates. During the war, 
when the shipbuilding industry was at its height, there was a heavy 
consumption of plates, but in recent years this has been limited 

61232°— 30 16 



230 INDUSTRIAL, STRUCTURE OF NEW ENGLAND 

largely to companies manufacturing boilers and automobile parts, 
and to water and gas companies. The chief national consumption of 
plates is in the manufacture of locomotives and railway cars, in 
which New England presents practically no market except the 
demand for repair purposes. 

WIRE PRODUCTS 

It is difficult to get an estimate of the New England consumption 
of wire products, because this section is a producer of these products 
from wire rods, as well as a direct producer of such final products as 
nails and fencing. It is estimated that upward of 250,000 tons of 
wire rods are either produced in New England or shipped in from 
outside mills. To this figure should be added a further item of 
80,000 tons to cover the amount of finished wire and finished wire 
products manufactured outside and shipped into New England. Of 
the consumption of wire products nails are believed to account for 
approximately 82,500 tons and fencing and poultry netting together 
about 7,700 tons. There is also an important production of nails 
in the New England States, the principal producing plant having 
an annual capacity of 200,000 kegs. In addition to the consumption 
of wire rods in the manufacture of nails and wire, some are used in 
the manufacture of gratings and handles for tools. This brings the 
grand total for all wire products consumed in New England to 
upward of 340,000 tons. 

SEAMLESS STEEL TUBING 

Steel tubing finds its principal uses in steam boilers and in the 
manufacture of bicycles, motor cycles, and metal furniture. Con- 
sumption of steel tubing in New England is estimated at 5,000 tons 
annually. This estimate is based largely upon the number of regis- 
tered steam boilers in the New England States. One of the principal 
factors affecting the market for boiler tubing has been the decreased 
use of steam power and an accompanying increase in the use of 
electric power. Changes in boiler products in recent years also have 
increased the utilization of boiler tubes and have extended the period 
of their use. Besides this, the practice has developed of employing 
used boiler tubes for other tubing purposes. 

STEEL BARS 

The annual New England consumption of steel bars is estimated at 
582,000 tons, in addition to some 70,000 tons used for reinforcing 
steel. In the industrial consumption cold-drawn bars are estimated 
to amount to 100,000 tons, and special machinery bars with high 
manganese or carbon content, at 16,500 tons ; while the consumption 
of alloy steel for tool steel and for electric and steel crucible bars is 
estimated at 25,500 tons annually. 

The principal demand is in the class of commercial soft-steel bars, 
whose consumption is estimated at 440,000 tons a year. A careful 
check of the principal consumer's in the six New England States 
showed the following distribution of soft-steel bar consumption: 
Twenty-nine consumers in Connecticut use annually 230,000 tons; 36 



METAL MANUFACTURES 231 

in Massachusetts, L92,000 tons; 14 in Rhode Island, 86,000 tons; 19 in 
Maine, New Hampshire, and Vermont, together, 45,000 tons, making 
a total of 503,000 tons, which, after allowing for duplications and 
possible exaggeration, is reduced to 440,000. The total annual con- 
sumption for all classes of bars, except in reinforcing steel, is thus 
estimated at 582,000 tons. 

BLOOMS, BILLETS, AND SLABS , 

Shipments of blooms, billets, and slabs into New England are 
estimated not to exceed 33,000 tons annually. This tonnage, how- 
ever, is converted into such products as wire, nails, and bars, and is 
accounted for under those headings. Shipments for the manufacture 
of nails and bars are principally in the form of wire bar, which is 
drawn and manufactured into the finished product in the New Eng- 
land factories. Imports of steel billets in 1926 amounted to nearly 
3,000 tons, which were almost entirely absorbed by rolling mills at 
Portland, Me. 

PIG IKON 

The consumption of pig iron in the New England district is esti- 
mated to exceed 630,000 tons annually. 3 This consumption is dis- 
tributed over a wide range of metal manufactures. Its principal 
outlet is in the production of textile machinery, w T hich is estimated to 
require from 95,000 to 120,000 tons annually. Pipe and pipe fittings 
and valves occupy second place ; electrical machinery is estimated to 
stand third; and stoves and radiators are fourth and fifth, respec- 
tively. Other important products into which pig iron enters, in the 
order of estimated importance, are as follows : Machine tools, hard- 
ware, gasoline engines, Diesel engines, scales, shoe machinery, gaso- 
line pumps, and railw r ay castings. 

Considerable change has taken place in recent years in the sources 
of New England pig iron. Previous to the war the sources of pig 
iron for the New England market were fairly well distributed among 
four producing centers. The Birmingham district, Virginia, eastern 
Pennsylvania, and the Buffalo district, under freight rates and prices 
then prevailing, were competitors in New England consuming terri- 
tory. Very little pig iron is now purchased from the Virginia 
and Birmingham districts, not over 25,000 tons coming from these 
two districts combined in 1925. Eastern Pennsylvania and Buf- 
falo now supply the bulk of the tonnage from domestic sources. 
It was estimated that in 1925 not over 10,000 tons of the New 
England consumption originated in the Pittsburgh district. The 
Buffalo district, including some furnaces in western Pennsylva- 
nia, supplied in that year about 180,000 tons. Eastern Pennsyl- 
vania furnaces, now supplying 60,000 tons, are finding it increasingly 
difficult under developing competition to maintain their position in 
the New England market. 4 

Receipts of foreign pig iron have become a matter of importance. 
In 1925 the New England market absorbed 124,352 long tons of im- 

3 See Iron Trade Review, July 8, 1926, pp. 80-82. 

4 See Kreutzer, E. C, Competition is Barring Eastern Pennsylvania furnaces, in Iron 
Trade Review July 8, 1926, p. 82. 



232 INDUSTRIAL STRUCTURE OF NEW ENGLAND 

ported pig iron out of a total importation of 441,425 tons for the 
entire country, thus taking more than one-fourth of the total pig- 
iron imports. Imported pig iron has presented competition chiefly 
at Atlantic seaboard points. 

The Massachusetts customs district receives almost all the foreign 
pig iron entering the New England States. The sources of pig iron 
imported into the Massachusetts Customs District in 1926 were as 
follows, in tons of 2,240 pounds : 

Germany 28, 531 

Netherlands 21,116 

British India 8, 759 

United Kingdom 5, 600 

France 2, 500 

Belgium 650 

Sweden 40 

Total 67, 196 

The interesting developments in the New England trade in pig iron 
during the past few years include the construction of furnaces at 
Troy, N. Y., primarily for supplying the New England market, and 
the completion of the Mystic Iron Works, at Everett, Mass. These 
furnaces combined are capable of furnishing annually, for the New 
England trade, 350,000 tons or more and thus supply a large per- 
centage of the New England demand for pig iron. The development 
of these furnaces marks a significant step that promises to have an 
important influence on the extended use of pig iron in the New 
England market. 

IRON ORB 

Pig-iron production at Everett, Mass., started in September, 1926. 
The plant of the Mystic Iron Works has a capacity of about 190,000 
tons of pig iron a year, requiring over 350,000 tons of iron ore. 
The location of this plant at seaboard, with the advantage of cheap 
water transportation in securing its ore supply, provides competition 
for imported pig iron in the highly industrialized portion of New 
England. Of the total requirements of iron ore for this plant, a 
substantial portion is supplied from the Adirondack section of New 
York State. 

During 1926 this plant imported from foreign countries 179,296 
long tons of iron ore, the bulk of which came from Newfoundland. 
The following table shows the origin of foreign iron ore imported for 
consumption at Everett in 1926 (in tons of 2,240 pounds) : 

Newfoundland 108,834 

Algeria i 54,900 

Sweden 14,937 

Germany 535 

Total 179,296 

Pig-iron production at Everett is in the nature of a by-product 
from gas production. The furnace at Everett utilizes the coke by- 
product from the ovens of the extensive gas plants at that point. The 
combination of location at seaboard for utilizing imported pig iron 



METAL MANUFACTURES 233 

and the use of the by-products of the gas plant provide favorable 
conditions for competition with the imported pig iron in the New 
England market. 

IRON AND STEEL USED IN NEW ENGLAND CONSTRUCTION 

The foregoing section has dealt with the market for iron and steel 
products that are used mainly in the manufacturing industries of 
New England. In the present section attention is given to the mar- 
ket for iron and steel products that are used mainly in construction 
activities. The principal forms of these are structural steel, rein- 
forcing steel for concrete construction, iron and steel pipe, and steel 
rails and switch materials for railroad uses. 

Structural steel. — The structural-steel requirements of the New 
England States are estimated to be about 200,000 tons annually. 
This includes structural shapes fabricated by shops in New England 
and also fabricated material shipped direct to contractors and 
builders. Of the total consumption, it is estimated that Greater 
Boston consumes annually 40,000 tons. 

Bridge contracts frequently form an important part of the con- 
sumption of structural steel. Railways of this section are important 
users of steel for bridges and trestles, and their requirements in this 
market have been found more or less regular from year to year. 
Public highway bridges are important in some years, and in most 
instances these require steel over a period of several months following 
the time a contract is awarded. 

The capacity of the structural-steel fabricating plants in New Eng- 
land is estimated by 'the trade at 90,000 tons annually. During recent 
years the actual output of these plants has probably been between 
60,000 and 75,000 tons. No estimates are available regarding the 
volume of shipment of steel shapes into the New England market by 
outside fabricating firms. A few companies which specialize in the 
fabricating of steel shapes for certain types of factory buildings per- 
form the fabricating at their plants in Ohio or Pennsylvania. The 
bulk of New England buying of structural steel is from producers in 
the Pittsburgh district and in eastern Pennsylvania. 

Competition with foreign producers is encountered at seaboard 
points, where cheap water transportation favors the foreign product. 
The imports are mostly in the smaller items, such as angles, chan- 
nels, and small bars. During 1926 imports of structural shapes and 
building forms into the New England market from other countries 
increased heavily, a total of 7,895 gross tons being purchased from 
abroad. Although this was a heavj^ increase over the previous year, 
and amounted to more than ten times the imports of structural shapes 
in 1924, it represented only about 5 per cent of New England's con- 
sumption of this class of steel products. The bulk of the 1926 im- 
portation was concentrated in the Massachusetts customs district, 
and, so far as could be learned in the trade, was largely absorbed in 
the metropolitan Boston district. Special inquiries developed the in- 
formation that the large fabricating plants in New England do not 
import foreign steel, and that the imports are taken by iron and steel 
warehouses, Analysis of the monthly reports of the Massachusetts 



234 INDUSTRIAL STRUCTURE OF NEW ENGLAND 

customs district in 1926 shows the countries of origin of structural 
steel for that district to be as follows : 

Pounds 

Belgium 8, 736, 076 

Germany 6, 857, 128 

Netherlands : 186,397 

United Kingdom 10,475 

Total 15, 790, 076 

Figures are not available covering the seasonal movement of struc- 
tural steel into the New England States, but the seasonality is not 
thought to be so pronounced as the movement of other classes of 
building materials. Structural steel can be worked at any time of the 
year, and winter weather does not measurably affect the erection of 
steel frameworks. This point has been repeatedly emphasized by 
structural steel contractors in New England, as well as throughout 
the country. One of the difficulties of equalizing the use of structural 
steel throughout the year, however, lies in the prevailing practice of 
deferring the taking out of building permits and the awarding of 
contracts until the spring months. 

Reinforcing steel, — The demand for reinforcing steel depends upon 
the extent of reinforced concrete construction. This type is impor- 
tant not only in the construction of buildings but also in laying down 
streets and highways. One of the difficulties in obtaining estimates 
of consumption of reinforced steel lies in the definition of the item 
itself. If steel mesh is included along with reinforcing bars, the 
tonnage is appreciably greater. Estimates in the trade relative to 
the tonnage of reinforcing steel vary quite widely. It appears, how- 
ever, that the consumption of the New England market for all types 
of reinforcing steel amounts to about 70,000 tons annually. 

In recent years the demand for reinforcing steel in New England 
has shifted from industrial buildings to educational buildings and to 
automobile showrooms and garages. In the city of Boston, for ex- 
ample, members of the trade have estimated that public garage space 
sufficient for storing 30,000 automobiles has been constructed during 
the past five years. This is a type of building which lends itself par- 
ticularly to reinforced-concrete construction. 

There has been a considerable demand for reinforcing steel also in 
the construction of apartment houses of three and four stories, and 
of small hotels. Previous to the war and during the war period, 
according to members of the trade, the demand for reinforcing steel 
was largely for industrial buildings, but the future demand from 
buildings of this nature in New England is not expected to be large. 

The bulk of the New England demand for reinforcing steel is 
in the States of Massachusetts, Rhode Island, and Connecticut, where 
State highway construction and building activity have been most 
concentrated. Special effort was made to obtain an estimate of the 
amount of reinforcing steel used in State highway construction in 
New England. From replies to letters directed to the State highway 
departments the following table, showing the consumption of rein- 
forcing steel, has been developed. 



METAL, MA N 1 1 PACT I rRES 



235 



Reinforcing Steel Tonnage Used by New England Highways in l ( .)l2r> and 

1920 

[Based upon reports from Stato highway departments] 



State 


1926 


1925 


State 


1926 


1925 


Maine - - 


Tonsi 

1,239 

194 

650 

2,041 


Tons i 

139 

205 

325 

2,324 


Rhode Island 


Tons l 

520 

2 4,000 


Tons* 
445 


\ o\v Hampshire^ . _ 


Connecticut ._ 


2 3,000 




Total 




\ l assachuset t s_ _ 


8,644 


6,438 









i Of 2, 240 pounds. 



2 Estimated. 



Street-construction requirements in reinforcing steel would prob- 
ably raise these figures by 1,500 to 2,000 tons, making the total esti- 
mated requirements for street and highway reinforcing in the neigh- 
borhood of 10,000 long tons. On the basis of 2,700,497 square yards 
of concrete construction in New England, as reported for the year 
1926 by the Portland Cement Association, this seems a fair estimate 
of the market demand for this purpose. 

The market for reinforcing steel is supplied not only by American 
producers but to a certain degree by foreign manufacturers. Bel- 
gian reinforcing steel is concentrated principally at seaport cities, 
where the product can be delivered advantageously by the foreign 
producer because of relatively low ocean transportation rates. Dur- 
ing 1926 the foreign producer enjoyed a differential at seaboard 
points of $8 to $10 per ton. Higher freight rates to interior cities 
greatly limit the area of competition of the foreign manufacturer. 

Iron and steel fife. — The principal items to be considered under 
the heading of pipe for uses in construction are cast-iron pressure 
pipe for gas and w r ater, wrought-iron pipe, and steel pipe. The 
combined annual consumption of these products by the New England 
market amounts to between 200,000 and 225,000 gross tons. Each of 
these types is analyzed separately. 

Cast-iron pipe. — According to the estimates made by the trade, the 
New England market consumes about 100,000 tons of cast-iron pipe 
annually. Of this amount it is estimated that probably 40,000 tons 
are used for gas lines and 60,000 tons for water lines. 

In New England, as in other parts of the country, the market for 
cast-iron pipe is determined largely by city growth. Very little pipe 
is sold for replacement purposes, as its life extends over several 
decades. The principal opportunity for selling cast-iron pipe comes 
from special appeals to towns which have no public waterworks 
system. As the cities and towns of New England have already 
reached a high degree of development in their water and gas systems, 
there is little occasion for new expansion, and this is an important 
factor in limiting the market for this product. 

The New England market is supplied with cast-iron pipe princi- 
pally from four manufacturers, all located in Pennsylvania and 
New Jersey. Only in special instances have southern manufacturers 
been able to obtain contracts in this market in competition with 
the northern producers; likewise the New Jersey and Pennsylvania 
producers have seldom been able to sell farther south than the State 



236 INDUSTRIAL, STRUCTURE OF NEW ENGLAND 

of Virginia. There is little competition in the New England market 
from producers located in the Pittsburgh section. 

The radius of competition of pipe manufacturers is practically 
fixed by prevailing freight rates. The freight rate to New England 
points on cast iron from New Jersey and eastern Pennsylvania is 
about $5 per ton on a carload commodity basis, while the freight 
rate from Birmingham to the New England market is more than 
$10 per ton ; it is still higher to points in eastern and northern Maine. 
The recent establishment of a plant for making cast-iron pipe at 
Everett, Mass., adjacent to the Mystic Iron Works, is significant 
in providing an important local source of supply for the New 
England market. 

Foreign competition in cast-iron pipe has made itself felt in New 
England, particularly at seaport cities, such as Boston. In this, as 
with other steel products, the foreign producer is favored by com- 
paratively low ocean freight rates, which permit strong competition 
at seaboard points. Apparently there has been little use of the 
foreign product at inland points in New England, on account of 
prohibitive local freight rates. 

French producers have made the strongest bid for the market. 
One of the difficulties, however, has been the inability of the French 
producer to supply a product -which would meet city specifications. 
In most instances the French product has been too high in phos- 
phorus, thus tending to make the pipe brittle. Another difficulty 
encountered by foreign producers is the fact that the public- works 
departments of the large cities, such as Boston, usually send two in- 
spectors to a plant supplying pipe for use on public contracts, and 
the necessary supervision can not be given to foreign concerns. 

Imports of cast-iron pipe into New England from foreign coun- 
tries in 1926 amounted to 11,900 gross tons, of which 6,882 tons 
entered the Massachusetts customs district and 5,018 tons the Con- 
necticut customs district. With the exception of some 300 tons im- 
ported from Czechoslovakia, the total import trade in this product 
was held by French producers. The principal shipments were re- 
ceived in the months of May, June, July, and August. 

One of the circumstances encountered in the New England market 
for cast-iron pipe in connection with waterworks systems is the 
presence of a considerable amount of organic matter in the water. 
This fact has presented a real problem to New England municipali- 
ties, where it has been found that in a period of 25 years the incrusta- 
tion of the pipe has sometimes reduced the capacity of the supply 
system by as much as 40 or 50 per cent. This problem, which, 
of course, has been encountered in other sections of the country, has 
led to the development of cement-lined pipe, which involves coating 
the inside of the pipe with a mixture of sand and cement. This 
treatment has been found effective in eliminating the tuberculation 
and incrustation. In the opinion of members of the trade, pipe 
suitable for this type of lining will probably find increasing favor 
in the New England States. 

Figures on the seasonality of shipments of cast-iron pipe are of 
practically do service in showing the seasonality of use. The con- 
struction of water lines and gas lines usually begins in southern New 
England about April 1 and in northern New England about April 



METAL MANUFACTURES 237 

15. May and June are the most important months from a consump- 
tion standpoint, as many projects beginning in the spring are com- 
pleted by July 1. The larger buyers usually place their orders during 
June for projects to be completed in the latter half of the year. 
October and November are usually months of low consumption. The 
slack season of the year in New England is between November and 
April 1. 

Trade practices in the sale of cast-iron pipe have changed consid- 
erably since the war. Up to 1918 the producers experienced a consid- 
erable seasonal slump in their production between November 1 and 
April 1. It had been the practice to make shipments of cast-iron 
pipe as contracts required, and this meant a heavy shipping season 
and a rush of production during a period following the 1st of April. 
In recent years producers have offered inducements to large buyers to 
place their orders during the off season. As a result, a considerable 
amount of buying has taken place in January and February for 
delivery at seller's option, thus allowing plants to continue operation 
and to make shipments at their convenience. 

As a result of obtaining off-season contracts with delivery at his 
option the manufacturer has been able to sell his product at $1 or more 
per ton below the price made necessary when carrying a stock at 
his plant and making shipments* according to the execution of con- 
tracts. At the present time, according to members of the trade, 15 
per cent of the sales of the entire year are made in December, 20 per 
cent in January, and 10 to 15 per cent in February. 

Wrought-iron pipe. — Estimates made by the trade are to the effect 
that between 9,000 and 10,000 tons of wrought-iron pipe are con- 
sumed annually in New England. The number of companies sup- 
plying this kind of pipe is quite small, and, so far as can be learned, 
these companies are located in the Pittsburgh and eastern Pennsyl- 
vania districts. 

Wrought-iron pipe is used principally in heating, ventilating, and 
plumbing, and finds its principal competition from cast-iron, copper, 
and brass pipe. At the present time the manufacturers of copper and 
brass pipe are presenting considerable competition throughout New 
England, largely because of the importance of the copper and brass 
industry in the lower Connecticut region. One of the effective sales 
arguments of the manufacturers of copper-lined pipe has been the 
fact that tubercles do not form on a copper surface. 

The high percentage of organic matter in the water supply of 
New England cities has presented the same problem to producers 
of wrought-iron pipe as to the makers of cast-iron pipe. Increasing 
interest is shown in the use of cement-lined wrought-iron pipe. Ac- 
cording to the testimony from New England representatives cement- 
lined pipe is giving very satisfactory results. The manufacturers of 
wrought-iron pipe at the present time are turning out, at a price 
only slightly higher than that for the regular product, a specially 
inspected product that is satisfactory for cement lining. 

The higher cost of wrought-iron pipe for heating, ventilating, and 
plumbing is an important factor in its competition with cast-iron 
and steel pipe. During 1926, when wrought-iron pipe was selling 
at approximately $150 per ton, steel pipe could be supplied on the 
job at about $70 per ton. These prices, however, are not strictly 



238 INDUSTRIAL STRUCTURE OF NEW ENGLAND 

comparable, for the reason that a given length of cast-iron will weigh 
considerably more than an equal length of the wrought-iron or steel 
product. 

Representatives of the manufacturers of wrought-iron pipe stress 
the fact that the relatively stationary population of New England 
cities has had considerable effect in limiting the market for their 
product. In the development of additions to a city the sale of sewer 
pipe and water pipe comes first ; the demand for plumbing, heating, 
and ventilating equipment follows over a period of several months or 
years. Sales in New England come largely from replacements of 
worn-out pipe in homes and from construction of new residences 
within the present confines of the cities. 

Steel pipe. — The annual requirements of the New England market 
for steel pipe are estimated by the trade to be about 100,000 tons. 
Steel pipe enters into competition with wrought-iron and cast-iron 
pipe in heating and plumbing and with vitrified-clay pipe for sewer 
construction. One of the limitations on the use of steel pipe for 
waste disposal in New England is the rather high acid content of the 
factory waste in a number of industrial centers. Imports of steel 
pipe into New England have been negligible. 

Steel rails, frog and switch material. — According to an analysis 
of the New England market for rails and fastenings, between 110,000 
and 115,000 tons of these materials are used annually. 5 

The requirements of the individual New England railroads for 
rails are estimated to average approximately as follows : 

Tons 
Central Vermont 2, 000 

New York, New Haven & Hartford , 40', 000 

Boston & Maine 25,000 

Boston & Albany 8, 000 

Maine Central 8, 000 

Bangor & Aroostock 2,000 

Rutland 2^000 

Total 87, 000 

To these figurese for rails should be added about 4,800 tons for 
bolts and tie plates, on the basis of 5% per cent of the tonnage of 
rails for these materials. Frog and switch materials are estimated 
to average about 4,500 tons annually, bringing the total consumption 
by steam railroads up to 96,300 tons. The New England street rail- 
ways are estimated to use each year from 10,000 to 12,000 tons of 
girder rails, and from 5,000 to 7,000 tons of tee rails, making their 
total rail consumption about 17,000 tons, in addition to 500 tons of 
material for track fastenings; the total annual street railway con- 
sumption thus being in the neighborhood of 17,500 tons. The total 
consumption of rails and frog and switch materials by the steam and 
electric railroads of New England is thus in the neighborhood of 
approximately 113,800 tons a year. 

SUMMARY OF LMFOBT IUADE IN (RON AND STEEL 

In addition to the heavy purchases of iron and steel from domestic 
sources by the New England market, an appreciable tonnage is im- 

•Iron Trade Rerlew, Feb. 22, 1923, pp. 581-*2. 



MKTAI. MANUFACTURES 239 

ported annually from foreign countries. In the three years 1924 to 
1!>*2(). inclusive, the imports of iron and steel into New England 

ranged between 10,000 and 50,000 long tons annually. The bulk of 
the tonnage in each year, however, was represented by the lower- 
value items, such as iron ore, pig iron, and iron and steel scrap. At 
the New England seaboard, American steel producers meet competi- 
tion from foreign manufacturers, and in some items this competition 
is lather keenly felt. It is localized, however, at port cities, such as 
Boston and Providence, and because of comparatively high local 
freight rates it is prevented from becoming effective over a very wide 
area. 

MERCHANDISING OF IRON AND STEEL 

The New England requirements for iron and steel are supplied 
through a number of merchandising channels — by shipments direct 
from manufacturers outside the New England States, by manufac- 
turers within the region, by warehouses operating from outside the 
region, and by warehouses operated at various points in New Eng- 
land. Some of these warehouses are operated by iron and steel manu- 
facturers and others by special iron and steel jobbers. 

A large part of the tonnage of iron and steel is shipped in carload 
lots to the New 7 England market from producers direct to consumers. 
Most of the consumers who buy regularly from month to month are 
in a position to make carload purchases, and special contracts for 
supplying structural steel for bridges and large buildings are made 
on a car-lot basis. 

The warehouse operated by the iron and steel manufacturer or 
by an independent jobber is largely in the nature of a convenience 
unit for the distribution of products. Frequently a large fabricating 
plant which finds itself in need of one or more special items ob- 
tains its requirements direct from the nearest warehouse. In the 
main, however, such an organization depends upon direct shipments 
from the manufacturer. The warehouse is a regular source of sup- 
ply for small contractors in structural steel and in cast and wrought- 
iron pipe for plumbing and heating and ventilating. As a carload 
of heating and plumbing supplies constitutes an outlay of some $3,000, 
few of the heating and plumbing contractors desire to carry so large 
an investment. They come directly, therefore, to the warehouse to 
fill their orders. In accordance with trade custom they are given a 
discount from the regular price at which the same product would be 
sold to the consumer. 

In addition to the warehouses maintained by independent jobbers, 
iron and steel manufacturers operate warehouses for the purpose of 
supplementing the jobbers' stocks. In a number of slow T -moving lines 
which the independent jobber hesitates to carry, the manufacturer 
frequently maintains stocks for the convenience of the trade; various 
examples cited by manufacturers' representatives showed that orders 
filled by them had reduced unnecessary delays by supplying direct 
from their warehouses. On a number of these slow-moving lines the 
manufacturer's warehouse secured a turnover of from two times to 
two and a half times a year. 

Estimates made by manufacturers' representatives indicated that 
the warehouse business in New England usually comprises not more 



240 INDUSTRIAL STRUCTURE OF NT5W ENGLAND 

than 20 to 25 per cent of their annual sales, and in some sections the 
percentage is probably very much less than this. Warehouses main- 
tained at points such as Boston are able to supply a considerable 
amount of the local metropolitan market without heavy additional 
expense for transportation, while the supplying of such inland points 
as Springfield and Worcester requires payment of a heavy transporta- 
tion charge either by truck or by rail. 

Most of the manufacturers of iron and steel maintain representa- 
tives in Boston, some of them serving only as selling offices and others 
operating warehouses in connection with their selling offices. The 
most of these include the entire New England States in the terri- 
tory of the Boston office. A few, however, do not include the State 
of Connecticut in the Boston territory but handle the trade of this 
State through their New York office. In most instances the Boston 
office is independent of other offices, but in one or two cases it operates 
as a branch of the company's headquarters in New York, 

HARDWARE GROUP 

HARDWARE 

The manufacture of hardware ranks among the first 12 indus- 
tries of New England in its contribution to the region's income, 
and in Connecticut it is among the three leading industries of the 
State. Connecticut contributes about 95 per cent of the total New 
England production. In three States — Connecticut, Massachusetts, 
and Rhode Island — the hardware industry in 1927 added about $49,- 
000,000 to the New England manufacturing income, with a total gross 
output valued at $71,435,000. It provided a market for materials, 
including fuel, power, and supplies, of upward of $22,500,000. There 
were 92 establishments in the three States. The industry in New 
England provided employment for upward of 19,000 wage earners, 
who were paid about $23,300,000 in wages. (See fig. 37.) 

Outside New England the principal producing States, in the order 
of their contribution in 1925 to the total national income from hard- 
ware manufacture, were as follows: Illinois, $19,727,000; Michigan, 
$17,455,000; Pennsylvania, $14,486,000; New York, $11,567,000; Ohio, 
$10,564,000 ; New Jersey, $4,516,000. Three other States— Wisconsin, 
Missouri, and Iowa — contributed upward of $1,000,000 each, and 
Indiana, about $800,000. As a source of income from this industry, 
New England contributed nearly as much as Illinois, Michigan, 
Pennsylvania, and New York combined. 

The New England income from the hardware industry in 1925 was 
approximately (luce times what it was in 1914, as shown by the value 
added by manufacture, in comparison with an increase of one-third 
in the 10-year interval from 1904 to 1914. These increases are some- 
what below the expansion for the United States as a whole, in con- 
sequence of a relatively greater expansion in other parts of the 
country. In 1904 Connecticut produced one-half the hardware of the 
entire country; in 1914 its proportion was 39.13 per cent, and in 1925 
it was approximately 37 per cent. The industry in this State, how- 
ever, has shown very substantial and regular growth, the number of 
workmen employed increasing from about 15,500 in 1904 to 19,000 in 
L914, and to more than 21,500 in 1925. The State's manufacturing 



METAL MAN UFACTUKES 



241 



income from the hardware industry more than tripled from 1914 to 
1925. 

From 1925 to 1927 this industry in New England experienced a 
definite reduction in activity, although little change appears in the 




;x;>SHARDWARE,CUTLERY * MECHANICS' TOOLS 



NEW ENGLAND STATES 

1927 
DOTS AND ftWRCS SHOW NUMdCR IN £ACH COUNTY 



J*** <&£> c^Q 



Figure 37 



total number of manufacturing establishments. The statistics for 
the individual States for these two years are shown in the following- 
table, with comparative figures for Connecticut in 1914 and 1904. 



242 INDUSTRIAL STRUCTURE OF NKW ENGLAND 

Manufacture of Hardware in New England States, 113^5 and 1927 





Estab- 
lish- 
ments 


Wage 
earners 


Thousands of dollars 


State and year 


Wages 


Cost of 
materials 


Value of 
products 


Value 
added by 
manu- 
facture 


Connecticut: 

1927 


57 
64 

29 

•27 

6 

5 


18, 201 
21, 565 

731 
798 

55 
61 


22, 299 
26, 338 

926 
1,027 

74, 193 
43 


21, 174 
23, 767 

1,183 
1,499 

178 
118 


68,013 
83,026 

3,080 
3,958 

343 

257 


46,839 
59, 259 

1,897 
2,459 

165 


1925... 


Massachusetts: 

1927 


1925 


Rhode Island: 

1927.. 


1925 _ 


139 






Total: 

1927 


92 
96 

68 

75 

485 
476 

20.2 


19, 079 
22, 424 

19, 004 

15, 488 

47,834 
52, 349 

42.8 


23, 299 

27, 366 

10, 230 
7,323 

60, 827 
65, 567 

41.7 


22, 535 
25, 384 

10, 226 

7,528 

71, 877 

77, 503 

32.8 


71, 436 

87, 240 

28, 808 
21, 481 

208, 254 
225, 053 

38.8 


48, 901 


1925 i 


61, 856 
18,783 


Connecticut: 

1914.. 


1904.. 


13, 953 


United States total: 

1927.... 


136, 377 


1925 


147, 550 


New England as per cent of United States, 
1925 


41.9 







1 Not including 3 establishments in New Hampshire, 2 in Maine, 2 in Vermont. 
experiences of manufacturers 

Eeplies were received from 37 establishments regarding their 
manufacturing and selling practices, and of this number 33 com- 
panies had aggregate sales in 1925 of nearly $44,000,000, their com- 
bined output representing more than 50 per cent of the total industry 
in New England. The replies were well distributed, with Connecti- 
cut represented by 19. Massachusetts by 14, New Hampshire by 2, 
and Maine and Rhode Island by 1 each. The group includes estab- 
lishments making a wide variety of products of which the following 
are typical: Automobile, coach, and carriage hardware; builders' 
and cabinet hardware; casket, furniture, trunk, and suitcase hard- 
ware; marine, car, and railway hardware; kitchen and household 
hardware; piano and organ hardware; locks and keys; and mis- 
cellaneous products. 

Raw materials. — The principal raw materials reported by these 
companies are steel, iron, and brass. A few reported, also, silver, 
copper, wood, and other supplementary materials. The majority of 
the manufacturers stated that they purchase steel and brass within 
New England, but purchases of iron are about evenly divided be- 
tween New England and outside sources. 

Size of establishments. — The reporting group includes companies 
whose annual sales volume ranged from $15,000 a year to upward of 
$20,000,000. There were 10 companies with individual sales of less 
than $100,000; 12 between $100,000 and $500,000; 5 between $500,000 
and $1,000,000; and 6 large concerns exceeding $1,000,000, 1 of which 
had sales of more than $20,000,000. 

The aggregate pay roll of 36 reporting concerns was 11,322 work- 
men. Approximately half of these concerns employed fewer than 50 



METAL MANUFACTURES 243 

workmen each, and half of them more than 50. There were 17 com- 
panies employing' below 50, of which 12 reported fewer than 25 on 
their pay roll; 8 companies employing between 50 and 100; 4 be- 
tween L00 and 250; and T employing more than 250 workmen; the 
latter included 1 company with a pay roll exceeding 1,000, another 
exceeding 2,000, and 1 employing more than 5,000 workmen. 

Plant practices. — Use of incentive methods of wage payment was 
reported by two-thirds of the replying companies; one-third of them 
stated that no incentive methods were used. The great variety of 
styles, sizes, and types of product made by hardware plants presents 
difficulties in the application of such incentive plans. It is evident, 
however, that New England hardware manufacturers in general 
have made progress in this respect. For the 23 companies reporting 
the use of wage incentives, 55 per cent of their aggregate number of 
employees were so paid. 

Seasonal employment is not so pronounced in this industry as in 
some other lines. A substantial number of the firms reported efforts 
to overcome seasonal fluctuations in activity by the addition of sup- 
plementary products to their main line or by manufacturing for stock 
during otherwise dull periods. For example, a concern making awn- 
ing hardware supplemented this line with the manufacture of pipe 
fittings. A concern making marine hardware states : " We have been 
adding to our line everything in marine goods for which we can find 
a market." A manufacturer of gocart and velocipede hardware 
reports the addition of a line of velocipedes and gocarts. Many 
other examples of similar nature were given, showing a tendency to 
overcome seasonal activity by supplementary products. 

Age of establishments. — The manufacture of hardware is one of the 
older industries of New England. The average period of operation 
of the 37 reporting plants was 41 years. Eleven of these had been 
in operation for more than half a century; 20 of them between 10 
and 50 years; while 6 companies had been in operation not more 
than 10 years. Changes of management w r ithin the last 10 years 
were reported in nine instances. 

Reasons for location. — Reasons for locating plants in New Eng- 
land, as indicated in the replies, are quite varied, labor conditions 
being given by the largest number of concerns. Nearness of markets 
has been an important consideration with many concerns making 
hardware specialties for use by other manufacturers. This applies 
particularly to the smaller establishments. For example, one con- 
cern making piano hardware sells the most of its product to local 
piano manufacturers. One of the largest concerns in Connecticut 
states that labor conditions constituted the sole reason for starting 
and continuing in this section. The industry, which was started 
many years ago by local men, has, during the intervening years, 
built up a skilled-labor market which has attracted other concerns. 

Branch plants. — Branch plants were reported in only a few in- 
stances. One of these was a Connecticut maker of casket hardware, 
which has a branch in Boston, and the other a very large manufac- 
turer of builders' hardware, which has a branch plant in an Ohio 
city. A prominent Connecticut company has established a western 
branch, stating as the main reason its inability to compete on a 



244 INDUSTRIAL STRUCTURE OF NEW ENGLAND 

tonnage basis in New England because of freight rates. This con- 
cern states that it is possible to maintain its position in New 
England on high quality and high-priced goods requiring highly 
skilled workmen, where freight is an insignificant item, whereas on 
heavier products freight is a deciding factor. 

Operating ratio. — Additions to plant capacity since 1921 were re- 
ported in nine instances. These are mostly increases of from 10 
to 25 per* cent, but three concerns doubled their capacity and one 
of the largest companies making builders' hardware reports a 50 per 
cent addition. The ratio of output in 1925 to the maximum capacity 
was, in most cases, from 75 to 85 per cent. The weighted average 
for 30 concerns giving figures was 78 per cent of maximum capacity. 
Twenty-one concerns reported operations at upward of 75 per cent of 
the maximum, and 10 others had between 50 and 75 per cent. 

Sales trends. — The general sales trend for the reporting group has 
been decidedly upward since 1921. Figures from 32 companies show 
an increase of 71 per cent in aggregate volume of sales from 1921 
to 1925. The greatest increase took place in 1923 and this was fol- 
lowed by a slight decline in 1924, with full recovery in the following 
year, so that there was a slight net increase from 1923 to 1925. In 
this latter 2-year interval there were 18 concerns whose individual 
sales increased and 13 whose sales decreased. Analysis of the in- 
dividual sales figures shows that the increases in this period were 
more frequent among the larger companies, while the smaller com- 
panies experienced the greater number of sales reductions. 

The general reasons assigned for increased sales volume were lower 
manufacturing costs, which have been a factor in reducing selling 
prices; new sales methods, which have resulted in an extension of 
markets; and new products. Increased building activity was also 
mentioned. Individual reasons given for decreased sales volume 
were competition from manufacturers in the West and in the South, 
reduction in the use of horses, and general business conditions. 

Markets. — A majority of these companies find the principal market 
for their product outside New England. Ten companies reported 
that more than half of their sales were made within New England; 
16 stated less than 25 per cent. Keports from 29 companies with 
aggregate sales of $40,000,000 show that approximately 20 per cent 
of the total sales were made to New England customers. 

Export business was reported by 13 companies whose aggregate 
business was $15,000,000, the weighted average of exports for this 
group being approximately 5 per cent of total sales. The exports of 
individual companies ranged from 5 per cent to 15 per cent. One 
small concern reports exports of 50 per cent. 

Methods of distribution. — The prevailing methods of distributing 
the product of hardware manufacturers, as shown by these replies, 
is through wholesale houses, with direct sales to manufacturing con- 
sumers as second in frequency. Twenty-two companies reported 
marketing their product through wholesalers, in many cases sup- 
plementing this channel with direct sales to retailers and other 
manufacturers. Ten companies of the total number reported sales 
direct to the retailer, and a small number rely upon selling agents 
for disposing of their product. The unweighted average of selling 



METAL MANUFACTURES 245 

costs for the entire group was 10 per cent of the value of products in 
1925. 

Use of brands, trade-marks, and advertising. — Use of a private 
brand or trade-mark is generally prevalent in this industry, Ihree- 
fourths of the reporting companies indicating this practice, though 
five small and medium-sized concerns stated that none of their prod- 
ucts are trade-marked. Many of the companies, however, trade- 
mark their entire output. The proportion of trade-marked goods 
for 25 reporting companies was 87 per cent of their aggregate sales. 

The use of advertising was reported by three-fourths of those re- 
porting, but nine companies stated that they did no advertising at 
all. National mediums prevail, in which those most generally used 
are trade journals and direct mail. Advertising expenditures of the 
companies, giving figures, were approximately 2 per cent of the value 
of their products. 

Improvements in manufacturing practice. — Improvements of vari- 
ous sorts in manufacturing practices are indicated by a large pro- 
portion of the reporting companies. The safeguarding of workers 
against accidents has received attention from the greatest number, 
while next in frequency is improvement in methods of controlling 
production and in internal organization. A considerable number of 
concerns report emphasis upon inspection methods and standardiza- 
tion of products. Comparatively few companies reported the em- 
ployment of industrial research. 

CUTLERY AND EDGE TOOLS 

The cutlery and edge-tool industry includes plants that are en- 
gaged primarily in the manufacture of table and kitchen cutlery, 
pocket knives, putty knives, butchers' knives and implements, razors, 
scissors, pruning shears, clippers, axes, hatchets, chisels, and similar 
lines. It does not include silver-plated cutlery, which is classified 
with plated ware in another group. There were 67 establishments 
engaged in the manufacture of cutlery and edge tools in Massachu- 
setts and Connecticut in 1927. Massachusetts leads considerably in 
the number of wage earners, and markedly in value of output and of 
revenue from manufacturing. This industry added to the manufac- 
turing income of the two States in 1927 upward of $33,800,000, with 
products valued at more than $42,000,000. The industry employed 
approximately 6,000 wage earners who were paid in wages $7,334,000, 
and provided a market for materials, fuel, and supplies amounting" to 
$8,330,000. 

The total for this industry in the two States shows a material in- 
crease in value of output and in manufacturing income from 1925 to 
1927, although there was a slight reduction in the total number of 
wage earners and in the total wages paid. In Connecticut there was 
a reduction in the number of establishments from 31 to 25, and a 
slight falling off in output and in income. In Massachusetts, how- 
ever, there was an increase in establishments from 39 to 42, an in- 
crease of 210 wage earners and an increase of more than $1,000,000 
in the manufacturing income. 

The growth of this industry in New England since 1904 has 
slightly surpassed the growth for the country as a whole. The value 

61232°— 30 17 



246 



INDUSTRIAL. STRUCTURE OF NEW ENGLAND 



added by manufacture in these two States almost quadrupled from 
1914 to 1925. In the latter year their product was about 52 per cent 
of the total national output, in comparison with 40 per cent 
in 1914 and 49.5 per cent in 1904. The following table shows the ac- 
tivity in Massachusetts and Connecticut, both individually and col- 
lectively in 1927 and 1925, as well as the comparative figures for 1914 
and 1904. 

Manufacture of Cutlery and Edge Tools in New England States, 1925 and 

1927 





Estab- 
lish- 
ments 


Wage 
earners 


Thousands of dollars 


State and year 


Wages 


Cost of 
materials 


Value of 
products 


Value 
added by 
manu- 
facture 


Massachusetts: 

1927 


42 
39 

25 
31 


3,407 
3,197 

2,585 
2,912 


4,174 
4,028 

3,160 
3,803 


5,883 
5,507 

2,447 
2,966 


33, 705 

32, 309 

8,431 

9,227 


27, 822 
26, 802 

5,984 
6,261 


1925 


Connecticut: 

1927 


1925 






Total: 

1927 _. 


67 
70 


5,992 
6,109 


7,334 
7,831 


8,330 

8,473 


42, 136 
41, 536 


33, 806 
33,064 


1925 i 




Massachusetts, 1914 


37 
33 


1,947 
5,008 


1,067 
2,931 


833 
2,537 


4,354 
7,357 


3,521 
4,819 


Connecticut, 1914 




Total, 1914 2 


70 


6,955 


3,998 


3,370 


11,711 


8,340 




Massachusetts, 1904 


39 
40 


2,169 
4,565 


1,091 
2,460 


811 
2,113 


2,585 
6,168 


1,774 
4,055 


Connecticut, 1904 




Total, 1904 3 


79 

230 
211 

33.2 


6, 734 

17, 178 
16, 407 

37.2 


3,551 

20,270 
20, 226 

38.7 


2,924 

19, 126 

20, 562 

41.2 


8,753 

76,688 
80, 263 

51.7 


5,829 
57, 562 


United States total: 

1927 


1925 : 


59, 701 

55.4 


Connecticut and Massachusetts as per 
cent of United States, 1925 







i Not including 2 establishments in Rhode Island, 2 in New Hampshire, 1 in Maine. 

2 Not including 6 establishments in Maine, 5 in New Hampshire, 2 in Vermont, 1 in Rhode Island. 

a Not including 9 establishments in Maine, 7 in New Hampshire. 



A CROSS SECTION OF THE INDUSTRY 



Thirty-nine manufacturers of cutlery and edge tools submitted 
replies to a special inquiry regarding their operating practices, and 
of this number there were 30 companies giving sales figures for 1925, 
aggregating $34,500,000, and representing more, than 80 per cent of 
the total industry in New England. Nineteen of these companies 
were located in Massachusetts, 13 in Connecticut, 2 in Maine and 
New Hampshire, and 3 in Vermont. Included in this group of 30 
companies were .^5 with individual sales of less than $100,000, 14 
between $400,000 and $500,000, 1 between $500,000 and $1,000,000, 
and 2 exceeding $1,000,000. In the latter was one company over- 
shadowing all the others with a business considerably in excess of 
$25,000,000. 

Size and age of establishments. — The size of 35 companies, as indi- 
cated by t lie- average- number of persons on their pay roll, was as 
follows : Nineteen employed fewer than 50 workers each, 7 between 
50 and 100 workers. 7 between 100 and 250 workers, and 2 companies 



METAL MANUFACTURES 247 

employed more than 500 workers, one of which had a pay roll of 
nearly 2,000 workers. 

Of 31 companies reporting the length of time they had been in 
operation, 21 had been in business 50 years or more. There were 
10 concerns that had been established within the last 10 years, and 
14 companies reported changes in management within the last 10 
years. Five concerns reported branch establishments, one of which 
was in a Middle Western State, while another had branches in Mon- 
treal and in England. Additions to plant capacity since 1921 were 
reported in 10 instances, and 1 company reported a reduction. Three 
companies stated that their capacity had been more than doubled, 
and 4 others had made increases of from 25 to 75 per cent in capacity. 

The output, in terms of the maximum capacity for 26 companies, 
exclusive of the largest plant reporting, was 71.4 per cent. This 
largest concern reported operations exceeding the full single-shift 
capacity through the employment of night work. Eating this con- 
cern at 100 per cent brings the average output for the whole group 
to the high point of 92.3 per cent of the aggregate maximum capacity. 

Raw materials. — The principal raw material reported was steel, 
used by practically every concern, with a smaller number using iron 
and several employing also silver, nickel, brass, wood handles, cel- 
luloid, and various other minor articles used in manufacture. In 
most cases it was said that steel and iron were purchased from 
sources outside New England. 

Manufacturing practices. — A remarkably high proportion of em- 
ployees of these reporting companies are paid by some incentive 
method of wage payment, such as piecework or a premium plan, the 
weighted average for 25 concerns giving data regarding this prac- 
tice being 68 per cent of the aggregate pay roll. Only 4 of the 29 
which made definite statements stated that they paid none of their 
employees by such methods. In this industry where labor costs 
absorb approximately 40 per cent of the value of the product, it thus 
appears that the development of incentive methods of wage payment 
has received a high degree of recognition. 

Regarding the seasonal periods of activity in this industry, the 
average number of employees at quarterly intervals in 1923 and 1925 
indicates a general period of slack employment in the late spring 
and summer months and a period of maximum activity in the fall. 
Relatively few of the companies report the development of supple- 
mentary products to overcome a seasonal tendency, but many of them 
maintain uniform employment by manufacturing goods for stock 
during dull periods. Improvements in manufacturing practice most 
frequently emphasized are in the line of factory inspection. One 
company states that the finer quality of finished knives, brought 
about by better inspection methods, has resulted in increased sales. 
Another states that production control has made possible an increase 
of at least 10 per cent in output. Various others indicate similar 
effects from improvements in recent years. 

Sales trends. — The figures of sales show a decidedly upward trend 
in volume during the last few years, with a maximum reached in 
1925 for 25 reporting concerns, amounting to an aggregate increase 
of 96 per cent over 1921. From 1923 to 1925 there were 15 concerns 
whose individual sales increased and 13 which decreased. An exam- 



248 INDUSTRIAL STRUCTURE OF NEW ENGLAND 

ination of the sales trends of individual companies discloses that it 
is the larger concerns whose sales have consistently increased, and 
that they attribute the increase, in most cases, to extension of sales 
territory and to an improvement of their selling methods. 

Practically all the companies in this group reported that they dis- 
tribute their products nationally and that a majority of their total 
sales are made outside New England. The weighted average of New 
England sales for 26 companies was slightly less than 10 per cent; 
only 6 concerns stated that the majority of their sales were made with- 
in New England. Exports were reported by 20 companies, the 
weighted average for the group being 35 per cent of their aggregate 
business. This includes two very large concerns, one of which had 
exports of 34 per cent and another of 85 per cent. Excluding these 
two from consideration, the average exports of the other 18 was 6 
per cent of their aggregate sales. 

Distribution methods. — The prevailing method of distribution re- 
ported is through wholesale dealers, but most of the companies mar- 
ket a portion of their product through other channels, of which sales 
direct to the retailer and to the manufacturing consumer were most 
frequent. Most of the companies reported reliance upon two or 
more distribution channels. 

Use of trade-marks and advertising. — The use of trade-marks pre- 
vails generally in this line. Twenty-one of the companies indicated 
that a weighted average of 77 per cent of their aggregate output 
was marketed under an identifying brand name. Advertising also 
appears to be the prevailing practice, only four companies indicating 
that they did no advertising. National advertising predominates, 
through the medium of trade journals and direct mail. 

MECHANICS' TOOLS 

Small tools for the use of mechanics and machinists include such 
articles as expansion bits, taps, dies, gauges, drills, reamers, jigs and 
fixtures, chucks, micrometers, pipe cutting and threading tools, files 
and rasps, bit braces, broaching tools, hack-saw blades, carpenters' 
tools, and other small mechanical tools. Although this classification 
is distinct from other similar manufactures, many companies whose 
main product is machinery and machine tools turn out considerable 
quantities of these small tools in addition, either for their own use 
or for sale. Hence, the official figures for the small-tool industry 
do not represent the entire output. 

According to the 1927 census this industry in four New England 
States (not including New Hampshire and Maine) provided a manu- 
facturing income upward of $23,000,000 to this region, and the gross 
value of its products was upward of $83,000,000. The industry pro- 
vided employment to ;m aggregate of 8,052 workers with a pay roll 
of upward of $10,000,000, and afforded a market for materials 
amounting to more than $10,000,000, including fuel, power, and 
supplies. 

The making of small tools is concentrated in Massachusetts and 
Connecticut, although (here are many important establishments in 
Rhode Island which turn out substantial quantities of these products 
in connection with the manufacture oi machine-tool equipment. 
Massachusetts represents more than 60 per cent of the reported New 



METAL MANUFACTURES 



249 



England total, and Connecticut about one-half as much as Massa- 
chusetts. The industry is of considerable importance to Vermont, 
adding to its manufacturing income in 1927 about $1,119,000. 

This industry shows a very slight reduction in total activity in the 
New England States from 1925 to 1927. The number of establish- 
ments in Massachusetts, Connecticut, Vermont, and Rhode Island 
was reduced from 153 to 142, most of this reduction taking place m 
Massachusetts. There was a slight falling off also in the total num- 
ber of wage earners, which took place principally in Massachusetts 
and was partially offset by increases in Connecticut. The total wage 
payments in these four States show a slight increase. There was a 
reduction of about $1,000,000 in the gross value of the output and a 
relative reduction in the net manufacturing income. In Vermont 
there was a slight increase in the value of the output but a slight 
reduction in the net manufacturing income, as shown by the value 
added by manufacture. The following table gives the census figures 
for the individual States for 1927 and 1925, together with comparable 
totals for 1914 and 1904. 



Manufacture of Machinists' and Mechanics' Tools in New England States, 

1925 and 1927 





Estab- 
lish- 
ments 


Wage 
earners 


Thousands of dollars 


State and year 


Wages 


Cost of 
materials 


Value of 
products 


Value 
added by 
manu- 
facture 


Massachusetts: 

1927 


72 

82 

49 
49 

9 
8 

12 
14 


4,589 
4,909 

2,830 
2,695 

459 
449 

174 
166 


5,838 
6,139 

3,734 
3,306 

474 
475 

248 
222 


5,061 

5,715 

4,112 
3,710 

814 
688 

126 
130 


19, 113 
21, 206 

11, 586 
10, 472 

1,933 
1,889 

521 
568 


14, 052 


1925 


15, 491 

7,474 
6,763 


Connecticut: 

1927 


1925 


Vermont: 

1927 


1,119 


1925 . 


1,201 


Rhode Island: 

1927 


395 


1925 


438 






Total: 

1927 


142 
153 

185 
162 

' 657 
663 

23.1 


8,052 
8,219 

7,586 
4,615 

25, 232 
25, 340 

32.4 


10, 294 
10, 142 

4,588 
2,497 

34,465 
34, 294 

29.6 


10, 113 
10, 243 

4,310 
2,626 

37, 057 
39, 023 

26.2 


33, 153 

34, 135 

13, 650 
8,317 

117, 431 
121, 263 

28.1 


23, 040 


1925 i 


23, 893 

9,339 
5,691 

80, 374 
82, 240 

29.1 


New England total: 

1914 


1904 


United States total: 

1927 


1925 


New England as per cent of United States: 
1925 







1 Not including 5 establishments in Maine, 4 in New Hampshire. 

New England contributed in 1925 about 29 per cent of the United 
States total manufacturing income from this industry. Massachu- 
setts surpassed any other State. Outside New England the leading 
State is Ohio, which is nearly as important as Massachusetts. Next 
in order are Illinois and Michigan, of approximately equal impor- 
tance, each deriving upw T ard of $9,000,000 in income from this source. 
These States are followed by Pennsylvania and New York, each of 
which contributes less than Connecticut, with individual State in- 



250 INDUSTRIAL STRUCTURE OF NEW ENGLAND 

comes exceeding $6,000,000. New Jersey follows, with less than 
$3,000,000, and Indiana and Iowa each contributed upward of 
$1,000,000. 

Comparison of figures for New England with those for the entire 
United States shows that this group of States contributed more than 
40 per cent of the total national income from this industry both in 
1904 and in 1914, while its share in 1925 had fallen to 29 per cent. 
New England thus held its national position in the decade preceding 
1914 but fell back materially after 1914 in consequence of great expan- 
sion in other sections of the country. This particular line of metal 
manufacture has thus shown a much more conservative growth in New 
England than the kindred lines of hardware and cutlery. The in- 
come from tool manufacture in New England increased about 150 
per cent from 1914 to 1925, while that from hardware increased by 
nearly 200 per cent and that from cutlery nearly 300 per cent. 

Comparison of figures for 1925 with those for 1914 and 1904 shows 
that in 1925 there was approximately the same number of establish- 
ments in New England as 20 years ago. The number of wage 
earners shows an increase of 80 per cent over 1904, while the value 
of product and the income from manufacture have more than quad- 
rupled. As compared with 1914 there was in 1925 an increase of 
about 700 in the number of wage earners, while the value of product 
and the value added by manufacture increased one and one-half times. 

EXPERIENCES OF SMALL TOOL MANUFACTURERS 

Size and age of establishments. — A large group of manufacturers 
with aggregate sales of nearly $20,000,000, representing nearly 57 
per cent of the whole industry in New England, submitted informa- 
tion regarding their operations. These concerns specialize in one 
or more of the products mentioned and range in size from plants 
with business of a few thousand dollars up to one company with 
annual sales exceeding $3,000,000. There were 77 replies in all, and 
68 crave complete sales figures. Of this latter number, 51 reported 
individual sales of less than $250,000 each and 17 more than $250,000. 
There were 29 companies with sales of less than $50,000 ; 12 between 
$50,000 and $100,000; 10 between $100,000 and $250,000; 7 between 
$250,000 and $500,000; 5 between $500,000 and $1,000,000; and 5 
exceeding $1,000,000 in sales. 

The 17 companies with individual sales over $250,000 represented 
85 per cent of the total sales for the 68, and the 5 companies with 
sales exceeding $1,000,000 made up 55 per cent of the total. The 
aggregate pay roll of 70 concerns giving figures was 4,511 workers. 
Fifty-eight companies bad fewer than 100 workers each and 12 had 
more than LOO. There were 44 whose pay roll was fewer than 25 
and 5 with more than 250 each. The largest company employed 700 
workers. The 12 largest companies accounted for 73 per cent of the 
total employment of the group. 

The average age of 77 reporting plants was 23 years. There were 
51 thai had been established within the last 25 year's, and 25 of these 
had started business within 10 years; L3 companies have been in 
continuous operation for more than 50 years. Changes in manage- 
ment within the lust 10 years were reported by 22 concerns, Branch 



METAL MANUFACTURES 251 

manufacturing plants were reported in operation by 8 of the 77 
companies. One company reported a branch in Canada; another 1 
company, one in Missouri; and a third has a branch in Virginia; 
the other branches are located within New England. 

Raw materials. — The principal raw materials purchased are steel 
and iron castings. A few companies reported also brass, wood for 
handles, grinding wheels, and other minor materials. The steel is 
purchased mainly from sources outside New England, but iron cast- 
ings are bought principally from local sources. 

Additions and operating ratio. — Additions to plant capacity since 
1921 were indicated by 20 companies, the increases ranging from 10 
per cent up to fivefold the original capacity. Six companies stated 
that their capacity had been doubled or more than doubled, and 5 
others reported more than a 50 per cent increase. No reductions were 
stated. The degree of utilization of plant capacity, as shown by 
reports of 53 companies with aggregate sales of $14,600,000, is indi- 
cated by the weighted average of 71.5 per cent of maximum capacity. 
Thirty-five companies reported operations at 75 per cent or upward, 
while 8 others were operating at less than one-half the maximum 
capacity. 

Plant practices. — Little seasonal tendency exists in this industry, 
according to the reports received. Employment is fairly uniform 
throughout the year and slack periods are due more to general busi- 
ness conditions than to seasonal influence. This regularity of em- 
ployment is largely due to diversification in types of customers, partly 
to the practice of manufacturing for stock during otherwise slack 
periods, and partly to the development of supplementary products. 

The use of incentive methods of wage payment was indicated by 
upward of one-third of the reporting companies, the weighted aver- 
age for 22 concerns, giving data covering an employment of 3,450 
workers, being 45 per cent. Two of the largest companies paid one- 
half of their entire pay roll on an incentive basis and 16 companies 
paid more than one-half in this way. 

Sales trends. — The sales of these companies were, in general, de- 
cidedly upward since 1921, the aggregate for 53 concerns showing 
an increase of 69 per cent over this period. Practically all this 
increase took place, however, previous to 1924; the aggregate sales 
of 64 companies were only a fraction of a per cent greater in 1925 
than in 1923. In the latter 2-year interval individual increases 
were shown by 34 firms and decreases by 26. The increases were 
relatively more numerous among the smaller concerns, and the de- 
creases were more frequent among the companies exceeding $250,000. 
The latter decreases, however, were in most cases relatively slight in 
proportion to the individual volume of business. 

Sales increases were attributed in individual replies to improved 
design of tools, improved workmanship, increased building, more 
automobiles, increase of syndicate stores, increased sales effort, and 
protective tariff. Decreases in sales volume were attributed in indi- 
vidual cases to " inability to get skilled labor at fair wages," the 
westward trend of business, demand for cheaper products, general 
overproduction, and competition from Germany. 

Improvements reported. — Various improvements in manufacturing 
practices were reported by individual companies, One concern, 



252 INDUSTRIAL STRUCTURE OF NEW ENGLAND 

which operates its factory only 5 days per week, 9 hours per day, 
stated that it had obtained an increase of 50 per cent in production 
per man employed. Another stated that manufacturing costs had 
been reduced considerably through standardization of products. A 
third reports a decided improvement from the installation of a new 
cost-accounting system. In another instance a manufacturer states 
that production control, adjusting plant capacity to demand, pur- 
chasing schedules, and standardization of products had resulted in a 
decrease of approximately 25 per cent in inventory investment and 
an increase from 1.1 to 2.2 per cent in turnover. 

Location of markets. — Most of the output of manufacturers report- 
ing in this line finds its market outside New England. The reports 
of 58 companies, with aggregate sales of $18,000,000, showed a 
weighted average of 15.7 per cent sold within New England. One 
large manufacturer of taps and dies, doing a $2,000,000 business, 
reported 25 per cent of his sales in New England. Another million- 
dollar company, making wrenches, stated that only 2 per cent of its 
business comes from New England. Most of the large companies 
reported from 10 to 20 per cent of their .sales within the region. Of 
the whole group, 23 companies reported a majority of their sales to 
the New England market, while 19 concerns sold less than 10 per 
cent in that area. Increasing New England sales were reported by a 
greater number of concerns than those showing decreases. 

Exports were reported by 27 companies, with aggregate sales 
exceeding $17,000,000. The weighted average of exports for this 
group was 14 per cent of their total sales. Fourteen companies 
reported exports ranging from 10 per cent to 25 per cent, 1 reported 
30 per cent, and 12 less than 10 per cent. Several of the latter 
exported only 1 or 2 per cent of their total. 

Methods of distribution. — The principal distribution channels are 
wholesale houses and direct sales to the consumer (manufacturer). 
Twenty-two companies stated that they market their entire product 
through wholesale houses, while an equal number use this channel 
in conjunction with others. Eighteen companies .stated that they 
sell their entire output direct to the consuming manufacturer, while 
nearly as many others use this method in conjunction with other 
agencies. Only two manufacturers reported sole reliance on direct 
sales to retailer, although a number of companies market a portion 
of their product directly through retailers. 

Use of trade-marks and advertising. — Identification of product 
with trade-mark or brand name is practically universal among these 
reporting companies, practically the entire product being sold under 
a brand name. All but eight of the reporting companies indicated 
the use of advertising. Most of them employ national mediums, in 
which the trade journal predominates, supplemented by dealer helps 
and direct mail. The average advertising costs for the group was 
relatively high, being 2.6 per cent of total sales. 

BRASS, BRONZE, AND OTHER NONFERROUS METALS 

The manufactures discussed in this section include products made 
from ingots an (J bars of brass, bronze, and other nonferrous alloys, 
and numerous products for remanufacture, as well as fully manufac- 



METAL MANUFACTURES 253 

tured articles made principally from these materials. There is a 
wide variety of uses and types in this group. Copper enters into all 
the important products of this industry, being combined with zinc 
in brass manufacture and with tin in bronze. Brass has a great 
variety of uses because of the ease with which it can be cast and 
machined. 

This industry represents 2 per cent of the total New England in- 
come from all manufacturing activity of the section; in Connecticut 
it comprises over 8 per cent of the State's manufacturing income, 
and ranks third in importance among all its manufactures. 

This industry contributed about $60,000,000 to the revenue of New 
England in 1925, as shown by the value added by manufacture, and 
its products had a gross value of more than $170,000,000. There were 
nearly 26,000 persons engaged in this line, who received in wages and 
salaries over $39,000,000. The industry gave employment to nearly 
23,000 wage earners and paid more than $31,000,000 in wages. It 
provided a market for various materials, including fuel, power, and 
supplies, amounting to $111,000,000. 

IMPORTANCE IN NEW ENGLAND 

More than 90 per cent of the national production of this industry 
is contributed collectively by New England, the Middle Atlantic 
States, and the East North Central States, in which New England 
surpasses slightly each of the other two sections. The importance of 
New England is indicated by a contribution of approximately one- 
third of the value of the total national production in this line. In 
this group of States were 36 per cent of all the w T age earners of the 
United States in 1925 for this industry, and it contributed 35 per cent 
of the wages paid by the whole industry. The manufacturing income 
from this industry in New England in 1925 was 53 per cent of the 
national total and in 1914 it was 39 per cent. (See fig. 38.) 

Connecticut contributes more than 90 per cent of the total activity 
for New England. This type of manufacture is among the three 
leading single industries of that State. The industry is concentrated 
largely in half a dozen manufacturing cities and towns in and adja- 
cent to the Naugatuck Valley. The city of Waterbury in 1925 repre- 
sented 53 per cent of the State total. Connecticut alone represents 
over 30 per cent of the total national production, while the other 
New England States have approximately 3 per cent. Outside New 
England the next important city in this line is Detroit, Mich. 

Connecticut has continuously been the leading State of the Nation 
in this industry. In 1904 Connecticut contributed more than half 
(53 per cent) of the national value of products, and the State of New 
York then ranked second, with about 8 per cent. In 1909 Connecticut 
contributed 45 per cent of the national value of products and New 
York 15 per cent. In 1914 Connecticut's contribution was 43 per 
cent, while that of New York was still 15 per cent. In 1919 Con- 
necticut represented 35 per cent and New York 14 per cent of the 
national value of products. 

This New England industry shows a slight net increase from 1925 
to 1927 in its contribution to the region's manufacturing income, al- 
though there was a considerable reduction in the gross value of the 



254 



INDUSTRIAL STRUCTURE OF NEW ENGLAND 



output and in outlay for materials, and a slight falling off in the 
number of wage earners and in wages paid. The total number of 
establishments was practically the same in the two years. There 
was approximately the same number of establishments in 1925 as in 





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\ LOCATION OF ESTABLISHMENTS 
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^ BRASS, BRONZE, COPPER 

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y\ 1927 

\ CT\ DOTS AND FIOURCS SHO* NUMBC* IN EACH COUNTY 




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Figrure 38 



1914, bul there was substantia] growth in number of wage earners — 
fin increase since L914 of more than 4,000 workers. The value of the 
products increased L25 per cent in this 11-year interval, and the 
region's revenue increased 229 per cent, in comparison with a national 
increase of 285 per cent. In the preceding decade there was a slight 



METAL MANUFACTURES 



255 



falling off in New England — V/ 2 per cent — in comparison with a 
national increase of 27 per cent. 

The growth of the industry in New England has resulted from an 
increase in the size of plants rather than from an increase in number. 
The average number of wage earners per plant in New England was 
110 in 1914 and 141 in 1925. The averages outside New England 
were only 49 in 1914 and 45 in 1925. 

In the matter of wages it is a significant fact that the average 
yearly wage per worker for this entire industry in New England 
was considerably lower than the average for the entire United States, 
the figures being $1,377 and $1,440, respectively. The average value 
of product turned out per wage earner in New England was $7,480, 
in comparison with $8,698 for the rest of the country. 

The importance of the industry in each of the four States of New 
England for which separate statistics are available is shown in the 
following table. 

Manufacture of Beass, Bronze, and Other Nonferrous Alloys in New • 
England States, 1925 and 1927 





Estab- 
lish- 
ments 


Wage 
earners 


Thousands of dollars 


State and year 


W T ages 


Cost of 
materials 


Value of 
products 


Value 
added by 
manu- 
facture 


Connecticut: 

1927 --- 


67 
64 

82 
80 

11 
12 

3 

6 


20,442 
20, 415 

1,912 
2,182 

115 
105 

63 
100 


28, 538 
28, 339 

2,585 
2,811 

147 
129 

75 
117 


97, 278 
102, 689 

7,584 
7,581 

318 
344 

119 
293 


152, 390 
156, 142 

12, 688 
13, 197 

663 

727 

402 

502 


55, 111 


1925 


53, 453 
5,105 


Massachusetts: 

1927 


1925 


5,616 
345 


Rhode Island: 

1927 


1925 


383 


New Hampshire: 

1927 


283 


1925 


209 






Total: 

1927 


163 

162 

169 

1,044 

15.5 


22, 532 
22, 802 
18, 608 
62, 942 

36.2 


31, 345 

31, 397 
11, 041 
90,613 

34.6 


105, 299 

110, 906 

57, 903 

337, 641 

32.8 


166, 143 
170, 568 
76, 072 
519, 725 

32.8 


60, 844 
59, 662 


1925 i 


New England total, 1914 2 


18, 170 


United States total, 1925 ___ 

New England as per cent of United States, 
1925 2 


182, 084 
32.8 







1 Not including 2 establishments in Vermont, 1 in Maine. 

2 Not including 2 establishments in Vermont. 



The manufacture of brass^ bronze, and copper products is a long- 
established industry in New England, and its products were among 
the earliest manufactures. Of 25 representative companies in this 
line, 7 have been in existence well over 50 years, and 2 of them more 
than a century. The average age for this whole group was 37 years. 



CONDITIONS AS SHOWN BY REPORTING COMPANIES 

Size of establishments. — Twenty-five manufacturers supplied in- 
formation regarding their operations from 1921 to 1925. These 
represented plants ranging in size from small concerns with an annual 
volume of less than $20,000 to an enterprise with a business of 
$20,000,000. The annual output of these concerns in 1925, in propor- 



256 INDUSTRIAL STRUCTURE OF NEW ENGLAND 

tion to their maximum capacity, was 79 per cent. There was a con- 
siderable variation among individual concerns. One-fifth of the 
companies reported branch plants, all of which are located in the 
same State as the parent company. Additions to plant capacity 
since 1921 were reported by one-fifth of the companies, with indi- 
vidual increases varying from 10 to 100 per cent. Reductions during 
this period were reported in two instances. 

Rano materials. — The principal raw materials reported in these 
replies are copper, brass, bronze, and various other alloys, which are 
purchased in the majority of cases from New England dealers. A 
number of manufacturers reported, however, that their purchases 
are made chiefly in New York City. 

Manufacturing practices. — This industry is subject to little' sea- 
sonal variation, according to statements of three-fourths of the firms 
reporting. These stated that production is maintained at a fairly 
continuous rate throughout the year, affected only by general busi- 
ness conditions ; consequently few plants have undertaken to develop 
secondary products or supplementary employment as a means for 
maintaining regular activity throughout the year. 

The payment of workers on a basis of piecework or other incentive 
method was reported by only two-fifths of the 25 firms reporting, 
three-fifths of them stating that no factory workers were paid on 
such a basis. A number of the Connecticut plants, however, reported 
that various proportions of the men on their pay rolls are paid on 
a piecework basis. 

Sales and marketing. — The majority of the companies reporting 
stated that their principal market is outside New England. Re- 
turns from 21 firms indicated that sales within New England repre- 
sented 30 per cent of the aggregate volume of the group. Twelve 
companies stated that their principal market is in the Middle 
Atlantic States, 11 others reported markets in the East North Cen- 
tral States, 5 concerns reported important markets on the Pacific 
coast, and 2 others reported national distribution. Sales in foreign 
countries were reported by 10 of the reporting companies. The 
export sales of five of these which indicated the proportions of such 
trade amounted to a little over 4 per cent of their aggregate sales 
volume ; exports ranged in individual instances from 2 to 20 per cent. 

The trend of sales of these representative companies runs gener- 
ally parallel to that of other industries up to 1924. The volume in 
1922 showed an increase of 68 per cent and that of 1923 an increase 
of 42 per cent over the preceding year. . There was a reduction of 
11 per cent in 1924, but this was followed in 1925 by an 18 per cent 
increase, so that the latter year was higher than any of the preceding 
years in sales volume of these representative companies. The major- 
it v of the companies reported an increase in total volume of business 
in 192:;. 1924, and 1925. while a little less than one-third of the 
reporting number indicated some falling off in volume. The reduc- 
tions were attributed to increased competition and to changes in the 
market demand, while the companies with increased sales generally 
attributed such increase to lower cost of manufacture, to new selling 
methods, and to extension of sales territory. 



METAL MANUFACTURES 257 

The principal methods of distribution were indicated to be through 
wholesalers or direct to the manufacturing consumer. These two 
channels were about equally divided in the replies of individual com- 
panies. Most of the products are sold under a brand or trade-mark. 
The use of advertising was indicated by a little more than half of 
the companies, these depending mainly upon trade journals and 
direct mail. 

JEWELRY, SILVER, AND PLATED WARE 

JEWELRY 

The jewelr}^ industry in New England is highly localized in a rela- 
tively small area of southeastern Massachusetts and Rhode Island. 
These two States account for almost all the jewelry production of the 
region. The greater part of such manufacture is concentrated in 
Providence, in North Attleboro, and Attleboro, and adjacent towns. 
A small amount of jewelry is made in Connecticut. The -product of 
Rhode Island, Massachusetts, and Connecticut represented 35 per cent 
of the national value of product in 1925 and about the same propor- 
tion of the national income from the manufacture of jewelry. 

The principal products of New England manufacture are articles 
for personal adornment made from gold, silver, and platinum, as 
well as plain, engraved, or chased articles of bronze, brass, copper, 
or other metals, either with or without precious and semiprecious 
stones. The industry thus includes both the high-grade jewelry 
made from the precious metals and personal ornaments made from 
cheaper materials. 

The making of jew T elry provided a manufacturing income to Mas- 
sachusetts and Rhode Island in 1927 exceeding $33,000,000, as shown 
by the value added by manufacture, exclusive of the cost of materials. 
The gross output in 1927 had a value exceeding $63,000,000, and the 
industry provided a market for materials used in manufacture of 
nearly $28,800,000. In the jewelry manufacture in these two States 
there were upward of 13,000 wage earners, w T ho were paid more than 
$15,000,000 in wages. 

Despite a considerable reduction in number of establishments — • 
from 360 to 323 — the jewelry output of Rhode Island and Massa- 
chusetts shows a substantial growth from 1925 to 1927. The gross 
value of product showed an increase of 7.7 per cent, and the addition 
to the income from jewelry manufacture increased by 12 per cent 
in the 2-year interval. There was an increase of nearly 1,000 in 
number of wage earners in these two States. 

In 1904 New England produced nearly one-half (46.2 per cent) 
of the national total and in 1914, 44.5 per cent, thus almost maintain- 
ing its relative position in the national production. Although there 
was a considerable recession from 1914 to 1925 in its national position, 
the value of the New England product increased in this interval 
about 68 per cent, in comparison with a New England increase of 
27 per cent in the 10 years preceding 1914. The importance of the 
industry in Rhode Island and Massachusetts is shown in the follow- 
ing table. 



258 



INDUSTRIAL, STRUCTURE OF NEW ENGLAND 



Manufactuke of Jewelky in New England States, 1925 and 1927 





Estab- 
lish- 
ments 


Wage 
earners 


Thousands of dollars 


State and year 


Wages 


Cost of 
materials 


Value of 
products 


Value 
added by 
manu- 
facture 


Rhode Island: 

1927 


188 
220 

135 
140 


7,826 
7,039 

5,216 
5,056 


8,696 
7,545 

6,574 
6,378 


16, 587 
15, 442 

12, 206 
12,454 


35, 451 
31,616 

26, 781 
26,156 


18, 864 


1925 


16, 173 


Massachusetts: 

1927 


14, 575 


1925 


13, 703 






Total: 

1927 


323 
360 
516 
335 

1,367 

1,468 

24.5 


13, 042 
12, 095 
15, 484 
12, 147 

24, 116 

23, 837 

50.7 


15, 270 
13, 923 

8,772 
6,203 

36, 766 

35, 177 

39.6 


28, 793 
27, 896 
18, 022 
10, 428 

76,915 

79, 886 

34.9 


62, 232 
57, 772 
36, 051 
24,611 

164, 865 
166, 816 

34.6 


33, 439 


1925L.. 


29,876 


1914 


18, 029 


1904 2. . 


14, 183 


United States total: 

1927 _• 


87, 950 


1925 


86, 931 


Rhode Island and Massachusetts as per 
cent of United States: 1925. 


34.4 







1 Not including Maine, 1 establishment. 

2 Not including New Hampshire, 1 establishment. 

CONDITIONS AS SHOWN BY JEWELRY MANUFACTURERS 

Special information for this survey was provided by 113 jewelry 
companies who replied to inquiries regarding their manufacturing 
operations and their markets. The aggregate sales in 1925 of 97 of 
these companies which supplied figures were in excess of $26,000,000 
and represented 45 per cent of the entire New England output, as 
reported in the census. Thus, these replies provide a very good 
cross-section of the whole industry. 

Most of the companies included in this group are makers of mis- 
cellaneous products for the jewelry trade. Some of these make semi- 
manufactured articles for sale to other manufacturers who make 
finished jewelry for the general trade. A few sell a portion of their 
output to other manufacturers and a portion as a finished product to 
the trade. 

Raw materials. — There were 69 companies which indicated the 
purchase of gold, 38 of these reporting gold plate, and 12 others gold 
in some other semimanufactured form; the use of brass was indi- 
cated in 49 cases; silver, 48 firms; and sterling silver and nickel 
silver, 25 and 19 firms, respectively. Other materials were copper, 
nickel, white metal, gilder's metal, steel, platinum, zinc, lead, and 
antimony. Imitation stones were indicated by more companies than 
were the precious and semiprecious stones. Various other materials 
incidental to the finished products of this industry were mentioned 
in small quantities. 

The source of these materials for companies making finished 
products for the general jewelry trade was given, in the majority of 
instances, as New England, 77 companies stating this source. 
Foreign sources, principally for stones and pearls, were next in 
frequency, 2. 4 > companies naming this source. Several of the concerns 
purchased materials in New York and in the other Middle Atlantic 
States, and a lew stated they made purchases of materials in the East 



METAL MANUFACTURES 259 

North Central States. The majority of the companies whose product 
is sold to other manufacturers indicated New England as the source 
of their purchases. 

Size and age of establishments. — Of the 113 reporting companies 
almost half had come into existence during the past 25 years and 
several within 10 years. There were 25 concerns which had been in 
operation 50 years or more and 35 between 25 and 50 years. 

Branch plants were reported by 6 Massachusetts companies and 
by 4 Rhode Island companies, located mainly in near-by towns. 
One Massachusetts concern established a branch near by in 1916; 
another concern had a branch in Providence, established in 1920. 
A Rhode Island manufacturer of a special product reported branch 
plants in New York and Chicago, established in 1901 and 1906, re- 
spectively. A concern making college and high-school jewelry re- 
ports a branch in North Carolina, and another manufacturer estab- 
lished a branch in Quebec in 1914. 

The size of individual establishments in this business is indicated 
by the following classification of the 97 companies giving individual 
sales figures. Their aggregate volume was in excess of $26,300,000, 
making the average of individual sales $271,000. There were 16 
companies with individual sales in 1925 of less than $50,000 ; 22 com- 
panies between $50,000 and $100,000; 23 concerns between $100,000 
and $250,000; 22 concerns between $250,000 and $500,000; and 14 
concerns exceeding $500,000. There were three companies reporting 
individual sales exceeding $1,000,000. 

More than half of the companies reported an average pay roll 
of less than 50 wage earners, and six-sevenths of all the companies 
reporting had a pay roll of fewer than 100. The classification of 
101 companies, according to employment, was as follows : Thirty-four 
companies, fewer than 25 workers ; 25 companies, between 25 and 50 
workers; 26 companies, between 50 and 100 workers; 12 companies, 
between 100 and 250 workers; and 4 companies, more than 256 
workers. 

Wage incentives. — Incentive methods of wage payment were indi- 
cated by two-thirds of the companies, the proportions of total em- 
ployees so paid ranging generally from 10 to 75 per cent, and in most 
cases being near the lower percentage. The aggregate number of 
employees paid by piecework or other incentive method was indicated 
to be about one-third of the total number employed by the reporting 
companies. 

Operating ratio. — The ratio of output in 1925 to maximum produc- 
tive capacity for 69 companies with aggregate sales of $19,500,000 
was 66.3 per cent. Of 74 firms stating their percentages, 29 were 
running at from 75 per cent to full capacity; 36 were operating at 
50 to 75 per cent • and 9 factories reported operations at less than 
one-half of their full capacity. A number of concerns had increased 
the capacity of their plants since 1921. Five companies reported a 
doubling and 1 a trebling of capacity; 11 others reported smaller 
increases, most of them less than 25 per cent. Reductions in capacity 
were reported in 5 instances ; 1 other concern reported the closing of 
a branch factory. Of the concerns reporting increases in capacity 
2 had sales exceeding $1,000,000 each, 5 others had sales exceeding 
$500,000, and the rest were less than $500,000. All the companies 



260 INDUSTRIAL STRUCTURE OF NEW ENGLAND 

reporting reductions in capacity had individual sales of less than 
$500,000. 

Sales trends. — The trend of sales was reported by 86 companies 
for the period 1921 to 1925 and by 96 companies for the shorter 
period, 1923 to 1925. The reports showed a general increase from 1921 
through 1923, but after that a small decrease each year. Sales for 
the year 1925 showed an average increase of 20.7 per cent over those 
of 1921. There was a decrease of 7.5 per cent in 1924 compared with 
the preceding year, and in 1925 a decrease of 3.1 per cent, resulting 
in a net decrease of 10.3 per cent from, 1923 to 1925. More of the 
smaller than of the larger companies experienced decreases in sales. 
Nearly three-fourths of the smaller companies with individual sales 
below $250,000 showed a reduction in volume from 1923 to 1925, 
while less than half of the large companies with sales exceeding 
$250,000 showed a decrease for the same period. A continuous 
increase in sales from 1921 to 1925 was reported by 10 companies and 
from 1923 through 1925 by 17 companies. 

Sales within New England, as reported by 73 concerns with an 
aggregate volume of nearly $20,000,000, comprised approximately 30 
per cent of the total. Of this number there were 60 manufacturers 
for the general jewelry trade whose New England sales amounted to 
18.4 per cent of the aggregate total ; and 13 companies whose product 
was sold to other manufacturers and who made approximately 50 per 
cent of their aggregate sales within New England. There were 20 
manufacturers who reported upward of one-half of their sales as 
being made within New England, and 14 of this number sold 75 per 
cent or more in those States. There were 54 other companies report- 
ing their New England sales as less than 25 per cent, and many of 
these were less than 10 per cent of their total volume. 

Of 85 companies expressing themselves regarding the trend of their 
local sales, 30 stated that their sales within New England had in- 
creased in the last few years, 37 stated that they had fallen oil, while 
18 indicated no change in the situation. Reasons given for expan- 
sion of sales within New England were an increased line of products 
adapted to New England styles, expansion of 5-and-10-cent stores, 
increased sales effort, and more advertising. A few companies attrib- 
uted increases to favorable general business conditions and one con- 
cern to " a new, younger, and more aggressive sales organization." 
Reasons given for decreases in New England sales were changes in 
demand resulting from style changes, outlays for automobiles and 
radio-, competition in New England, greater attention to markets 
outside New England, and better wholesalers or jobbers outside New 
England. Several companies attributed a decline in their sales within 
this area to general business conditions or to a slump in the jewelry 
industry. 

Location of markets. — Markets outside New England, ranked ac- 
cording to the number of times indicated, were located in the Middle 
Atlantic States, the East North Central, (lie South Atlantic, and 
Bast South Central States, the Central Western States, and the 
Pacific States. Concerns selling their product to other manufac- 
turer- confined their markets mainly to New England and the Middle 
Atlantic States, while a few reported sales in the Central States, the 
Pacific States, and to foreign countries. Competition was reported 
in the greatest Dumber of instances from the Middle Atlantic States, 



METAL MANUFACTURES 261 

although several indicated the East North Central States also. Little 
competition was indicated outside these areas. 

Export sales were reported by 40 companies, and the average, as 
stated by 32 which gave sales figures, was 6.4 per cent of their, ag- 
gregate business. The average exports, according to statements of 
nine companies selling to other manufacturers, were 4 per cent of 
their aggregate sales; while for companies selling to the general 
jewelry trade the average, as reported, was 7.6 per cent of total sales. 
Three individual companies reported exports of 25, 35, and 85 per 
cent, respectively; 5 concerns reported 10 to 15 per cent and 25 
others less than 10 per cent, while 23 companies stated that they did 
no export business. 

Distribution methods. — The prevailing method of distribution in- 
dicated in the replies was through wholesale dealers. Goods sold 
for further manufacture are usually sold direct to other manufac- 
turers. Of concerns turning out finished jewelry for the general 
trade, 77 reported sales direct to wholesalers, and 23 others reported 
dealing directly with the retailer. A number of companies also deal 
through selling agents. A few reported sales through exclusive 
wholesale distributors and direct to the consumer. Two Rhode 
Island manufacturers of jewelers' findings reported sales offices in 
New York, and one of these has a sales office also in Chicago; while 
a Massachusetts company making general jew x elry products has sales 
offices in New York and Chicago. 

One large company making jewelry and novelties for colleges and 
fraternities, whose sales have had a substantial increase during the 
past few years and whose plant capacity has been considerably in- 
creased, have their own selling agents located at strategic points 
throughout the country. Orders are shipped from the factory direct 
to the customer. Most of the companies have salesmen who call upon 
the wholesale or retail trade in assigned territories. Where these 
sales areas are large the trips are necessarily infrequent, but the 
salesman with small territory covers the trade several times each 
year. Salesmen are reported to be paid for the most part, on a com- 
mission basis, but sometimes they receive a straight salary, which, 
in some cases, is supplemented with a commission or a bonus. Some 
companies depend entirely upon their catalogues for sales, but the 
general opinion is that a better view of marketing conditions and 
customer demand can be obtained through direct contacts made by 
salesmen. Some manufacturers state that they cater only to the 
existing demand, while others strive to create a demand for their 
product. The general statement is that customers now buy jewelry 
in smaller quantities and place their orders more often than in former 
years. 

Trade-marks and advertising. — Less than one-half of the reporting 
companies stated that they used a brand, trade-mark, or other means 
of identifying their product. Thirty-seven companies stated that 
all their product is <so marked, and 12 others trade-mark the greater 
portion. The use of trade-marks was indicated to about the same 
extent in the smaller concerns as in the large companies. 

Most of the reporting companies use advertising in some form as 
an aid in marketing their products, but 15 companies stated specifi- 
61232°— 30 18 



262 INDUSTRIAL STRUCTURE OF NEW ENGLAND 

cally that they do no advertising, while 23 did not specify. Of the 
concerns which indicated use of advertising, the majority stated that 
they advertise on a national basis. The tradii journal was mentioned 
in the majority of cases, 53 companies reporting this medium and 
32 making use of direct mail advertising. Magazines and dealer 
helps were reported as supplementary mediums, while a number of 
companies depend mainly upon catalogues. The most frequent 
combinations reported were trade journals with other magazines and 
direct mail, or magazines and direct mail. 

Labor and employment. — The trend of employment among these 
New England manufacturers follows very closely that for the 
industry as a whole in the United States. November is the month 
of maximum employment and July the minimum. A dull period is 
noticeable in the midsummer, followed by an active period in the 
late fall, in preparation for the holiday demand. The influence of 
holiday demand is difficult to overcome, and the main problem is to 
discover ways to stimulate sales during dull periods. The average 
employer finds it necessary to retain the major portion of his skilled 
labor during slack periods, often employing such workers in making 
up stock which is more or less standard. Efforts to develop supple- 
mentary products to keep employment and production more uniform 
throughout the year have been made, but with only partial success. 

One manufacturer emphasizes the difficulty of getting trained 
men, stating that it is almost impossible to get the younger gener- 
ation to learn the jewelry trade. He stated that on account of a 
shortage of suitable workmen his company was obliged to close its 
large factory, located in a Massachusetts city, and to purchase an in- 
terest in another concern in a near-by jewelry manufacturing town. 
On account of similar labor shortage there, however, he was con- 
templating locating in New York or New Jersey. 

Changes and improvements. — Reports from these jewelry manufac- 
turers state that many of them have been active in improving the 
conditions of manufacture through production control, cost account- 
ing, and standardized products, but it is apparent that in many 
cases much remains to be done to improve conditions within the 
jewelry industry. The general policy of representative jewelry man- 
ufacturers in New England was the subject of a special inquiry 
in which each executive was asked to outline his company's policy 
and attitude regarding plant equipment and organization. The 
following statement by one of these executives embodies the views 
expressed in 26 replies : 

Our company believes that it is pursuing an open-minded, progressive policy 
in the matter of installation of new and modern equipment. The attitude of 
the jewelry industry in genera] is quite 4 progressive regarding equipment, but 
I do not believe it is nearly so progressive in the installation of new adminis- 
trative methods. 

This executive; reported that 27 firms which had been in business 10 
year- or more in the New England jewelry industry had either liqui- 
dated or Failed (hiring a recent 15-month period. He stated further: 

The discontinuance ol a large number of these was caused by failure to 
readjust their production to changes in consumer demand and reluctance to 
scrap Inefficient equipment Cor more efficient equipment. However, I believe 
many of the firms Btill Operating are quite slow in adopting modern methods of 
COSt accounting and factory management, although they show satisfactory 
activity in making changes in equipment or in their products. 



METAL MANUFACTURES 263 

Another executive states : 

There has been practically no new equipment invented for the jewelry in- 
dustry in the last five years * * *. Our equipment is practically standard. 
Of course, we are desirous of maintaining up-to-date equipment, but the above 
limitations apply to the industry as a whole. 

The important changes in the nature of demand which have vitally 
affected the market of jewelry products in the last few years are 
thus summarized by one manufacturer : 

There have been many material changes in consumer demand and in buying 
policies in the past five years. Staple articles have decreased steadily in sales. 
Many new items which deserved a better fate have found public favor only a 
short time. The consuming public seems to have become extremely changeable 
and fickle, constantly demanding new items, which they cast aside within a short 
time; as a result, manufacturing chronology has been completely revised. 
For a great many years the manufacturing sequence was the imitation of 
precious-metal and precious-stone jewelry, with some precious-metal and semi- 
precious-stone jewelry, followed by imitation of the second class of jewelry, 
with a third class of base metal and other inexpensive stone jewelry. For 
some time past the precious-metal and precious-stone jewelry have been imi- 
tated, first by the base metal and other inexpensive stone jewelry, thus 
eliminating the better grade of popular-priced jewelry and preventing the 
direct creation of original manufactures in base metal and inexpensive stone 
jewelry. In other words, the gap between the manufacture of high-priced 
jewelry and of the cheapest jewelry has decreased so greatly as to shut out 
largely what we call the popular-priced jewelry, and in some cases it has 
disappeared entirely. 

Another manufacturer thus describes changes that have taken 
place : 

Consumer demand appears to be drifting away from the ornamental to the 
practical. Whereas in times past the word " jewelry " meant an item of adorn- 
ment, it now means an item of utility ; and the items selling most widely are 
those made to serve some specific utilitarian need. 

Another manufacturer states : 

During the past five years competition in the jewelry business has been much 
greater than heretofore ; the demand for this kind of merchandise has not been 
as great as it was just after the war. In novelties, however, the demand has 
been greater. 

Many replies state that the change in demand from yellow gold 
to white or green gold has caused obsolete stocks. Others state that 
money which was formerly spent for jewelry is now going into auto- 
mobiles, radios, and movies. Hand-to-mouth buying, to avoid the 
risk from overstocking, is noticeable in this industry. This is in- 
creasing in consequence of improved methods of distribution and 
transportation and of the reluctance of buyers to purchase in quan- 
tity. The resulting increased handling increases costs of distribu- 
tion. 

Regarding the growth of small-order buying by the trade, one of 
the executives previously quoted, writes as follows : 

Buying policies have changed from a " sample and stock " practice to a 
" sample practice " only, or to a " sample and minimum stock " policy, which 
is approximately the " sample only " practice. This is true to some extent even 
with the wholesaler, and to a great extent with the retailer. In a very great 
proportion of cases the retail jeweler to-day buys in quantities of one-twelfth 
of a dozen and reorders when that small stock has been sold. Except with 
the largest and most progressive retailers it is extremely difficult to persuade 
them to buy one-sixth of a dozen, so that they may have one article in stock 
during the interval between sale of the first piece and receipt of the replace- 
ment from the manufacturer. 



264 



INDUSTRIAL STRUCTURE OF NEW ENGLAND 



SILVER AND PLATED WARE 

This group of manufactures includes two closely allied types, 
which differ in some respects in their manufacturing and marketing 
activities. The making of plated ware — which includes table ware, 
toilet articles, and fancy articles plated with silver, gold, or other 
metals — is an industry of much larger volume in New England and 
in the United States than the manufacture of sterling-silver articles. 

The New England output of these two kindred lines had an esti- 
mated value in 1925 not far from $50,000,000 and represented be- 
tween 55 and 60 per cent of the total national production. The value 
of plated ware produced in Connecticut and Massachusetts comprised 
55 per cent of the national total, while the silverware produced in 
these two States represented 35 per cent of the national value. 

The aggregate value of silver and plated ware produced in Con- 
necticut and Massachusetts in 1925 was $41,221,000, adding to their 
manufacturing income upward of $25,000,000. These industries gave 
employment to 8,621 wage earners, who were paid in wages $11,213,- 
000, and provided a market for materials amounting to $16,173,000. 

Slight increases since 1925 are shown in the available census fig- 
ures for 1927, indicating that these industries have been doing better 
than holding their own in New England. The census figures appear 
in the following table. 



Manufacture of Plated Ware and Silverware in New England States, 1925 

and 1927 





Estab- 
lish- 
ments 


Wage 
earners 


Thousands of dollars 


State and year 


Wages 


Cost of 
materials 


Value of 
products 


Value 
added by 
manu- 
facture 


PLATED WARE 

Connecticut: 

1927 _._ 


25 
25 

14 
13 


5,536 
5,563 

1,258 
1,216 


7,352 
7,093 

1,548 
1,504 


10,549 
10, 117 

1,168 
1,184 


26, 173 
26,013 

4,401 
3,900 


15, 624 


1925 


15, 896 


Massachusetts: 

1927 


3,234 


1925 


2,716 




Total: » 

1927 


39 
38 

32 
27 
90 

42.2 


6,794 
6,779 

5,774 
3,967 
11,290 

60.0 


8,900 
8,597 

3,278 
2,161 

L 15, 236 

56.4 


11, 717 
11, 301 

5,903 
3,690 
20, 071 

56.3 


30, 574 
29, 913 

12, 532 
8,309 
54, 330 

55.1 


18, 858 


1925 


18, 612 


Connecticut and Massachusetts total: 

1914 


6,628 


1904 


4,619 


United States total, 1925 


34, 259 


Connecticut and Massachusetts as per 
cent of United States, 1925 2 


54.4 






SILVERWARE 

Massachusetts: 

1927 _ 


16 

19 

8 


1,247 
1, 253 

589 


1,766 

1,787 

829 


2,607 

2,882 

1,990 


7,131 
7,025 

4,283 


5,524 


1026 -. 


4,143 


Connecticut: 

1925... 


2,293 






Total, 1925 2 . 


27 
18 
31 
93 

29 


1,842 
2, 854 
3,748 
5, 587 

33.0 


2,616 
1,872 
2,528 
8,607 

30.4 


4,872 
5, 626 
4,488 
13,106 

37.2 


11,308 
8,250 
10, 037 
32, 532 

34.8 


6, 436 


Massachusetts and Connecticut, 1914 3 

rod Rhode island, Htf)4 «... 
United States, total, 1926 


4, 544 
5,549 
19, 425 


and Connecticut as per 
rent of United States, L926 1 . 


33.1 











i Not Including Maine, 1 establishment; New Hampshire, 1 establisnment; Rhode Island, 1 establish- 
ment. 
1 Not Including Rhode I land, 6 establishments; New Hampsnire, 1 establisnment. 

Including Rhode island, 10 establishments: Hew Hampshire, 2 estannsnments. 
i Not Including Connecticut, 2 establishments; New Hampshire, l establishment. 



METAL MANUFACTURES 265 

CONDITIONS AS REPORTED BY THE INDUSTRY 

Number and size of establishmwnts. — In all New England there 
were 41 establishments in 1925 making plated ware and 33 making 
silverware. The making of plated ware is confined principally to 
Connecticut and Massachusetts, there being 25 establishments in the 
former State and 14 in the latter, besides single plants reported in 
Ehode Island, Maine, and New Hampshire. Of the 33 New England 
concerns making silverware in 1925 there were 19 in Massachusetts, 
8 in Connecticut, 5 in Rhode Island, and 1 in New Hampshire. No 
separate data are available for the latter two States. 

In the making of silverware three New England States were in 
1923 of approximately equal importance, Massachusetts contribut- 
ing 35.5 per cent of the total New England production, while Rhode 
Island contributed 33.5, and Connecticut 31 per cent. 

In Rhode Island the joint products of 6 establishments making 
silver and plated ware and 2 making cutlery had a value in 1925 ex- 
ceeding $8,000,000, and in New Hampshire the product of 2 concerns 
making silver and plated ware and of 2 others making cutlery had 
a combined value exceeding $2,500,000. With the inclusion of four 
cutlery establishments, the total New England production of silver 
and plated ware in 1925 was $51,920,000. 

In the national production of plated ware there are two outstand- 
ing regions — that of New England, concentrated in the middle and 
southern part of Connecticut, and the other in the central part of 
New York State. Production of New York State is about four-fifths 
that of Connecticut. In silverware, New York and New Jersey are 
the important producing States outside New England, the former 
with product of about $5,500,000 in 1925, and the latter somewhat less 
than $5,000,000. Massachusetts made a product exceeding $7,000,000 
and Connecticut a product valued at $4,250,000. 

Trends in the industry. — The trend of the plated-ware industry in 
Connecticut and Massachusetts shows an increase in number of 
establishments from 27 in 1904 to 32 in 1914, to 38 in 1925, and to 
39 in 1927. There were corresponding increases in wage earners and 
in wages. The value of the product increased from 1914 to 1925 by 
139 per cent. The production of these two States in 1914 represented 
68 per cent of the national value, and in 1925, 55 per cent. The pro- 
portion of wages in these two States remained the same — 65.6 per 
cent of the national total for the industry in both years — although 
the number of wage earners fell off from 66.2 per cent in 1914 to 60 
per cent in 1925. This appears to indicate that this industry in- 
creased its total wage payment in New England more than in other 
sections of the country. 

In silverware the value of the product in Connecticut and Massa- 
chusetts increased by 57 per cent from 1914 to 1925 and the manufac- 
turing income in these States increased by 42 per cent. There was an 
increase in the number of establishments from 18 to 27 but a reduction 
in wage earners from 2,854 to 1,842. In 1914 these two States pro- 
duced 41.2 per cent of the national value of silverware and in 1925 
their portion was 34.8 per cent. 

The sales trends of representative New England companies in 
these industries has been steadily upward since 1921. This is true 



266 INDUSTRIAL STRUCTURE OF NEW ENGLAND 

to a fuller extent of makers of silverware than of plated ware; the 
former show a continuous and steady advance, while in plated 
ware there was a slight falling off in 1924, followed by a full recovery 
in the following year. Replies indicate fairly stable producing 
capacity. In these lines of industry employment runs fairly uniform 
throughout the year, with maximum activity in the fall months. 
In this respect the establishments making plated ware follow closely 
those making sterling-silver products. 

Manufacturing practices. — Use of wage incentives was reported by 
about half the companies in each group, but the proportion of 
workers so employed was generally low. Only one silverware con- 
cern reported as high as 50 per cent of the workers on a piecework 
basis. The average is higher with makers of plated ware, where 
individual companies report as high as 70 or 80 per cent of their 
pay roll on a piecework basis. The fact that silver factories are 
manned almost entirely by skilled workers and that it is not prac- 
tical to make many articles in large quantities makes the introduction 
of piecework on a large scale impractical. This is true particularly 
in the manufacture of silverware, where the outlay for silver is a 
larger item than is the case with plated ware. Piecework can also 
be emplo}^ed more successfully in a flatware factory than in one 
where the hollow ware is made. In one large plant where 50 per 
cent of the workers are on piecework it was stated that in work 
where a high degree of perfection is obtained daywork produces 
better results than piecework and is as cheap in the end. 

Distribution of products. — Distribution of the products of these 
Xew England industries is generally on a nation-wide basis. Sales 
to the New England^ market represent, in the case of silverware, an 
unweighted average of about 10 per cent among the companies report- 
ing, and in the case of plated ware approximately 15 per cent. A few 
of the latter concerns report New England sales up to as high as 75 
per cent of their total business, while others sell their entire output 
outside New England. Sales in New England have remained prac- 
tically uniform for the last few years, the same number of compa- 
nies reporting decreases as reported increases. Total sales volume 
increased for a substantial majority of these concerns. 

The prevailing channel of distribution in silverware is direct to 
the retail dealers, only a few concerns reporting sales to wholesalers. 
In the distribution of plated ware, however, an equal number of con- 
cerns reported sales to retailers and to wholesale houses. 

Trade-marks and advertising. — The use of trade-mark or of a com- 
pany brand was reported by practically every silverware concern and 
by a majority of those making plated ware. National advertising, in 
which magazines, trade journals, and dealer helps were the principal 
mediums, was indicated by a majority of the silverware concerns, but 
by only about one-third of the manufacturers of plated ware. 

OTHER METAL-USING INDUSTRIES 
MOTOR EQUIPMENT 

The making of motor vehicles, bodies, and parts, and of motor 
cycles and bicycles and pails is estimated to have added to the manu- 
facturing income of New England in L925 about $40,000,000, with 



METAL MANUFACTURES 267 

a product whose total value exceeded $80,000,000. The approximate 
importance of the manufacture of these lines in 1925 is shown in the 
table on page 271, which contains such data as are available. These 
figures are exclusive of 4 establishments making automobiles, 2 con- 
cerns making motor-vehicle bodies and parts, and 1 manufacturer of 
bicycle equipment. With the addition of these establishments the 
table shows an estimated total of about 9,200 wage earners, in this 
group, whose aggregate wages amounted to about $13,600,000. The 
products had an aggregate value of upward of $76,000,000, and con- 
tributed to the manufacturing income of New England, as a group, 
about $35,250,000. 

The most important item in this group as a source of New England 
income is the manufacture of bodies and parts for motor vehicles. 
There were in New England 108 establishments in this line in 1925, 
with an output valued at upward of $36,000,000, representing 2.4 
per cent of the value of the United States output. Massachusetts 
leads, with 66 establishments, whose product, valued at nearly 
$27,000,000, represented 74 per cent of the New England total and 
added upward of $12,000,000 to the manufacturing income. 

The making of automobile bodies is concentrated largely in several 
towns in northeastern Massachusetts, where plants which formerly 
made carriages have turned to this line of manufacture. The mak- 
ing of parts for motor vehicles is of considerable importance in 
Connecticut, where 29 establishments had an output of nearly $8,000,- 
000, and provided a manufacturing income for the State considerably 
exceeding $4,500,000. There were also eight concerns in Rhode 
Island, in addition to small plants in Maine, New Hampshire, and 
Vermont. 

While the manufacture of automobiles and trucks in New England 
does not compare with that in the Middle West, yet there were 15 
concerns engaged in this line in 1925, of which 9 were in Massachu- 
setts, 4 in Connecticut, and 1 each in Maine and New Hampshire* 
The principal volume of manufacture is in Springfield, Mass., and 
Bridgeport, Conn. Data for Massachusetts show a product with a 
total value in 1925 of nearly $31,000,000, employing more than 1,500 
wage earners and adding to the State's manufacturing income up- 
ward of $13,000,000. The product of Massachusetts comprised 
approximately 1 per cent of the total for the United States. 

In the manufacture of motor cycles, bicycles, and parts there were 
6 establishments reported for 1925 in Massachusetts, 3 in Connecticut, 
and 1 in New Hampshire. The nine concerns in Massachusetts and 
Connecticut made a product exceeding $9,000,000 in value and adding 
half this amount to their manufacturing income, with a total em- 
ployment of 1,530 wage earners. More than 90 per cent of this 
activity was in Massachusetts. One of the leading motor-cycle manu- 
facturers of the United States is located in Springfield. The product 
of the two States assumed substantial importance in the national 
total, representing 37.4 per cent of the value for the whole country. 

RAILROAD EQUIPMENT AND REPAIR SHOPS 

Repair shops operated in connection with steam and electric rail- 
roads are service industries that have to do with maintenance of the 
internal railway structure of New England. These repair shops are 



268 INDXJSTKIAL STRUCTURE OF NEW ENGLAND 

well distributed over the region and are of varying sizes. The total 
number reported for New England was 117 in 1925, of which 47 were 
in Massachusetts, 30 in Connecticut, 20 in Maine, 7 each in New 
Hampshire and Rhode Island, and 6 in Vermont. 

It is estimated that together these repair shops added approxi- 
mately $20,000,000 to the manufacturing revenue of the region, that 
they employed between 12,000 and 13,000 wage earners, paid ap- 
proximately $18,000,000 in wages, and provided a market for ma- 
terials and supplies amounting to $20,000,000. Data are available 
for only 96 of the establishments, with an aggregate employment in 
1925 of 10,324 wage earners, who were paid in wages $15,209,000. 
These added $17,634,000 to the manufacturing income of New Eng- 
land, with gross products valued at $35,000,000. In Massachusetts 
there were 7,166 wage earners, who were paid $11,040,000 in wages. 
The data for the other States are incomplete. 

In addition to repair shops, there were five New England estab- 
lishments in 1925 engaged in the construction of steam or electric 
railway cars. Three of these were in Massachusetts, 1 in New Hamp- 
shire, and 1 in Maine. There is one establishment of considerable 
size located in Laconia, N. H. No statistics are available regarding 
the extent of construction activity by these establishments. 

SHIP AND BOAT BUILDING 

The building of ships and boats is an industry of considerable im- 
portance along the New England coast. In 1925 there were 96 con- 
cerns engaged in building steel and wooden ships and boats. Eighty- 
seven of these were classed as makers of wooden ships and boats and 
nine as engaged in the building of steel ships. This group contrib- 
uted $12,745,000 to the manufacturing income of New England, pro- 
vided employment for 6,059 wage earners, who were paid $9,577,000 
in wages, provided a market for materials valued at $7,851,000, 
and turned out products valued at $20,595,000. In addition to this 
construction activity, repair work was of substantial importance, 
amounting to $8,956,000. The total addition to the New England 
income from construction and repair work is estimated to have been 
between $15,000,000 and $18,000,000. 

Most of the plants engaged in these activities are relatively small 
concerns, the principal exception being the Fore River Shipyard at 
Quincy, Mass. There was formerly extensive shipbuilding also at 
Bath, Me., which is now discontinued. The census of 1925 reports 
four establishments in Maine engaged in the building of steel ships, 
employing 255 wage earners, with a product valued at $743,000. 

In addition to the private concerns, the shipyards of the United 
States Government at Portsmouth, N. H., Charlestown, Mass., and 
New London, Conn., provided employment for a considerable number 
of workmen and afforded a considerable market for materials and 
equipment. 

CLOCKS, WATCHES, CASES, AND PARTS 

The manufacture of clocks, clock movements, and time-recording 
devices was represented in New England m 1925 by 14 establisn- 
ments, 8 of which were in Connecticut and 6 in Massachusetts. They 
provided employment for about 8,400 wage earners, paying m wages 



METAL MANUFACTURES 269 

$3,998,000 and providing a market for materials amounting to 
$3,337,000. The products of these establishments added to the New 
England manufacturing income $7,506,000 and had a gross value of 
$10,843,000, which represented 37 per cent of the total for the entire 
United States. Connecticut represented 86 per cent of the production 
of the two States. 

In the manufacture of watches and watch movements New Eng- 
land in 1925 had 5 of the 13 establishments engaged in this line in 
the whole United States; 3 of these were in Connecticut and 2 in 
Massachusetts. Waltham, Mass., and Waterbury, Conn., have long 
been important centers of watch manufacture. No separate data 
are available regarding the production or employment of this industry 
in New England. 

NEEDLES, PINS, AND SIMILAR ARTICLES 

Connecticut produced about 45 per cent of the national output of 
needles, pins, snap fasteners, and similar articles. Of the 48 estab- 
lishments in the United States engaged in this line of manufacture in 
1925, there were 26 in New England. Thirteen of these were in Con- 
necticut, 8 in New Hampshire, 3 in Massachuetts, and 1 each in 
Rhode Island and Vermont. The data for the 21 establishments in 
Connecticut and New Hampshire show an employment of 3,065 wage 
earners, who were paid $3,095,000 in wages, adding to the manu- 
facturing income of these two States $6,148,000. Their product had a 
value of $9,184,000, which was 50.5 per cent of the United States 
total. 

FIREARMS 

Connecticut and Massachusetts had 13 of the 20 establishments in 
the entire United States making firearms, and their product repre- 
sented 75 per cent of the value of the national production. The in- 
dustry in these two States contributed $9,046,000 to their manufac- 
turing income, with a product valued at $11,274,000. There were 
employed 3,418 wage earners who were paid $4,282,000 in wages. In 
Connecticut there were eight establishments with 2,131 wage earners. 
The product of these establishments was valued at $7,218,000 and 
added $5,735,000 to the manufacturing income of the State. There 
were five establishments in Massachusetts, employing 1,287 wage 
earners and producing goods valued at $4,056,000, which contributed 
$3,331,000 to the manufacturing income of the State. 

The manufacture of ammunition in New England is represented 
by 3 establishments in Connecticut and 2 in Massachusetts. Con- 
necticut is the leading State in the Nation in this line, with a 
product valued at $21,018,000, representing 50.4 per cent of the value 
of the national product and 52.5 per cent of the national manufactur- 
ing income from this source. In this State there were 4,292 wage 
earners employed, who were paid $4,618,000 in wages. The industry 
added to the manufacturing income of the State $9,912,000 and pro- 
vided a market for materials amounting to $11,015,000. No statistics 
are available for the 2 establishments in Massachusetts making ammu- 
nition nor for one company with 4 plants making explosives in that 
State. 



270 



INDUSTRIAL STRUCTURE OF NEW ENGLAND 



MISCELLANEOUS METAL MANUFACTURES 

In addition to the foregoing lines of metal manufactures which 
have been discussed individually, there are many others which are of 
substantial importance in their aggregate contribution to the New 
England manufacturing revenue. Some of these belong in the 
groups that have already been considered, and others do not admit 
of definite classification. Conditions in these lines do not differ 
greatly from those in the lines discussed in detail. 

The importance of these items is shown for the individual States, 
as far as census figures are available, for 1925 and 1927 in the follow- 
ing table, which includes some of # the items that have been discussed 
previously. 



Miscellaneous Metal Manufactukes in New England, 1925 and 1927 

TYPEWRITERS AND SUPPLIES 





Estab- 
lish- 
ments 


Wage 
earners 


Thousands of dollars 


State and year 


Wages 


Cost of 
materials 


Value of 
products 


Value 
added by 
manufac- 
ture 


Connecticut: 

1927 


6 

6 

75 
70 


8,721 
7,038 

16, 681 
14, 969 


10, 701 

8,793 

20,912 
18, 804 


5,207 
4,433 

15,956 

15, 157 


26, 135 
19, 603 

69, 112 
63, 080 


20,928 


1925 


15, 170 


United States total: 

1927 


53,156 


1925 


47, 923 







STEAM FITTINGS AND STEAM AND HOT-WATER HEATING APPARATUS 



Massachusetts: 

1927 _- 


24 
26 

9 

8 

4 
4 


3,320 
3,991 

2,513 

2,542 

145 
137 


4,905 

5,475 

3.536 
3, 736 

183 
168 


4,531 
5,237 

2,900 
3,216 

571 
503 


14, 807 
16, 426 

10, 432 
10, 969 

1,439 
1,289 


10, 276 


1925 


11, 189 


Connecticut: 

1927 


7,532 


1925 


7,752 


Rhode Island: 

1927 


868 


1925 - 


786 


Total: 

1927 - 

1925 


37 

38 

232 

225 


5,978 
6,670 

42, 8C3 

43, 260 


8,624 
9,379 

64, 851 
63, 979 


8,002 
8,956 

76,835 

77, 357 


26, 678 
28,684 

225, 158 
228, 930 


18, 676 

19, 728 


United States total: 

1927 


148, 323 


1925 


151, 573 







WIRE DRAWN FROM PURCHASED BARS OR RODS 



Connecticut: J 

1927 


5 

15 
11 


894 

3,805 
3, 617 


1,395 

6, 242 
6, 062 


3,600 

11,292 
11,683 


7,290 

22,882 
23, 807 


3,690 


-.1 i setts: 
1927 --- - 


11,590 


1926 


12, 124 






Total, 1927 


20 

73 

68 


4, 699 

19,866 
18,544 


7, 637 

30, 038 

26, 928 


14, 892 

128, 092 
127, 251 


30, 172 

190, 710 
184, 463 


15, 580 


United States total: 

1027 


62, 617 


1926 


57,212 







i So data published for 1925. 



METAL MANUFACTURES 



271 



Miscellaneous Metal Manufactures in New England, 1925 and 1927 — Contd. 

CLOCKS, CLOCK MOVEMENTS, AND TIME-RECORDING DEVICES 





Estab- 
lish- 
ments 


Wage 
earners 


Thousands of dollars 


State and year 


Wages 


Cost of 
materials 


Value of 
products 


Value 
added by 
manu- 
facture 


Connecticut: 

1927 


9 
8 

6 
6 


4,891 
3,064 

393 
349 


5,751 
3, 575 

520 
413 


4,101 
2,914 

491 
423 


16, 167 
9, 333 

2,179 
1,510 


12,066 


1925 


6,419 
1,688 


Massachusetts: 

1927 


1925 


1,087 






Total: 

1927 


15 
14 

52 
45 


5,284 
3,413 

9, 865 
7,945 


6,271 
3,988 

11, 751 
9,238 


4,592 
3,337 

10,063 
8,920 


18, 346 
10, 843 

38,196 
29,379 


13, 754 
7,506 

28, 133 


1925 


United States total: 

1927 


1925 . 


20, 459 







SHIP AND BOAT BUILDING 



Massachusetts: 

1927 


38 
41 

9 
8 

19 
19 

21 

28 


4,185 
4,167 

600 

611 

578 
675 

343 
606 


6,479 
6,954 

860 
831 

913 
1,026 

423 

766 


4,403 
5,558 

1,304 
642 

865 
744 

525 
907 


14, 152 

14, 187 

2,493 
2.333 

2,455 
2,107 

1,307 
1,968 


9,749 

8,629 


1925 


Rhode Island: 

1927 


1,189 


1925 


1,692 


Connecticut: 

1927 


1,590 
1,363 

782 


1925 


Maine: 

1927 


1925 .... 


1,061 






Total: 1927 


87 

559 
565 


5,706 

55, 014 
50, 224 


8,675 

87, 081 
74, 275 


7,097 

78, 626 
66,299 


20,407 

211, 127 
177, 182 


13, 310 

132, 501 
110, 883 


United States total: 

1927.. 


1925 







MOTOR VEHICLES 



Massachusetts: 

1927 

1925 

United States total: 

1927 

. 1925 



264 

297 



1,180 
1,543 


17, 910 

7,728 



1,670 

2,558 


321, 664 
341, 210 



5,374 
17, 638 



1, 889, 426 
2, 108, 192 



8,345 
30, 819 



848, 443 
198, 123 



2,971 
13, 181 



959, 017 
1, 089, 931 



BODIES AND PARTS FOR MOTOR VEHICLES 



Massachusetts: 

1927 


52 
66 

27 
29 

5 

8 


3,993 
4,676 

647 
1,109 

65 
344 


5,878 
7,116 

1,018 
1,480 

90 
456 


10, 073 
14, 616 

1,276 
3,202 

158 
899 


18, 719 
26,841 

3,072 

7,827 

327 
1,551 


8,646 


1925 


12, 225 
1,796 


Connecticut: 

1927 


1925 


4,625 
169 


Rhode Island: 

1927 


1925 


652 






Total: 

1927 


84 
103 

1,213 
1,358 


4,705 
6,129 

181, 489 
228, 382 


6,986 
9,052 

291, 291 
372, 721 


11, 507 

18, 717 

641, 307 
862, 721 


22,118 
36, 219 

1, 151, 426 
1, 523, 280 


10, 611 


1925 _ 


17,502 
510, 120 


United States total: 

1927 


1925 


660, 559 





272 



INDUSTRIAL STRUCTURE OF NEW ENGLAND 



Miscellaneous Metal Manufactures in New England, 1925 and 1927 Contd. 

FIREARMS 





Estab- 
lish- 
ments 


Wage 
earners 


Thousands of dollars 


State and year 


Wages 


Cost of 
materials 


Value of 
products 


Value 

added by 
manu- 
facture 


Connecticut: 

1927 


8 
8 

4 
5 


3,018 
2,131 

1,389 

1,287 


3,858 
2,668 

1,765 
1,614 


2,813 
1,483 

874 
745 


9,617 
7,218 

4.792 
4,056 


6,804 
5, 735 

3,918 
3,311 


1925 


Massachusetts: 

1927 


1925 




Total: 

1927 


12 
13 

20 
20 


4,407 
3, 418 

6,130 
4,470 


5,623 
4,282 

7,934 

5,584 


3,687 
2,228 

4,624 
3,174 


14,409 
11, 274 

19, 452 
15, 179 


10, 722 
9,046 

14,405 
12,005 


1925 


United States total: 

1927 


1925.... 





STRUCTURAL AND ORNAMENTAL IRONWORK NOT MADE IN ROLLING MILLS 



Massachusetts: 

1927 


71 
64 

19 
19 

6 


1,394 
1,600 

389 
486 

177 


2,274 
2,533 

649 
845 

259 


5,101 
6,271 

1,440 
. 1, 470 

579 


11, 239 
12, 394 

3,111 
3,050 

1,330 


6,138 
6,123 

1,671 
1,580 

751 


1925 


Connecticut: 

1927 


1925 


Rhode Island: 

1927 






Total: 

1927 


96 

83 

1,284 
1,136 


1,960 

2,086 

53, 392 
48, 341 


9,023 
3,378 

84, 578 
77,411 


7,120 
7,741 

234,426 
237, 653 


15, 680 
15,444 

440, 376 
420, 998 


8,560 


1925 2 


7,703 


United States total: 
1927 


196, 930 
183, 345 


1925 







STOVES AND WARM-AIR FURNACES 



Massachusetts: 

1927 


20 
13 

4 
4 


2,033 

1,864 

183 
197 


2,968 
2,610 

239 

255 


2,752 
2, 071 

214 
127 


9,849 
7,718 

632 

577 


7,097 
5,647 

418 


1925 


Maine: 

1927 


1925 


450 






Total: 

1927 


24 
17 

564 
323 


2,216 
2,061 

45, 180 
29, 376 


3,207 

2,864 

64,327 
41, 493 


2,966 
2,198 

93, 096 
47, 249 


10, 481 
8,295 

258, 286 
140, 805 


7,515 


1925 


6,097 


United States total: 

1927 


165, 190 


1925 


93,556 







STAMPED AND ENAMELED WARE 



Connecticut: 

1927 


24 
25 

22 
23 

4 


1,881 
1,967 

944 
921 

111 


1,999 
2,254 

1,375 
1,282 

132 


2,805 
3,104 

1,759 
1,938 

159 


6,961 
7,444 

4,690 
4,746 

429 


4, 156 


1925 


4,340 


Massachusetts: 

1927 


2,931 


1926 


2,808 


Rhode island: 

1927 


270 


1826 


















Total: 

1927 3 


50 

48 

365 

370 


2,936 

2,888 

28, 594 
29,704 


3,506 
3,536 

36, L56 

36, 107 


4,723 
5,042 

65, 581 

77, 487 


12, 080 
12, 190 

141,793 
154, 096 


7,357 


1926 


7,148 


United States total: 

1927. 


76, 212 


1026 


76, 609 







• Not Including r, establishments in Rhode island. 

I Not including Rhode Island. 



METAL MANUFACTURES 



273 



Miscellaneous Metal Manufactures in New England, 1925 and 1927 — Contd. 
NEEDLES, PINS, HOOKS AND EYES, AND SNAP FASTENERS 





Estab- 
lish- 
ments 


Wage 
earners 


Thousands of dollars 


State and year 


Wages 


Cost of 
materials 


Value of 
products 


Value 
added by 
manu- 
facture 


Connecticut: 

1927 


13 
13 

5 

8 


2,353 
2,371 

378 
694 


2,712 
2,430 

402 
665 


2,358 
2,917 

89 
119 


8,482 
8,095 

642 
1,089 


6,124 
5,178 


1925 


New Hampshire: 

1927 


553 


1925 


970 






Total: 

1927 


18 
21 

45 

48 


2,731 
3,065 

5,606 
5,850 


3,114 
3,095 

6,098 
5,856 


2,447 
3,036 

5,923 
5,926 


9,124 
9,184 

20, 325 
18, 174 


6,677 


1925 


6,148 


United States total: 

1927 _ . 


14, 402 
12, 248 


1925 





WIREW'ORK 



Massachusetts: 

1927 


29 
26 

21 

19 

5 
4 


1,576 
1,677 

951 
631 

84 
74 


1,922 
2,016 

1,135 
745 

67 
71 


3,357 
3,675 

1,745 
1,416 

131 

173 


7,198 
7,567 

4,726 
3,208 

286 
299 


3,841 
3,892 

2,981 
1,792 


1925 


Connecticut: 

1927 


1925 


Rhode Island: 

1927 


155 


1925 


126 






Total: 

1927 


55 
49 

512 
462 


2,611 
2,382 

21, 697 
19, 268 


3,124 
2,832 

26, 439 

23, 835 


5,233 
5,264 

63, 093 

59, 604 


12, 210 
11,074 

128, 536 
115,429 


6,977 


1925 


5,810 


United States total: 

1927 


65,443 


1925 


55, 825 



PUMPS AND PUMPING EQUIPMENT 



Massachusetts: 

1927_. 

1925 

United States total: 

1927 

1925 



278 
253 



1,893 
2,052 


18, 671 
17, 935 



2,992 
3,378 


27, 119 

25, 278 



5,849 
6,548 

52, 755 
50, 328 



12, 609 
13, 161 



130, 591 
120, 148 



6,760 
6,613 

77, 826 
69, 820 



FORGINGS, IRON AND STEEL, NOT MADE IN STEELWORKS OR ROLLING MILLS 



Massachusetts: 

1927 '_ 


11 
12 

13 
14 


1,157 
1,654 

902 
1,514 


1,823 
2,810 

1,378 
2,311 


2,129 
4,673 

1,815 
3,205 


6,927 
11, 213 

4,432 

7,441 


3,798 


1925 


6,540 


Connecticut: 

1927 


2,617 


1925 


4,236 






Total: 

1927. 


24 
26 

209 
218 


2,059 
3,168 

15, 399 
20, 290 


3,210 
5,121 

23, 258 
31,313 


4,944 

7,878 

51, 635 

68, 081 


11, 359 
18, 654 

103, 672 
134, 511 


6,415 


1925 


10, 776 


United States total: 

1927 


52, 037 


1925 


66, 430 







274 



INDUSTRIAL STRUCTURE OF NEW ENGLAND 



Miscellaneous Metal Manufactures in New England, 1925 and 1927 — Could 

SEWING MACHINES, CASES, AND ATTACHMENTS 





Estab- 
lish- 
ments 


Wage 
earners 


Thousands of dollars 


State and year 


Wages 


Cost of 
materials 


Value of 
products 


Value 

added by 
manu- 
facture 


Connecticut: 

1927 


3 
3 

8 
8 


1,552 
1,572 

767 

722 


2,077 
1,973 

884 
1,017 


581 
562 

869 
826 


3,959 
3,896 

3, 185 
2,817 


3, 378 


1925 


3,334 


Massachusetts: 

1927 


2,317 


1925 ... 


1,991 






Total: 

1927 


11 
11 

41 
41 


2,319 
2,294 

11, 838 
12, 121 


2,961 
2,990 

15, 879 
16,100 


1,450 
1,388 

16, 783 
18, 610 


7,144 
6,713 

45, 222 

46, 299 


5,695 


1925 


5,325 


United States total: 

1927 _. 


28, 440 


1925 


27,648 







COPPER, TIN, AND SHEET-IRONWORK, INCLUDING GALVANIZED-IRON WORK 



Massachusetts: 

1927 


83 
94 

15 
19 

17 
28 

8 
10 

5 

4 


923 
1,296 

159 
183 

177 
210 

68 
55 

41 
31 


1,636 
1,984 

283 
310 

318 
328 

97 
86 

49 
36 


2,118 
2,916 

309 
392 

624 
562 

157 
126 

188 
109 


5,985 
7,445 

922 
1,018 

1,235 
1,256 

368 
300 

377 

258 


3,867 


1925 


4,529 


Rhode Island: 

1927 


613 


1925 


626 


Connecticut: 

1927 


611 


1925 


694 


Maine: 

1927 


211 


1925 


174 


Vermont: 

1927 


189 


1925 


149 






Total: 

1927 


128 
155 

1,981 
2,107 


1,368 

1,775 

24, 527 
24, 996 


2,383 
2,744 

38, 668 
37, 825 


3,396 
4,105 

98, 386 
84, 079 


8,887 
10, 277 

191, 129 
175, 043 


5,491 


1925 


6,172 


United States total: 

1927 


92, 743 


1925 


90,963 







ENGINES AND WATER WHEELS 



Connecticut: 

1927 


13 
13 

5 
6 


1,206 

978 

207 
836 


•1, 739 
1,421 

292 
1,261 


2,471 
1,323 

284 
989 


7,218 
4,346 

903 
3,460 


4,747 


1925. 


3,023 


Massachusetts: 

1927 


619 


1925 


2,471 






Total: 

1927 


18 
19 

215 
220 


1,413 
1,814 

54, 341 
51,099 


2,031 

2,682 

84, 791 
73, 585 


2,754 
2,312 

165, 203 
145, 784 


8,121 
7,806 

367, 879 
313, 588 


5, 367 


1925 


5,494 


United States total: 

1927 


202, 676 


L925 


167, 804 







METAL MANUFACTITEES 



275 



Miscellaneous Metal Manufactures in New England, 1925 and 1927 — Contd. 

BOLTS, NUTS, WASHERS, AND RIVETS, IRON AND STEEL, NOT MADE IN ROLLING 

MILLS 





Estab- 
lish- 
ments 


Wage 
earners 


Thousands of dollars 


State and year 


Wages 


Cost of 
materials 


Value of 
products 


Value 
added by 
t manu- 
facture 


Massachusetts: 

1927 


7 
9 

5 
6 

9 
11 


1,342 
1,322 

761 
807 

222 
261 


1,744 
1,807 

882 
922 

295 
311 


1, 614 
1,841 

1,279 
1,163 

497 
562 


4,523 
5,073 

2,740 
2,769 

1,248 
1,379 


2,909 


1925 


3,232 
1,461 


Rhode Island: 

1927 


1925 


1,606 


Connecticut: 

1927 _ 


751 


1925_ 


817 






Total: 

1927 


21 
26 

115 
127 


2,325 
2,390 

13, 614 

13, 907 


2,921 
3,040 

17, 324 
17, 942 


3,390 

3,566 

38, 302 

38, 507 


8,511 
9,221 

75, 876 
75, 926 


5,121 


1925_ 


5,655 
37, 574 


United States total: 

1927. 


1925 


37, 574 







PLUMBERS' SUPPLIES (NOT INCLUDING SANITARY WARE, PIPE, OR MARBLE 
SLATE, AND PORCELAIN) 



Connecticut: 

1927 _ 


8 
9 

16 
15 


926 
1,061 

563 
596 


1,201 
1,395 

741 
801 


1,964 

2,585 

1,964 

1,847 


4,454 
5,070 

4,100 
3,963 


2,490 


1925. _ 


2, 485 


Massachusetts: 

1927__ 


2, 136 


1925 


2,116 






Total: 

1927 


24 
24 

231 
239 


1,489 
1,657 

29, 245 
33, 280 


1,942 

2,196 

40, 212 
46, 954 


3,928 
4,432 

55, 633 
63, 610 


8,654 
9,033 

148, 879 
167, 878 


4,626 


1925 


4,601 


United States total: 

1927 


93, 246 


1925 


104, 268 







MOTOR CYCLES, BICYCLES, AND PARTS 



Massachusetts: 

1927 


6 
6 

3 

29 
36 


1,363 
1,421 

109 

3,897 
4,193 


1,661 
1,843 

150 

5,442 
5,662 


3,580 
4,125 

410 

10, 174 

12, 177 


7,598 
8,329 

754 

21, 454 

24, 258 


4,018 


1925 - 


4,204 


Connecticut: 

1925 


344 


United States total: 

1927 


11, 280 


1925 


12, 081 







CHILDREN'S CARRIAGES AND SLEDS 



Massachusetts: 

1927 

1925 

United States total: 

1927 

1925 



1,450 
1,221 



7,030 
6,926 



1,651 
1,410 



7,814 
7,923 



2,843 
2,391 


13,895 
13, 553 



6,126 
5,314 



28, 668 
30, 174 



3,283 
2,994 



14, 773 

16, 620 



276 



INDUSTRIAL STRUCTURE OF NEW ENGLAND 



Miscellaneous Metal Manufactures in New England, 1925 and 1927 — Contd. 

SCREW-MACHINE PRODUCTS 





Estab- 
lish- 
ments 


Wage 
earners 


Thousands of dollars 


State and year 


Wages 


Cost of 
materials 


Value of 
products 


Value 
added by 
manu- 
facture 


Connecticut: 

1927 


14 
17 

24 
30 


852 
856 

448 
526 


1,069 
1,092 

625 
679 


1,986 
2,097 

743 

849 


4,111 
4,273 

1,888 
2,127 


2,125 
2,176 


1925 


Massachusetts: 

1927 


1,145 


1925 


1,278 






Total: 

1927 


38 

47 

205 
193 


1,300 
1,382 

9,967 

8,987 


1,694 
1,771 

13, 778 
12, 669 


2,729 
2,946 

20, 895 

18, 788 


5,999 
6,400 

48, 138 
43, 779 


3,270 
3,454 

27,243 


1925 


United States total: 

1927 


1925 


24, 991 





STEEL SPRINGS (RAILWAY, VEHICLES, HEAVY MACHINE, ETC.), NOT MADE IN 

ROLLING MILLS 



Connecticut: 

1927 


5 
4 

4 
4 


1,024 
1,049 

28 
32 


1,400 
1,408 

44 
51 


1,912 
2,144 

67 
49 


4,664 
4,953 

184 
178 


2,752 
2,809 

117 


1925 ..- 


Massachusetts: 

1927 


1925 


129 






Total: 
1927 


/9 

8 

94 

98 


1,052 
1,081 

5,753 

5,897 


1,444 
1,459 

8,913 

8,989 


1,979 
2,193 

24, 599 
23,609 


4,848 
5,131 

43, 821 
44,469 


2,869 
2,938 


1925 __ 


United States total: 

1927 


19, 222 


1925 


20, 860 







WOOD SCREWS 



Connecticut: 

1927 


5 
5 

13 

12 


1,636 
2,194 

3,723 

5,084 


1,548 
2,050 

4,277 
5,525 


1,561 
2,344 

5,015 
6,288 


4,196 
6,225 

11, 882 
15, 836 


2,635 


1925 


3,881 


United States total: 

1927 _ 


6,867 


1925... 


9,548 







NAILS, SPIKES, ETC., NOT MADE IN ROLLING MILLS 



Massachusetts: 

1927 . 


22 
22 

56 

58 


849 
932 

2,100 
2,227 


1,094 
1,055 

2,670 
2,610 


1,970 
2,228 

5, 156 
5,646 


4,444 
5,039 

11,753 
12,319 


2,475 


1925 


2,811 


United States total: 

1927 


6,597 


1825 


6,673 







SAWS 



husetts: 

\'.l27 


11 
10 

77 
71 


598 
691 

4, 182 
4,710 


804 
925 

5,754 
5,873 


1,179 
1,192 

7,674 
8,224 


3,144 
3,391 

22, 628 
26, 781 


1,966 


1926 


2,199 


United State total: 

1027 


14, 954 


1926 


18, 557 







METAL MANUFACTURES 



277 



Miscellaneous Metal Manufactures in New England, 1925 and 1927 — Contd. 

TIN CANS AND OTHER TINWARE 





Estab- 
lish- 
ments 


Wage 
earners 


Thousands of dollars 


State and year 


Wages 


Cost of 
materials 


Value of 
products 


Value 
added by 
manu- 
facture 


Massachusetts: 

1927 


8 

7 

236 

221 


581 
597 

29, 721 
29, 901 


734 
692 

167, 028 
34, 392 


1,641 
1,645 

169, 421 

175, 779 


3,212 
3,148 

253, 479 
260, 360 


1,571 


1925 


1,503 


United States total: 

1927 - 


84, 057 


1925 


84, 581 







ELECTROPLATING 



Massachusetts: 

1927 . , - 


38 
38 

8 
12 

8 
11 


272 
324 

65 
93 

53 
55 


380 
428 

81 
96 

75 
81 


160 
183 

49 
65 

53 
52 


894 
1,000 

223 
283 

183 
218 


734 


1925 


817 


Rhode Island: 

1927 - 


174 


1925 


218 


Connecticut: 

1927 


130 


1925 


166 






Total: 
1927 : 


54 
61 

419 
449 


390 
472 

3,556 
3,337 


536 
605 

5,629 
5,254 


263 
300 

3,335 
2,541 


1,300 
1,501 

13, 930 
12, 441 


1,038 


1925 


1,201 


United States total: 

1927 


10, 595 


1925 


9,900 







ALUMINUM 



Connecticut: 

1927 . 


6 

9 

7 


192 

139 
165 


301 

180 
224 


1,026 

714 
683 


1,621 

1,111 
1,186 


595 


Massachusetts: 

1927 


397 


1925 


503 






Total, 1927 


15 

139 

127 


331 

14, 798 
14, 353 


480 

20, 892 
19, 753 


1,740 

79, 838 
84, 985 


2,732 

123, 557 
127, 831 


992 


United States total: 

1927 


43, 719 


1925 


42, 846 







GOLD, SILVER, AND PLATINUM REDUCING AND REFINING, NOT FROM THE ORE 



Rhode Island: 

1927 

Massachusetts : 

1927 

1925 

Total, 1927 

United States total: 

1927 

1925 



47 

15 
152 
62 

801 
1,258 



73 

22 
150 

95 

1,435 
2,166 



2,213 

1,733 

391 

3,946 

58, 887 
88, 867 



2,555 

1,863 

643 

4,418 

62, 647 
95, 243 



342 

130 
252 
472 

3,770 

6,376 



SCALES AND BALANCES 



Massachusetts: 

1927 

1925 

United States total: 

1927. 

1925 



3,906 
4,292 



114 
109 



5,461 

5,783 



136 
104 

7,454 
7,349 



491 

485 



24, 655 
27, 237 



355 
381 



17, 202 
19, 888 



61232°— 30- 



-19 



278 



INDUSTRIAL STRUCTURE OF NEW ENGLAND 



Miscellaneous Metal Manufactures in New England, 1025 and 1U27 — Contd. 

WATCH AND CLOCK MATERIALS AND PARTS, EXCEPT WATCHCASES 





Estab- 
lish- 
ments 


Wage 
earners 


Thousands of dollars 


State and year 


Wages 


Cost of 
materials 


Value of 
products 


Value 

added by 
manu- 
facture 


Massachusetts: 

1927 


6 

5 

17 

25 


134 
173 

415 
501 


158 
188 

407 
480 


68 
101 

315 
376 


367 
411 

1,309 
1,363 


299 


1925 


310 


United States total: 

1927 


994 


1925 


987 







GOLD AND SILVER, LEAF AND FOIL 



Massachusetts: 

1927 

1925 

United States total: 

1927 

1925 



18 


142 


145 


17 


152 


150 


77 


1,146 


1,120 


84 


1,148 


1,113 



258 
391 



1,721 
1,839 



540 
643 

3, 571 
3,746 



252 



1,850 
1,907 



AGRICULTURAL IMPLEMENTS 



Maine: 

1927 


4 

4 

5 


107 
109 

83 


124 
165 

93 


150 
137 

110 


427 
366 

230 


277 


1925 


229 


Vermont: 

1925 


120 






Total: 

1925 


9 

277 
303 


192 

33, 346 

28, 695 


258 

46, 415 
37, 388 


247 

85,666 
1,110 


596 

202, 732 
2,925 


349 


United States total: 

1927 


117, 066 


1925 


1,815 







SMELTING AND REFINING, METALS OTHER THAN GOLD, SILVER, OR PLATINUM, 

NOT FROM THE ORE 



Massachusetts : 

1927 

1925 

United States total: 

1927 

1925 



102 
102 



2,776 

2,944 



4,280 
4,680 



1,731 
1,465 



68,894 
69, 263 



1,984 
1,558 



80, 771 
82, 138 



253 
93 



11,876 
12, 875 



IRON AND STEEL, PROCESSED 



Massachusetts: 

1927 


5 
4 

33 

26 


33 

28 

231 
306 


49 
40 

392 

557 


82 
104 

510 
643 


193 
203 

1,443 
2,114 


111 


1925 .- 


99 


United States total: 

1927 


934 


1925.. 


1,471 







TEXTILES 

Textile manufacturing has long been regarded as the mainstay of 
New England's industrial prosperity. The output of this line has 
for many years far exceeded in value that of any other type of manu- 
facture. The greatest number of workers have depended upon the 
textile industries for their livelihood, and the wages paid annualty 
have exceeded those of any other major group. 

PLACE IN NEW ENGLAND INDUSTRIAL LIFE 

Wages paid by the textile industries in 1925 were approximately 
one-third of the New England total in all classes of manufacture, 
and the number of wage earners employed was considerably more 
than one-third. The gross value of textile products was in about the 
same proportion as the wages paid. The outlay for materials con- 
sumed in textile manufacture, however, was considerably more than 
one-third of the total outlay in all the industries of the region. Con- 
sequently the net revenue brought by the textile industries to the 
people of New England was considerably less than one-third of the 
aggregate income from all manufacturing. 

The income from the New T England textile industries, as shown 
by the value added by manufacture, amounted to something over 
$798,000,000 in 1925, although the gross value of the products exceeded 
$2,000,000,000. These figures, however, include only what may be 
termed the primary textile industries — those which are engaged in 
spinning, weaving, and processing various fabrics from the raw 
fibers and yarns. This group of primary industries includes manu- 
factures of cotton, wool, and silk, also knit goods, cordage, and twine. 
The dyeing and finishing of textile materials is included as a distinct 
part of the textile industry. 

In addition to the primary manufactures there is also a group of 
secondary textile industries which includes the making up of the 
primary products into wearing apparel and industrial goods. These 
secondary industries of New England are considered in a separate 
section of this report. 

The textile industries of New England are located chiefly in the 
southern States of that section (Massachusetts, Khode Island, and 
Connecticut), but they are of substantial importance also in Maine 
and New Hampshire. The textile industries of Vermont are only a 
small portion of the New England total; nevertheless, they contribute 
a considerable part — upward of one-eighth — of the total manufactur- 
ing income of that State. 

The textile industries of New England have been undergoing pro- 
nounced changes, particularly since the World War. Although 
these changes have been most striking in the last few years, they 
have been in process to a lesser degree for a long time. As far back 
as 1904 the New England textile industries had difficult problems to 

279 



280 INDUSTRIAL STRUCTURE OF NEW ENGLAND 

face. These became acute by 1910, and increased in seriousness up 
to the outbreak of the World War. The industry in New England 
then faced readjustments, but in the intensity of war-time activity 
textile mills of the whole country forgot their previous troubles 
and entered upon a period of capacity production — indeed they 
greatly increased their capacity. Consequently, no effective read- 
justments in the textile industries took place until a number of years 
after the restoration of normal peace-time conditions. Not until 
after 1923 did this industry face its real crisis. Conditions that had 
been developing for more than a generation have since then pressed 
for a solution. 

To understand the present conditions of the New England textile 
industry it is thus necessary to consider developments that have their 
beginning much farther back than the World War. It should be borne 
in mind first of all that the textile industries of New England^ have 
been facing a situation that is not unique to their section of the coun- 
try. These industries in other parts of our own country, and in 
foreign countries as well, have had to face similar conditions. 

A marked expansion in producing capacity took place everywhere 
from the special demands for textile products created by the World 
War. Old plants that had been shut down in previous years were 
reopened, and numerous new plants were built to supply the markets 
of Europe in addition to the regular markets of the United States. 
Great expansion took place in the American export trade— an expan- 
sion which continued for some years after the war. The excess pro- 
ducing capacity which had been developed thus created a problem 
that would have required later solution even if the usual conditions 
had continued in the textile industries. 

A number of unexpected and unknown factors, however, came into 
play. First of these was a drastic reduction in consumption of tex- 
tile materials. This reduction, resulting mainly from changes in 
modes of dress, was not confined to the United States, but was world- 
wide. There were radical changes in the types of textiles which the 
market demanded. Staple lines gave way, in large measure, to fancy 
specialties and novelties, in which style was the primary considera- 
tion rather than qualitv. Radical changes took place also in the 
marketing of textiles — from piece goods to ready-to-wear garments. 

These changes had a serious effect on the methods of manufacture. 
Changes from staples to style goods made it impossible to manu- 
facture for stock; hence, New England textile mills which were 
organized for quantity production found it difficult to maintain 
regularity of operation and output. 

The periodic ordering of large quantities for a whole season which 
had been the prevailing practice has given way in recent years to 
smaller orders for current requirements, repeated at frequent in- 
tervals, whereas orders were formerly placed twice a year for four 
to six months ahead. 

Difficulties in adjusting production plans to these new conditions 
account, in large measure, for the depression of the New England tex- 
tile industries. All lines were affected by these difficulties, but in 
varying degrees. The cotton industry suffered most of all, because 
of the intense regional competition resulting from expansion in other 



TEXTILES 281 

sections of the country. The wool industry has suffered particularly 
from curtailed consumption of wool fabrics. 

The textile industries faced a more serious situation than other 
lines of New England manufacture, largely because they had under- 
gone a smaller degree of organization. On account of the number of 
highly specialized processes involved in textile manufacture it has 
been difficult to integrate the different steps in production a^d mar- 
keting, or to exercise systematic control over relations between manu- 
facture and selling. Organization had been mainly on the production 
end, with minor attention to marketing. 

COTTON MANUFACTURES 

IMPORTANCE IN NEW ENGLAND 

Cotton manufacturing, the most important single textile industry 
of New England, provided 9.3 per' cent of the region's entire income 
from all manufactures in 1925 and 52.5 per cent of the income from 
all primary textile manufacturing. The total output had a value in 
that year of nearly $656,000,000, and brought an income of about 
$273,000,000 to the region, as indicated by the value added by manu- 
facture, exclusive of the cost of materials. Of this income more 
than $186,500,000 was paid in salaries and wages to 182,000 persons 
engaged in the industry. A pay roll exceeding $169,500,000 was 
distributed to 175,850 wage earners. 

The New England cotton industries paid nearly $383,000,000 for 
raw materials, fuel, power, supplies, and other operating equipment. 

The value of the products of cotton manufacturing in New Eng- 
land was 36 per cent of the value of such products in the whole 
country, but this region contributed almost 40 per cent of the total 
national value added by cotton manufacture. In the number of wage 
earners New England had 37.5 per cent of the total for the whole 
country, but the New England workers were paid 45 per cent of all 
wages in cotton manufacturing. 

LOCALIZATION 

Although the cotton industries of New England are important in 
each State except Vermont, they are of outstanding importance in 
Massachusetts and Rhode Island. These two States had, in 1925, 
about 90 per cent of the total number of establishments and 75 per 
cent of all the persons engaged in cotton manufacture, and contrib- 
uted nearly 75 per cent of the value of the total New England 
output. 

Massachusetts had approximately 101,700 persons engaged in this 
line, while in Rhode Island there were about 35,500 persons so 
engaged. Connecticut and New Hampshire ranked about equally in 
the number of persons engaged in cotton manufacture, with over 
15,500 persons in each State. The value of the product in Connecti- 
cut was considerably greater, however, with $65,740,000, compared 
with $58,909,000 for New Hampshire. In Maine there were over 
12.000 persons engaged in cotton manufacturing, and the total pro- 
duction had a value in excess of $41,000,000. Cotton manufacturing 
in Vermont is of slight importance in the New England total, with 



282 



INDUSTRIAL STRUCTURE OF NEW ENGLAND 



only 904 persons thus engaged in 1925 and a product valued at some- 
what less than $3,200,000. 

In the total value of cotton manufactures in New England the 
percentages contributed by the individual States were approximately 





/i \ 

r \ 




I \ ^SCATAQOIS I \ 




//I I'll 




y \ y U^^r"^^D 


ycoos, \| \ | 




fAD 
If- 


^ FRAH K L W 1 ORUANS J CMC* V 1 \ 

7 / /«K I 

f PU-LtVAHj \-^ fe 1 

K J • ( ^Ji-V 

h / \ ™ vs^ • A 

\windhamVs- — i ry^. • /$ \ I 


f LOCATION OF 




( s ' s^c 


V COTTON GOODS ESTABLISHMENTS 
r NEW ENGLAND STATES 




\franhlin ) wo/? LCj/ooi/rs/* \_^»** 






/£ ' \u^/^^sA WW 


Y**3r 


£} P<?rj .S//0JY NUMBER IN EACH COUNTr 

■A 


LI 7CHFUL D 1 MRrrOfiA ^OLLAMfJ WIND. 










k ^BAPNSTABLf j 








O.0.44IO 46 



Figure 39 



as follows: Massachusetts^ f>4; Rhode Island, 19; Connecticut, 10; 
\ew Hampshire, 9: Maine, G; and Vermont, less than 1 per cent. 
The following table shows the importance of cotton manufactur- 
ing in the individual Stales and the share of the New England cotton 
industry in the national total in 1925 and 1927. 



TEXTILES 



283 



Importance of Individual States of New England in all Cotton Manufac- 
tures, 1925 and 1927 





Estab- 
lishments 


Persons 
engaged 


Wage 
earners 


Thousands of dollars 


State and year 


Wages 

and 
salaries 


Wages 


Cost of 
materials 


Massachusetts: 

1927 


221 
230 

126 
150 

59 
58 

22 
23 

1? 
16 

4 
4 




93, 599 
98, 939 

31, 240 
34, 420 

15, 831 
14, 773 

14, 974 
14, 987 

10, 195 
11, 851 

1,008 
880 




90, 773 
94, 394 

32, 665 
34, 686 

16, 639 
15, 190 

15, 383 
13, 865 

9,781 
10, 518 

1,055 
881 


152, 439 


1925 i 


101, 691 


102, 762 


207, 925 


Rhode Island: 

1927 


55, 335 


1925 


35, 828 


38, 765 


72, 487 


Connecticut: 

1927 


32, 666 


1925 2 ._ 


15, 587 


17, 301 


39, 585 


New Hampshire: 

1927 


27,188 


1925 


15, 534 
~~~I2~G59~ 


15, 436 


36, 608 


Maine: 
1927 . 


17, 351 


1925 


11,284 


24,307 


Vermont: 

1927 


1,361 


1925 -_. 


904 


954 


1,957 






Total: 
1927 


449 
481 

1,610 

1,638 

29.4 




166, 847 
175, 850 

489,037 
468, 352 

37.5 




166, 296 
169, 534 

403, 828 
377, 050 

44.96 


286, 340 


1925 .. 


181, 603 

504, 688 
483. 724 

37.5 


186, 502 

448, 711 
3 420, 224 

44.4 


382, 869 


United States total: 

1927 


915, 206 


1925 


1, 132, 330 


New England as per cent of United States, 
1925 


33.8 









Value of products 


Value added by manufacture 


State and year 


Thou- 
sands of 
dollars 


Per cent 
of all 
manu- 
factures 
in each 
State 


Per cent 
of all 
cotton 
manu- 
factures 
in New 
England 


Thou- 
sands of 
dollars 


Per cent 
of all 
manu- 
factures 
in each 
State 


Per cent 
of all 
cotton 
manu- 
factures 
in New 
England 


Massachusetts: 

1927_ 


297, 005 
358, 239 

109, 578 
128, 527 

64, 113 
65, 741 

58, 709 
58,909 

34, 414 

41,188 

3,146 
3,195 


9.0 

10.4 

18.5 
20.7 

5.0 

5.2 

17.9 
18.0 

9.2 
11.1 

2.3 
2.3 


52.4 
54.6 

19.3 
19.6 

11.3 
10.0 

10.3 
9.0 

6.1 
6.3 

.6 

.5 


144, 566 
150, 314 

54,243 
56,040 

31, 447 
26,156 

31, 522 
22, 301 

17,064 
16,882 

1,785 
1,238 


8.8 
9.2 

19.4 
20.3 

4.6 
3.9 

21.7 
16.5 

10.5 
10.2 

2.8 
2.0 


51.5 


1925 _. 


55. 1 


Rhode Island: 

1927 


19.3 


1925 


20.5 


Connect j cut: 

1927 _ _ 


11.2 


1925 _ _. 


9.6 


New Hampshire: 

1927 


11.6 


1925 __ _. 


7.2 


Maine: 

1927 


6.1 


1925 ._ 


6.2 


Vermont: 

1927 


.7 


1925... _ 


.5 






Total: 
1927__._ 


566, 965 
655, 799 

1,659,519 
1, 819, 886 

36.0 






280, 625 
272, 930 

744, 313 

687, 556 

39.7 






1925 




100.0 




100.0 


United States, total: 

1927 








1925 










New England as per cent of United States. 
1925 





















i Excludes data for 6 establishments to avoid disclosing individual operations. 

2 Excludes data for 1 establishment to avoid disclosing its operations. 

3 Not including 1,463 salaried officers and employees of central admistrative offices, with salaries of 
$3,893,756. 



I 

284 INDUSTRIAL STRUCTURE OF NEW ENGLAND 

The importance of cotton in relation to other industries varies in 
the individual States to a marked degree. In this respect Rhode 
Island stands at the head, with one-fifth of all its manufacturing 
revenue derived from this source; New Hampshire comes next with 
one-sixth; in Maine it is about one-tenth. In Massachusetts, the 
largest maker of cotton goods in New England, this industry con- 
tributed less than one-tenth of the State's total revenue from manu- 
facturing. In Connecticut cotton manufacturing is of decidedly 
minor importance, contributing less than 4 per cent of the State's 
total revenue from manufacturing; in Vermont, it is less than 2 per 
cent. 

Although some cotton manufacture is scattered about many parts 
of New England, the greater portion of the industry is localized in 
a few highly specialized areas. In the total of 67 counties 97 per 
cent of all spindles in place on July 1, 1927, were in 19 counties. 
Two adjacent counties — one in southern Massachusetts and the other 
in Rhode Island — then contained more than one-half the total num- 
ber of cotton spindles in all New England. Bristol County, Mass., 
with the cities of Fall River, New Bedford, Taunton, and a number 
of other towns engaged largely in cotton manufacturing, had more 
than 7,000,000 spindles, comprising over two-thirds of the total num- 
ber in Massachusetts and more than two-fifths of the New England 
total. In this one county there were more spindles in place than in 
any other single State of the Union. 

Providence County, in Rhode Island, with the important cotton 
cities of Pawtucket, Central Falls, Woonsocket, and other mill towns 
of the Blackstone Valley, had more than 1,600,000 spindles and 
ranked second in importance not only in New England but in the 
United States. Two other adjacent Rhode Island counties, Kent 
and Bristol, added more than 700,000 spindles to this great cotton- 
manufacturing area. This general region extends westward into 
Connecticut, whose two easternmost counties, Windham and New 
London, contained more than 1,100,000 spindles. In these six ad- 
jacent counties of southern New England there were 10,633,480 
spindles, comprising over 63 per cent of the New England total. 

The next highly concentrated area of the cotton-manufacturing in- 
dustry is in northeastern Massachusetts and southeastern New Hamp- 
shire along the Merrimack River, containing the important textile 
cities of Lowell, Lawrence, Manchester, Nashua, and several adja- 
cent mill towns. The three counties in which these mills are 
located — Middlesex and Essex in Massachusetts and Hillsborough in 
New Hampshire — had a total of 2,144,188 cotton spindles, compris- 
ing 13 per cent of the New England total. 

The nine counties in the two major regions just described account 
for over 75 per cent of the total number of cotton spindles in New 
England. In addition to these highly concentrated areas there are 
in central and western Massachusetts three other counties — Worces- 
ter, Hampden, and Berkshire — each of which had more than 
500,000 cotton spindles; and a fourth, Hampshire County, had over 
100,000 spindles. In southeastern Maine, also, four neighboring 
counties — Kennebec, Androscoggin, Cumberland, and York — had a 
total exceeding 1,100.000 spindles. In New Hampshire two other 
counties, Strafford and Merrimack, had a total of 437,700 spindles. 



TEXTILES 



285 



Of the 19 counties of New England containing more than 100,000 
spindles each, 7 are in Massachusetts, 4 in Maine, 3 in New Hamp- 
shire, 3 in Rhode Island, and 2 in Connecticut. New England had 
the distinction of containing within its borders in 1925 all but four 
of the counties of the United States with more than 500,000 cotton 

spindles. 

• 

Principal Counties and Centers of Cotton Manufacture ' 



County and State 


Approxi- 
mate 
number 
of estab- 
lish- 
ments, 
1925 


Number of 

spindles in 

place, July 

31, 1927 


Principal centers 


Bristol, Mass 


93 

51 

6 
15 
10 
17 

31 
11 
11 
14 
13 

6 
2 
3 
5 
2 
2 
3 
3 


7, 157, 574 
1, 643, 774 

889, 444 
679, 444 
663, 088 
649, 304 

623, 668 
575, 300 
552, 700 
482, 312 
477, 352 

423, 644 
398, 584 
325, COO 
223, 164 
184, 800 
157, 768 
138, 320 
112, 700 


Fall River. New Bedford, Taunton. 




Pawtucket, Woonsocket, Central Falls, 


Hillsborough, N. H 


Providence. 
Manchester, Nashua. 


Middlesex, Mass 


Lowell, Waltham. 




Chicopee, Holyoke, Springfield. 
Willimantic and several towns in Quine- 

baug Valley. 
Fitchburg, Worcester, Clinton. 


Windham, Conn _ 


Worcester, Mass 


Essex, Mass -- 


Lawrence, Salem. 


Berkshire, Mass 


Adams, North Adams. 


Kent, R. I 


West Warwick, Warwick. 


New London, Conn 


Norwich, New London, and several towns 


Androscoggin, Me 


in Thames River Valley. 
Lewiston. 


York, Me 


Biddeford. 


Strafford, N. H 


Dover. 


Bristol, R. I 


Several towns. 


Hampshire, Mass __ 


Holyoke. 


Kennebec, Me _. _ 


Waterville, Augusta. 


Cumberland, Me. 


Several towns. 


Merrimack, N. H _ 


Do. 






Total for 19 counties. 


298 
51 


16, 357, 940 
513, 418 




Other 48 counties 








All New England (67 counties) _ 


349 


16,871,358 





The distribution of cotton manufacturing in New England, out- 
side the 19 leading counties designated above, may be seen from the 
following enumeration of mills by counties and States, as of 1925: 

Massachusetts.— Suffolk, 9; Franklin, 4; Norfolk, 3; Plymouth, 2; total, 18. 
Rhode Island. — Washington, 7 ; Newport, 1 ; total, 8. 

Connecticut. — Hartford, 4 ; Middlesex, 4 ; Fairfield, 3 ; Litchfield, 1 ; New 
Haven, 1 ; Tolland, 1 ; total, 14. 

Maine. — Sagadahoc, 1 ; Somerset, 1 ; total, 2. 

New Hampshire. — Rockingham, 3 ; Cheshire, 1 ; Sullivan, 1 ; total, 5. 

Vermont. — Chittenden, 2 ; Bennington, 1 ; Windham, 1 ; total, 4. 

NATURE OF PROCESSES 

Cotton manufacture in New England includes a group of distinct 
activities and processes that are closely related but result in a variety 
of products. 

Starting with opening the bales of raw cotton, the fibers must go 
through a number of preliminary processes that terminate in spin- 
ning. The product of this first stage is cotton yarn and its by- 
product is cotton waste. The yarn produced in the first stage may 
be put through processes of dyeing. and finishing before being woven 
into cloth, or it may be woven directly to make gray goods. In some 



286 INDUSTRIAL STRUCTURE OF NEW ENGLAND 

instances the cotton fiber is dyed before spinning, but this is not a 
prevailing practice. This yarn is the basic material for weaving dif- 
ferent kinds of cotton cloth and for making small wares, as well as 
for making sewing thread and lace. Cotton yarn is used also with 
wool, silk, or rayon in making various woven mixtures and also to 
supply the cotton content of knitted goods. 

Most of the woven cotton cloth must go through further processes 
of bleaching, dyeing, printing, or other forms of finishing before it 
is ready for the market. The processing depends upon the kind 
of goods and varies widely with the type of fabric that is being 
manufactured. The making of woven goods also involves great 
technical variation in weaving, in equipment, and in the types of 
yarns that are used. It is thus a highly specialized industry, requir- 
ing much skill and experience. 

Expansion in cotton manufacturing has fostered a high degree of 
specialization and the integration of distinct manufacturing proc- 
esses. Some cotton mills confine their activity to spinning yarns for 
sale or for use by other establishments. Some are engaged wholly in 
weaving cloth or in making small wares from purchased yarns made 
in other establishments. The greater portion of the industry in New 
England, however, is carried on in large establishments which have 
departments both for spinning the yarn and for weaving the yarn 
into cloth. 

Most cotton mills spin yarn and weave it into " gray goods," which 
is the general name for unfinished woven cotton cloth as it comes 
from the loom. The gray goods pass through various processes of 
bleaching, mercerizing, dyeing, printing, or other finishing, after 
leaving the looms. 

Most of these finishing processes are done in establishments not 
connected with the mills, fitted with specialized machinery and 
equipment, according to the nature of the finishing required. While 
many of the larger concerns have complete establishments for carry- 
ing through the manufacturing processes, from the spinning of the 
yarn to the finishing of the cloth for the market, these latter activities 
are usually carried on by separate concerns which specialize in the 
distinct equipment and processes necessary for this work. Such 
processing of cloth is done largely under contract, by the pound or 
yard. Since the dyeing and finishing of textiles is a distinct branch 
of textile manufacture, it is discussed separately from cotton manu- 
facturing. (See p. 319.) 

The outstanding textiles produced for sale by New England cotton 
mills are woven goods. These comprise about 70 per cent of the value 
of all their cotton manufactures, with a product valued in 1925 at 
close to $400,000,000. Yarns for sale had a value exceeding $68,- 
000.000 and comprised slightly over 10 per cent of the value of all 
cotton manufactures. Cotton small wares, valued at nearly $45,- 
000.000, comprised 0.8 per cent of the total, and cotton thread, with 
a value of nearly $14,000,000, made up 6.7 per cent of the total. 
Woven goods, yarns for sale, cotton small wares, and cotton thread 
thus comprised upward of 93 per cent of the value of all New Eng- 
land cotton manufactures in 1925. In addition to these major items, 
other products making up the remainder of 6.4 per cent consist of the 
cotton waste made by Nq,w England mills, with a value exceeding 



TEXTILES 



287 



$19,000,000 ; cotton lace, estimated at more than $6,000,000; and other 
unclassified cotton products worth $16,800,000. These figures for cot- 
ton manufactures do not include knit goods or the cotton contained in 
woolen or silk mixtures, except in so far as they are covered by the 
cotton yarn manufactured in New England for sale to these and other 
industries. 



Pboducts of New England Cotton Manufactures in 1925 



Product 


Value 


Per cent 

of New 

England 

total 


Product 


Value 


Per cent 

of New 

England 

total 


Woven goods 


$459, 897, 000 
68, 178, 000 
44, 901, 000 
43, 912, 000 
19, 137, 000 


69.8 
10.3 
6.8 
6.7 
2.9 


Cotton lace 


1 $6, 267,000 
16, 801, 000 


1.0 


Yarns for sale 


All other cotton products- 
Total . 


2 5 






Thread. 


659, 093, 000 


100.0 


Cotton waste 











i Estimated for New England. 

DEVELOPMENT IN NEW ENGLAND 
THE INDUSTRY PRIOR TO 1880 

The present condition of cotton manufacturing in New England, 
as well as its prospects for the future, is the result of a long period 
of development, which must be understood in order to comprehend its 
problems, The growth of this industry has not only been of para- 
mount significance in the whole industrial development of New Eng- 
land, but it has influenced greatly the character of factory develop- 
ment throughout the United States. 

Cotton manufacture in the United States dates from 1790, when 
the first successful cotton factory in America was established at 
Pawtucket, R. L, by an Englishman, Samuel Slater, with the aid 
of a financier in near-by Providence, whose name is perpetuated 
in Brown University of that city. This first single venture, with 
its 72 spindles, expanded in 135 ^ears to a national industry which 
in 1925 numbered over 1,600 establishments and more than 34,000,- 
000 active cotton spindles. Within 30 miles of the first undertaking 
in Rhode Island, 53 mills, equipped with 448,000 spindles, had been 
established by 1812, and there were more than a score of other mills 
in Massachusetts. During and following the War of 1812 the shut- 
ting off of British goods provided a great stimulus to American 
cotton manufacture. 

The first mills were confined to spinning cotton yarn for weaving 
in the household. The early industry was hampered by lack of 
power looms. In 1820 two-thirds of the textiles used in the United 
States was still made in the homes. The first complete cotton factory 
in America for spinning and weaving was established in 1813 at a 
waterfall on the Charles River at Waltham, Mass. This was the 
first factory in the world in which all processes for converting cotton 
into cloth by means of power machinery were carried on within one 
building. 

With the rapid growth of this plant at Waltham, its water power 
became insufficient. This led to the extension of cotton manufacture 



288 INDUSTRIAL BTRTJCTITRB OF NKW ENGLAND 

to the Merrimack River, where a site that became the city of Lowell 
was cleared from the forest, and the water power of the river at that 
point was harnessed by means of a system of canals. The immediate 
success of the first mill established there in 1823 led to the rapid 
development of cotton manufacture, whereby Lowell became a city 
in 1836, and by 1860 was the largest city in Massachusetts outside 
of Boston. Soon after the founding of Lowell expansion of the cotton 
industry led to the establishment of mills at other waterfall points 
along the Merrimack River, where Lawrence, Manchester, and Na- 
shua soon became important cotton-mill towns. Manchester had 
five cotton mills by 1845. In Maine mills were established at water- 
power sites on the Saco River, at Saco and Biddef ord, and at Lewis- 
ton, on the Androscoggin, at about the same time as those along the 
Merrimack. In western Massachusetts development of water power 
on the Connecticut River, by a dam at Hadley Falls, in the same 
period, brought about the development of Holyoke, which was 
planned as a cotton-manufacturing town, although it has become 
more widely known as a paper-manufacturing center. 

These developments north and west of Boston were promoted and 
directed mainly by Boston capitalists and were financed by joint- 
stock associations. They were large enterprises in which great 
amounts of capital were required. Their success was based upon 
large-scale operation and the making of standardized products, in 
which individual mills concentrated their efforts largely upon the 
manufacture of a single type of fabric. 

The development of cotton manufacture in the southern portion 
of New England differed fundamentally from that north of Boston 
in that the mills were owned and operated mainly by individual 
proprietors and were not financed by outside capital. Hence the 
mills were smaller and more numerous; they were also generally 
established in or close to existing towns and cities. By 1840 the 
Blackstone River had 94 cotton factories along its banks between 
Worcester and Providence. In these mills of southern New England 
attention was given to making a variety of products of high quality 
rather than to large-scale production of standardized fabrics. 

After the founding of Lowell, which was made possible by external 
capital employed in the utilization of water power on a large scale, 
no new element entered into New England cotton manufacture until 
about 1850. Up to that time water power was so cheap and plentiful 
that steam power generated from purchased coal could not compete 
with it. The smaller streams, however, had been developed to their 
utmost capacity and the mills were handicapped by fluctuations in 
their power supply, arising from flood as well as drought. The intro- 
duction of steam power was therefore a great advantage to cotton 
manufacture, not only because it increased the regularity of mill 
operation but also because it could be expanded to meet, the demands 
of the growing market. As early as 1845 the water power at Lowell 
was supplemented by the use of steam. In 1870 water furnished 
power for 08 per cent of the equipment of New England cotton mills. 
By L905, however, the situation had changed, so that steam then 
furnished power for 68 per cent of the mill equipment, and water 
less than one-fourth of the total. 



TEXTILES 289 

The employment of steam power stimulated the development of 
mills at points on the coast, where coal could be transported cheaply 
by water and unloaded at docks near by. Thus a new set of rivals to 
the older mills that had been established at water-power sites in the 
interior came into being along the New England coast — at Newbury - 
port, Salem, and Portsmouth, north of Boston, also at Newport, Bris- 
tol, and Warren, on Narragansett Bay in Rhode Island. In addition 
to their advantageous location in respect to coal, they had another 
asset in the humidity of their climate, which is a distinct aid in 
manipulating cotton fibers. In these coast centers the development 
of cotton manufacture was promoted by local capital. With the com- 
bination of these favorable factors the cotton centers along the coast 
advanced far beyond the inland cotton mills that had been established 
earlier. 

In Fall River, which held the leadership in cotton manufacture 
for a number of years, more than 100 cotton mills became established, 
although until 1865 this center was of little consequence. Its pros- 
perity was founded upon the use of tidewater coal, which placed no 
limit upon the expansion of power which might be used to turn 
cotton-mill machinery. 

New Bedford, also on the coast only 20 miles distant from Fall 
River, turned to cotton manufacturing when the decline of the whal- 
ing industry led the men of fortune in that city to invest their funds 
in this industry in its place. Both Fall River and New Bedford 
were developed by local capital. Close rivalry for first position as a 
manufacturing center has existed between these two places since 
1910. In Fall River the emphasis was placed upon mass production 
of medium and low grade fabrics, in which the competition from the 
newly developed manufactures of the South has become especially 
keen. New Bedford mills, on the other hand, specialized in the finer 
class of yarns and woven goods, and therefore they have not felt this 
competition so acutely. 

A map showing the present location of New England cotton mills 
would strikingly reveal two facts — (1) that most of the large mills 
are at water-power sites on fresh- water streams of considerable size, 
and (2) that those not having water-power facilities are close to 
tidewater. The older mill development was dependent on power 
from New England waterfalls. The natural expansion of these older 
mills has been most pronounced in places where this power was most 
abundant and regular. 

New England dominated the market for cotton manufactures 
until 1880. At that date over 80 per cent of all the cotton spindles 
of the United States were located in New England mills. There were 
then only slightly more than 500,000 spindles in the cotton-growing 
States of the South, and of more than 10,000,000 spindles in all the 
Northern States, 8,632,000 were in New England. New England 
mills in 1880 consumed 1,129,500 bales of cotton, while the cotton- 
producing States consumed only 188,750 bales. The supremacy 
of New England in this field of manufacturing at that time was 
unquestioned. 

CHANGES SINCE 1880 

The 45 years from 1880 to 1925 embrace three distinct periods of 
change in the status of cotton manufactures in the United States. 



290 INDUSTRIAL, STRUCTURE OF NEW ENGLAND 

The first of these, covering roughly a quarter of a century, extended 
from 1880 to about 1904; the second period includes the decade 
from 1904 to the beginning of the World War in 1914; the third, ex- 
tending over 11 years from 1914 to 1925, includes the World War 
and the subsequent years of adjustment. 

The first of these periods, ending in 1904, witnessed a marked ex- 
pansion of cotton manufacturing in the South, especially in North 
Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia. The number of cotton- 
manufacturing plants outside New England increased in this period 
from 317 to 798, while the number in New England fell off from 439 
to 356. The increase in number of active spindles in New England 
during this first period was 5,571,000, bringing the total number of 
spindles in this section up to 14,203,000 in 1905 — an expansion of 65 
per cent after 1880. There was a greater increase in the number of 
spindles outside New England, however, amounting to 7,463,000, 
which brought the total spindles in other States in 1905 up to 
9,485,000 — an increase of 369 per cent as compared with 1880. 

The increase in yardage of cotton cloth woven in New England dur- 
ing the period from 1880 to 1905, however, exceeded slightly the 
increase in yardage outside this region; and the increase in value 
of the New England output was likewise slightly in excess of the total 
increase in all the other States. In annual income derived from 
cotton manufactures, as shown by value added by manufacture, the 
increase in New England exceeded $100,000,000, while in the rest 
of the United States the increase in value added was less than 
$64,000,000. 

By 1900 there were more cotton mills in the South than in New 
England, but up to that time New England mills continued to con- 
sume more than one-half of the raw cotton used in the entire country. 
By 1905 the cotton-growing States had surpassed New England in 
the quantity of cotton consumed. While the consumption of domes- 
tic cotton in New England grew from 1,500,000 bales in 1890 to 
1,753,000 bales in 1905, in the same interval the cotton-growing States 
increased their consumption from 539,000 bales to 2,140,000 bales. 

This period, which ended shortly after the beginning of the 
twentieth century, thus marks the entry of the South into cotton 
manufacture as a formidable competitor of the New England mills. 
The growth of southern mills, which were invading a field previously 
dominated by the North, occasioned much alarm to the northern cot- 
ton manufacturers. During this time of rapid Southern expansion 
the same spirit of industrial development possessed the South as had 
possessed New England a generation or two earlier. The advantages 
Avhich favored this expansion of the South were an abundance of 
cheap labor, cheap water power, and the nearness of supplies of raw 
cotton. This new expansion went through an early testing stage 
similar to that of the early cotton manufactures in New England. 
Inexperience of the promoters and the lack of skilled operatives in 
this period limited the southern manufactures mainly to the coarser 
fabrics. 



TEXTILES 



291 



New England Consumption of Raw Cotton and Production of Cotton Cloth, 
Census Ykaks 1880 to 1927, as Compared with Rest of the United States 





Cotton consumed (thousands of 
bales) 


Cloth produced (thousands of 
square yards) 


Year 


New 
England 


United 

States, 
outside 
New Eng- 
land 


New Eng- 
land as per 
cent of 
United 

States 


New 
England 


United 

States, 
outside 
New Eng- 
land 


New Eng- 
land as per 
cent of 
United 

t States 


1927 


1,676 
1,610 
1, 708 
1,434 
1,946 
1,823 
1,614 

. 2,397 
2,165 
2,403 
2,414 
2,389 
2,149 
2,219 
2,178 
2,076 
1,882 
1,995 
2, 144 
1,895 
2,073 
2,060 

3 1, 753 


5,731 
5,074 
4,725 
4,088 
4,575 
4,087 
3,279 
4,023 
3,601 
4,164 
4,374 
4,009 
3,448 
3,358 
3,305 
3,053 
2,616 
2,626 
3,096 
2,644 
2,912 
2, 849 
2,526 


22.6 
24.1 
26.6 
26.0 
29.8 
30.8 
33.0 
37.3 
37.5 
36.6 
35.6 
37.3 
38.4 
39.8 
39.7 
40.5 
41.8 
43.2 
40.9 
41.7 
41.6 
42.0 
41.0 


2, 662, 765 

0) 

2, 607, 368 

0) 
3, 143, 581 

(0 
2, 809, 820 

0) 
2, 824, 924 

0) 

(0 

(0 

0) 
2 3, 218, 756 

0) 

0) 
0) 

2 3, 194, 421 

to 
to 
to 

2 2, 606, 664 
(*) 

to 

1,813,479 


6, 317, 650 

0) 
5, 134, 200 

0) 

5, 120, 639 

0) 

3, 894, 016 

(0 
3, 492, 474 

0) 

(0 

to 
to 

3, 594, 784 

to 
to 
to 

3, 073, 140 
0) 
to 

to 
to 

2, 503, 645 
0) 
C 1 ) 
459, 799 


30.0 


]926 - - 


(l) 


1925 


33.7 


1924 . 


(0 


1923 


38.0 


1922 .. 


(l) 


1921 


41.9 


1920--. 


(0 


1919 


44.7 


1918 .. 


(1 } 
(i) 


1917 


1916 ._- _.- 


to 


1915 


to 


1914 


47.2 


1913 


% 


1912 .. 


1911 


to 


1910..- 


(i) 


1909_._ 


51.0 


1908 


0) 


1907 . 


to 


1906 J 


to 


1905 


to 


1904 


51.0 


1900. 


1,909 

1,502 

4 1, 129 


1,964 
1,016 
3441 


49.3 
59.6 
71.9 


(i) 


1890 


to 


1880 


79.8 







i Not a census year. 2 Not including Vermont. 3 Not including foreign cotton. 4 Cotton mills only. 

New England Compared with Rest of United States in Cotton Spindles 
in Place, Spindle Activity, and Active Spindle Hours, 1880-1927 





Cotton spindles in place l 
(thousands) 


Active spindles (thousands) 


Active spindle hours (millions) 


Year 


New 

England 


United 
States 

outside 
New 

England 


New 
England 
as per 
cent of 
United 
States 


New 
England 


United 
States 
outside 

New 
England 


New 
England 
as per 
cent of 
United 
States 


New 
England 


United 
States 
outside 

New 
England 


New 
England 
as per 
cent of 
United 
States 


1927 

1926 

1925 

1924 

1923 

1922 

1921 

1920 

1919 

1918 

1917 

1916 

1915 

1914 

1913 

1912 

1911 

1910 

1909 

1908 

1907 

1906 

1905 

1900— 

1890 

1880 


16, 871 
17,946 
18, 333 
18, 576 
18, 930 
18, 856 
18, 734 
18, 543 
18, 393 
18, 267 
18,001 
17, 788 
17, 526 
17, 683 
17, 620 
17, 571 
17,045 
15, 981 
15, 766 
15, 481 
15, 164 
14,408 
13, 816 
13, 171 
10, 934 
8,632 


19, 824 
19, 640 
19, 596 
19, 228 
18, 479 
18, 089 
17, 884 
17, 292 
17, 050 
16, 674 
16, 220 
15, 545 
15, 315 
15, 061 
14, 529 
14, 012 
13, 759 
12, 948 
12, 808 
12, 484 
11, 776 
11, 404 
9,856 
6,293 
3,450 
2,021 


46.0 
47.7 
48.3 
49.1 
50.6 
51.0 
51.2 
51.7 
51.9 
52.3 
52.6 
53.4 
53.4 
54.0 
54.8 
55.6 
55.3 
55.2 
55.2 
55.4 
56.3 
55.8 
58.4 
67.7 
76.0 
81.0 


14, 995 

15, 526 
15, 975 

17, 066 

18, 054 

17, 939 

18, 388 
18, 287 
18, 066 
17, 985 
17, 761 
17, 474 
17, 101 
17, 408 
17, 311 
17, 140 
16,511 
15, 735 
15, 592 
15, 329 
14, 913 
14, 408 
14, 203 
13, 171 
10, 934 
3 8, 632 


19, 414 
19, 225 
18, 783 
18, 783 
18, 206 
17, 769 
17, 660 
17, 194 
16, 865 
16, 558 
16, 128 
15, 332 
14, 864 
14, 699 
14, 208 
13, 439 
13, 012 
12, 532 
12, 426 
12, 176 
11, 463 
10, 843 
9,485 
6,301 
3,450 
2,021 


43.6 
44.7 
45.6 
47.6 
49.8 
50.2 
51.0 
51.5 
51.7 
52. 1 
52.4 
53.3 
53.5 
54.2 
54.9 
56.1 
56.0 
55.7 
55.6 
55.7 
56.5 
57.1 
60.0 
67.6 
76.0 
81.0 


32, 914 

31, 718 
32, 655 
27, 184 
39, 009 
37, 034 

( 2 ) 

( 2 ) 

( 2 ) 

( 2 ) 

( 2 ) 

( 2 ) 

( 2 ) 

( 2 ) 

( 2 ) 

( 2 ) 

( 2 ) 

( 2 ) 

( 2 ) 

( 2 ) 

( 2 ) 

( 2 ) 

( 2 ) 

( 2 ) 

( 2 ) 

( 2 ) 


71, 436 

65, 311 
61, 945 
53, 091 
60, 499 
55, 667 

( 2 ) 

( 2 ) 

( 2 ) 

( 2 ) 

( 2 ) 

( 2 ) 

( 2 ) 

( 2 ) 

( 2 ) 

( 2 ) 

( 2 ) 

( 2 ) 

( 2 ) 

( 2 ) - 

( 2 ) 

( 2 ) 

( 2 ) 

( 2 ) 

( 2 ) 

( 2 ) 


31.5 
32.7 
34.5 
33.9 
39.2 
39.9 

( 2 ) 

( 2 ) 

( 2 ) 

( 2 ) 

( 2 ) 

( 2 ) 

( 2 ) 

( 2 ) 

( 2 ) 

( 2 ) 

( 2 ) 

( 2 ) 

( 2 ) 

( 2 ) 

( 2 ) 

( 2 ) 

( 2 ) 

( 2 ) 

( 2 ) 

( 2 ) 



1 The statistics prior to 1915 relate to year ending August 31, and those since 1915 to year ending July 31. 

2 No records available prior to 1922. 

3 Cotton mills only. 



292 INDUSTRIAL STRUCTURE OF NEW ENGLAND 

CHANGES FKOM 1904 TO 1914 

Changes in cotton manufacture up to the beginning of the World 
War were in the direction of continued expansion outside New Eng- 
land, although the industry made a gradual increase in this older sec- 
tion. In this period leadership in the coarser and cheaper grades of 
cloth was definitely surrendered to the South. Although many New 
England mills continued to make the coarser staples, fuller attention 
was given to the higher grades of cotton manufacture, and increasing 
numbers of mills were turning to the finer goods. In this respect 
New England was following the example set by the British cotton 
industry, which had made up for the earlier losses of its markets for 
coarser goods by specializing in the finer qualities of yarns and cloth. 

A factor of increasing importance to the cotton industry in this 
period was the use of electric power in place of steam. The place of 
steam had not been challenged until after 1900, but electrification of 
cotton mills swept forward rapidly after 1910, so that by 1923 more 
primary horsepower was furnished to the cotton mills of the country 
by electric motors than by steam engines. 

CHANGES SINCE 1914 

The period of the World War and the years immediately following 
it witnessed conditions which upset the normal developments in this 
industry and deferred the adjustments that otherwise would have 
come sooner. In common with the rest of the country in all manu- 
facturing lines, the cotton mills of New England were stimulated by 
the possibilities for high war-time profits. During the war the mills 
were run at maximum capacity. The number of cotton mills in New 
England increased from 380 in 1914 to 459 in 1919, and to 510 in 
1923. The number of active spindles was increased from 17,408,000 
in 1914 to 18,066,000 in 1919, and to a maximum of 18,388,000 in 1921. 

The year 1919 found New England textile mills running at ca- 
pacity to fill orders placed at high war-time prices. This was fol- 
lowed in 1920 and 1921 by a sharp drop in prices and a curtailment 
of production, which affected all industries in the period of postwar 
deflation. A brief interval of recovery in 1922 and 1923 again 
brought prosperity of short duration and led to a further expansion 
of New England cotton manufactures, making 1923 the year of maxi- 
mum output, exceeding any of the war }^ears except 1919. 

During the period from the beginning of the war there had been 
little change in the conditions of production within the industry 
except a great rise in wage rates and a wide expansion in the use of 
electric power. Not until after 1923 did any general adjustment be- 
come apparent in the whole cotton-manufacturing industry. New 
forces which had been developing in the past two decades then bore 
upon this industry with intensity. There was a pronounced falling 
on in cotton manufacturing in 1924, but conditions were somewhat 
better in L925. The New England cotton manufacturing industry, 
in the period from 1023 to 1925, showed a decline in its output for 
the first time (aside from the postwar deflation) since its start more 
than a century before. 



TEXTILES 293 

COTTON CONSUMPTION AND SPINDLE ACTIVITY 

As a purchaser of raw cotton New England attained its peak in 
the war years — 1916, 1917, and 1918 — reaching the maximum of 
2,415,000 bales in 1917. There was a marked falling off in 1919, with 
recovery in 1920, when the amount was 2,397,000 bales. The sharp 
slump in 1921 reduced the New England consumption to 1,614,000 
bales. This was followed by an increase in 1923 to more than 2,000,- 
000 bales, and a sharp falling off again in 1924, when it was the low- 
est of any recorded year since 1900. Since then the consumption has 
shown some increase, and in 1927 it was 1,675,000 bales. 

Figures on the consumption of raw cotton are at best a crude indi- 
cator of manufacturing activity ; they are only approximate for any 
one year, and they do not allow for carry-overs from year to year 
or for partially manufactured cotton in mill stocks. Neither do 
they indicate at all the degree of fabrication employed in changing 
the raw material into the manufactured product for sale. This 
varies greatly with the type of fabric made, much more cotton being 
required to make a yard or a given unit of value of coarse, heavy 
fabrics than of fine, light goods, such as are produced largely by New 
England mills. 

The number of spindles in place is commonly used as an indicator 
of producing capacity of cotton mills. The total number in New 
England showed a continuous increase year by year up to 1923, when 
the maximum of 18,930,000 spindles was reached. The number of 
spindles in place declined to 16,872,000 in 1927, and to 15,463,000 
spindles in 1928. These figures, however, do not show the degree of 
utilization of spinning equipment, since they make no allowance for 
inactive plants or for idle spindles in active plants. 

A better indicator of activity is afforded by the number of active 
spindles. The maximum in New England was reached in 1921, when 
the actives spindles numbered 18,388,000. Since 1923 the number of 
active spindles has shown a decline year by year, with a total number 
of 14,995,000 in 1927 and of 13,815,000 in 1928. 

But figures of active spindles make no allowance for equipment 
active only a portion of the time, or for its employment in overtime 
production. A more accurate measure of mill activity is afforded by 
the number of active spindle hours, which is based on the time the 
spindles are in operation. Figures on this basis are available for 
each year and each month since July, 1921. The high point in spin- 
dle activity in New England was reached in the calendar year 1923. 
From this maximum it fell off nearly 30 per cent in 1924. The next 
year, however, the number of spindle hours increased to within 16 per 
cent of the 1923 volume. In 1926 there was a reduction of 3 per cent 
from the preceding year, but the total activity in 1927 was slightly 
greater than in 1925 and higher than in any other year since 1923. 

CHANGES IN TOTAL ACTIVITY 

In value of products the high point of New England cotton manu- 
factures was reached in 1919, the year of war-time price inflation, 
when the value of products of New England cotton manufacture 
exceeded a billion dollars. From this peak there was a tremendous 
falling off in the deflation period of 1920 and 1921. A substantial 

61232°— 30 20 



294 



INDUSTRIAL STRUCTURE OF NEW ENGLAND 



recovery was made in 1922 and 1923. This was followed by a con- 
siderable falling off again in 1924, and in 1925 the total value was 
about $120,000,000 below that for 1923. 

Comparison of changes in the value of total output for the 10-year 
census period from 1904 to 1914 with the 11-year period from 1914 
to 1925 shows the increase in the earlier period to have been 47.2 
per cent, while for the later period it amounted to 94.4 per cent. 
The value added by manufacture showed an increase of 48.6 per 
cent from 1904 to 1914, and an increase of 102.8 per cent from 1914 
to 1925. These figures make no allowance for differences in dollar 
values. 

The number of New England establishments engaged in cotton 
manufacturing was at its peak in 1923, with 510 plants reported by 
the census for that year. In 1914 there were 380 establishments, which 
was an increase of 24 plants over the number operating in 1904 ; this 
increase all took place before 1910. During the war period, from 
1914 to 1919, there was an increase of 79 establishments. From 
1919 to 1921 the number fell off by 10. In the next two years there 
was an increase of 61. From 1923 to 1925 the number was reduced by 
29 establishments. From 1914 to 1925 there was a net increase of 
101 establishments. 

Total Cotton-Manufacturing Activity of New England as Compared with 
Rest of United States, 1880-1925 



Year 



1925. 
1923. 
1921. 
1919. 
1914. 
1909. 
1904. 
1900. 
1890. 
1880. 



Establishments 



New 
England 



481 
510 
449 
459 
380 
380 
356 
364 
402 
439 



United 

States 

outside 

England 



1,157 

1,132 

1,078 

1,037 

948 

944 

798 

691 

503 

317 



Persons engaged 



Total 



New 
England 



181, 603 
215, 447 

198, 682 
218, 059 

199, 003 
192, 348 
162, 647 
167, 005 
148, 718 



United 

States 
outside 
England 



302, 121 
296, 213 
241, 763 
244, 814 
204,908 
195, 423 
160, 640 
140, 758 
72, 867 



Wage earners 



New 
England 



175, 850 
208, 685 
192, 438 
211, 118 
195, 003 
188, 984 
159, 473 
164, 944 
147, 359 
127, 185 



United 

States 
outside 
England 



292, 502 
286, 512 
233, 379 
235, 734 
198, 401 
189, 896 
156, 401 
137, 917 
71,517 
45, 359 



Salaries and wages 
(thousands of dol- 
lars) 



New 
England 



186, 501 
231, 645 
195, 206 
208, 727 
95, 575 
83, 562 
62, 896 
60, 064 
49, 909 



United 

States 

outside 

England 



233, 723 
143, 550 
185, 300 
201, 761 
74, 248 
63, 709 
43, 548 
33, 975 
19, 581 



Year 



1926. 
1923 

1!)21 
1910 

1914 

[909 
1904 
1900 
1890 



Total value of product (thousands 
of dollars) 



New 
p]ngland 



655, 799 
776, 209 
594, 134 

1, OH 755 
337, 324 
316,643 

22!), 101 

191,691 

1X1, 112 
143,363 



United 
States 

outside 
New 

England 



J, 164,0X7 

1,234,932 

736, 129 

1, 160, XI 1 
363, 977 
311,849 
221,367 

147,509 

86, 869 

48, 727 



New 

England 

as per cent 

of United 

States 



36.0 
38. 6 
44.7 

47. 1 

48. 1 
50. 4 
50.9 

66. 6 

67. 6 
74.6 



Value added by manufacture 
(thousands of dollars) 



New 
England 



272,931 
368, 796 
286, X3X 
425, 0XX 
134, ( 124 
143,609 
96, 56X 

18, . r »4:{ 
80,01] 

69, 073 



United 

States 
outside 

New 
England 



414,625 
450, 728 
311,840 
456, 576 
123, 154 
113,874 
TA, (145 
(14, 106 

33, 0r»x 
20, s 1 1 



New 

England 

as per cent 

of United 

States 



39.7 
44.3 
47.9 
48.3 
52.2 
55.8 
55.2 
60.6 
70.8 
76.8 



U <>f Manufactures. 



TEXTILES 



295 



Changes in Cotton Manufacture Within and Outside New England 1904- 

1914 and 1914-1925 



Item 



Actual units each year 



1904 



1914 



1925 



Percentage in- 
crease 



1904 to 
1914 



1914 to 
1925 



Number of establishments: 

New England 

United states outside New Eng- 
land 

Active spindles (number): 

New England 

United States outside New Eng- 
land 

Consumption of cotton (pounds) : 

New England 

United States outside New Eng- 
land 

Woven goods over 12 inches wide 
(thousands of square yards) : 

New England 

United States outside New Eng- 
land 

Value of products: 

New England 

United States outside New Eng- 
land 

Value added by manufacture: 

New England 

United States outside New Eng- 
land 



356 

798 

14, 203, 000 

9, 485, 000 

846, 024, 000 

1, 030, 413, 000 

2, 606, 664 
2, 503, 645 
$229, 101, 000 
$221, 367, 000 
$90, 568, 000 
$73, 645, 000 



380 

948 

17, 408, 000 

14, 699. 000 

1, 041, 083, 642 

1, 482, 417, 000 

3, 218, 756 
3, 594, 784 
$337, 324, 000 
$363, 977, 000 
$134, 624, 000 
$123, 158, 000 



481 

1,157 

15, 975, 000 

19, 057, 000 

i 850, 390, 000 

i 1, 224, 966, 000 

2, 607, 368 

5, 134, 200 

$655, 799, 000 

$1, 164, 087, 000 

$272, 930, 000 

$414, 626, 000 



6.7 
18.8 
22.6 
55.0 
23.1 
43.9 

23.5 
43.6 
47.2 
64.2 
48.6 
67.2 



26.6 
22.0 

2 8.2 

29.6 

2 18.4 

2 17.4 

2 19.0 
42.8 
94.4 
219. 8 
102.7 
236.7 



' i These figures do not include the cotton consumed by cotton small wares and cotton-lace industries. 
Cotton small wares for the United States consumed 21,339,000 pounds in 1925. 
2 Decrease. 

The average number of persons engaged in New England cotton 
manufacturing was highest in 1919, when it was 218,059. This was 
nearly approached again in 1923, when the total was 215,447. This 
number was reduced in 1925 to 181,603. 

COTTON WOVEN GOODS 

The maximum production of cotton woven goods in New England 
was in 1914, when these States produced nearly 3,219,000,000 square 
yards of cotton cloth. The 1914 production was closely approached 
in 1909 and in 1923, when the totals were 3,194,000,000 and 3,144,- 
000,000 yards, respectively. The marked curtailment in the years 
immediately following the World War was followed by a pro- 
nounced increase, so that the total yardage in 1923 was only about 
2 per cent below the maximum of 1914. Production from 1919 
to 1923 showed an increase of 343,000,000 square yards, but in 
consequence of price deflation the value of the woven goods pro- 
duced fell off $135,800,000. The 2-year period from 1923 to 1925 
showed the most pronounced change in yardage, with a decline 
of 17 per cent. 

The year of maximum dollar values of woven goods was 1919, 
when values were greatly distorted by high war-time prices. In 
that year the New England product had a value approaching $700,- 
000,000, which is almost three times the value of a much greater yard- 



296 



INDUSTRIAL STRUCTURE OF NEW ENGLAND 



age in 1914. The value of the 1923 production was far higher than 
for any other year outside the war period. The total value in L923, 
following the period of sharp postwar deflation, exceeded $563,000,000 
and represented an increase of nearly $119,000,000 over 1921. 

Total Production and Value of Cotton Woven Goods in New England 

States, Census Years 1909-1925 



Census year 


Thousands 

of square 

yards 


Value 


Census year 


Thousands 

of square 

yards 


Value 


1925 __. -. 


2, 607, 368 
3, 143, 581 
2, 809, 820 


$459, 897, 000 
563, 109, 000 
444, 436, 000 


1919 


2, 800, 535 
3, 218, 756 
3, 194, 421 


$698, 910, 000 


1923 


1914 .. 


242, 821, 000 


1921 


1909_ 


236, 904, 000 









PRINCIPAL WOVEN FABRICS 



The importance of the principal woven fabrics, as shown by their 
value in 1925, was in the following order: (1) Twills and sateens, 
(2) tire fabrics, (3) sheetings, (4) cotton and silk mixtures, (5) shirt- 
ings, (6) lawns, nainsooks, cambrics, and similar muslins, (7) cotton 
flannel, (8) ginghams, (9) print cloth. The value of each of the first 
four of these exceeded $40,000,000 and for each of the others it 
exceeded $20,000,000. 

In terms of yardage the principal fabrics were in the following 
order of importance : (1) Twills and sateens, (2) sheetings, (3) print 
cloth, (4) tobacco cloth, cheesecloth, etc., (5) lawns, nainsooks, cam- 
brics, and similar muslins, (6) shirtings, (7) cotton flannel, (8) cot- 
ton and silk mixtures, (9) ginghams, (10) tire fabrics. Production 
of each of the first five of these exceeded 200,000,000 yards, that of 
the next four exceeded 100,000,000 yards each, and that of tire fabrics 
was nearly 91,000,000 yards. 

The Relative position of the important fabrics of New England 
manufacture in the value of the whole national output is shown 
in the following percentages contributed by New England: (1) Cot- 
ton and silk mixtures, 79.3 per cent; (2) lawns, nainsooks, etc., 73.6 
per cent; (3) tobacco cloth, cheesecloth, etc., 59 per cent; (4) twills 
and sateens, 52.7 per cent; (5) bedspreads and quilts, 51.3 per cent. 
New England manufactures thus contributed over one-half of the 
total national value in each of these fabrics. 

Between 40 and 50 per cent of the total national value was 
contributed by New England in cotton flannels (48.4 per cent), 
shirtings (45.3 per cent), and ginghams (43.4 per cent). Woven 
fabrics in which the value of the New England production was over- 
shadowed by production in other parts of the United States were 
sheetings (23.7 per cent), print cloth (21.8 per cent), plush, velvets, 
etc. ( 15.7 per cent), denims (13.G per cent), and towels, toweling, etc. 
(5.7 per cent). 



TEXTILES 



297 



Cotton Woven Fabrics Produced in New England in 1925 



Kind of fabric 



Value of products 



Millions 
of dollars 



Per cent 
of United 

States 
total 



Quantity produced 



Square yards 



Per cent 

of United 

States 

total 



Rank in 
yardage 
produced 



Twills and sateens 

Tire fabrics 

Sheetings 

Clot h of cotton or other vegetable fiber and silk 

Shirtings 

Lawns, nainsooks, cambrics, and similar 

muslins 

Cotton flannel __ 

Ginghams 

Print cloth 

Tobacco cloth, cheesecloth, bunting, and 

bandage cloth 

Bedspreads and quilts 

Plushes, velvets, etc 

Denims __ 

Table damask __. 

Tickings 

Towels and toweling , 

Drills , 

Cottonades. 

Undesignated w r oven fabrics (over 12 inches 

wide). , 

Total woven goods 



44.3 
43.4 
42.7 
41.0 
34.3 

31.9 
25.9 
25.0 
21.4 

9.6 
8.6 
6.4 
6.3 
5.3 
2.5 
2.2 
1.6 
.6 

106.9 



52.7 
41.1 
23.7 
79.3 
45.3 

73.6 
48.4 
43.4 
21.8 

59.0 
51.3 

15.7 
13.6 
42.5 
23.8 
5.7 
3.8 
7.8 

43.6 



274, 709, 000 
90, 937, 000 
270, 166, 000 
147, 367, 000 
156, 852, 000 

215, 967, 000 
156, 002, 000 
145, 493, 000 
257, 097, 000 

245, 831, 000 
24, 983, 000 

7, 954, 000 
22, 950, 000 
24, 576, 0C0 
10, 826, 000 

8, 443, 000 

8, 385, 000 
2, 248, 000 

536, 944, 000 



51.6 
37.6 
16.5 
83.2 
34.4 

66.2 
45.8 
40.8 
22.0 

54.4 

47.5 

23.8 

12.7 

46.0 

22.4 

6.7 

2.9 

7.7 

47.7 



1 

10 
2 



5 
7 
9 
3 

4 
12 
11 

14 
13 

15 
16 

17 

18 



459.9 



36.9 



2, 607, 368, 090 



33.7 



CHANGES IN INDIVIDUAL WOVEN FABRICS, 1921 TO 1925 

Since the period from 1921 to 1925 includes the years of greatest 
readjustment in New England cotton manufacture, changes in types 
of product during these years has a great deal of significance. In 
this 5-year period the total annual New England production of 
cotton woven cloth showed a reduction of 7.2 per cent in yardage 
but an increase in value of output of 3.5 per cent. The produc- 
tion for the entire United States for the same period showed an 
increase in yardage of 15.5 per cent and an increase in value of 
30.1 per cent. From 1923 to 1925 the total yardage produced in New 
England fell off 17.1 per cent, and the value of the product decreased 
18.3 per cent; during the same time there was a decline of 6.3 per 
cent in the total yardage produced in the United States and of 11 per 
cent in the total value. 

In New England the fabrics which showed the most conspicuous 
increases in value from 1921 to 1925 were cotton and silk mixtures, 
table damasks and plushes, twills and sateens, and a large group of 
undesignated fabrics. Cotton and silk mixtures, with a product 
valued in 1925 at $41,000,000, showed an increase of 227 per cent 
in value as compared with 1921. Twills and sateens, with a prod- 
uct in 1925 valued at more than $44,000,000, increased 32 per cent 
in value; cotton flannels, with a product in 1925 worth nearly 
$26,000,000, showed an increase in value of nearly 31 per cent, as 
compared with the output of 1921. 

Of the fabrics that were secondary in value in 1925, tobacco cloth 
and cheesecloth increased 48 per cent, while plushes, velvets, etc., 
more than doubled. Among fabrics of minor value the increase in 
table damask stands out prominently, the figures showing about 150 
per cent increase over its 1921 value and more than 200 per cent in- 
crease in yardage, in comparison with relatively slight increases for 
the United States as a whole. Shirtings, the 1925 value of which in 
New England was upward of $34,000,000, showed an increase of 



298 



INDUSTRIAL STRUCTURE OF NEW ENGLAND 



approximately 6 per cent, but this was overshadowed by a national 
increase of over 46 per cent. 

The most conspicuous decrease in values was shown by ginghams. 
The 1925 product, valued at nearly $25,000,000, showed a falling off 
of 53 per cent from the value of the production in 1923. Lawns, nain- 
sooks, and similar fabrics, with a product valued in 1925 at nearly 
$32,000,000, showed a falling off of 37 per cent, in comparison with a 
reduction of 26 per cent for the country as a whole. A pronounced 
falling off was shown also in tire fabrics, whose 1925 value of 
$43,400,000 shows a reduction of over 30 per cent from that of 1921, 
in contrast with an increase of 4 per cent for the country as a whole. 
Print cloth, with a value in 1925 upward of $21,000,000, shows a 
decline in New England of 23 per cent, in contrast with a national 
increase of 20 per cent. 

Of the fabrics of lesser value in New England, toweling declined 
more than 28 per cent and drills over 22 per cent, each of these being 
in contrast with substantial increases in value for the national pro- 
duction. The total value of denims, sheetings, and tickings each de- 
clined somewhat less than 10 per cent, while for the country as a 
whole the value of denims increased 50 per cent, that of sheetings 14 
per cent, and of tickings 12 per cent. On the other hand, the large 
group of undesignated woven fabrics, amounting to nearly $107,000,- 
000 in 1925, showed an increase of value in New England of 42 per 
cent, as compared with 1921, and in the country as a whole an 
increase of 57 per cent. 

The following table shows the changes in individual fabrics, both 
in yardage produced and in value of product, for the period from 
1921 to 1925, and also for the shorter period from 1923 to 1925, the 
change in each case being given as a percentage of the earlier year. 

Changes in Yardage and Value of Various Cotton-Woven Fabrics Produced 
in New England as Compared with the Entire United States, 1923-1925 
and 1921-1925 





Percentage change l ir 
age produced 


yard- 


Percentage change i in 
of product 


value 


New 
Eng- 
land 


Kind of fabrics 


1923-1925 


1921- 


-1925 


1923- 


-1925 


1921- 


-1925 


value 
in 1925 




New 

Eng- 
land 


United 
States 


New 
Eng- 
land 


United 
States 


New 

Eng- 
land 


United 
States 


New 

Eng- 
land 


United 

States 


(mil- 
lions 
of dol- 
lars) 


Twills and sateens 


-4.8 

-7.0 

-17.9 

12.2 

26.6 

-19.4 

-17.5 

-41.7 

-52.8 

-3.5 

6.2 

1.2 

-34.1 

204.3 

-16. 1 

31.5 

35.2 

28.8 

-3.7 


8.9 

6.9 

-3.4 

17.4 

33.5 

-11.2 

-10.7 

-37.6 

-26.1 

12.3 
47.5 
20.8 
-20.0 
30.7 
9.6 
3.2 
5.7 
39.0 
6 


17.2 

51.2 
-23.4 
330.9 
-6.5 
-31.2 
4.4 
-51.2 
-40.9 

60.3 
25.6 

100.9 
-24.9 

212.2 

"-52.T 
-56.1 

"~4.~9~ 


38.8 

153.1 

2.3 

384.4 

51.4 

-16.9 

15.5 

-33. " 

.8 

64.7 
65.4 
190.9 
7.4 
24.0 
3.9 
5.5 
49.2 
26.8 
26.0 


-10.2 
-20.2 
-14.9 
-10.2 
11.9 
-31.2 
-25.5 
-47.7 
-54.6 

-32.7 
-3.7 
-8.3 

-39.6 
125.5 

-20.0 
70.9 

-33. 7 

-37. 6 
4.2 


-8.1 
- .4 
-13.4 
.7 
4.7 
-24.4 
-23.0 
-42.2 
-31.7 

-19.1 

23.3 

14.2 

-24.4 

14.7 

-10.0 

4.0 

-9.4 

28.2 

3.5 


32.4 

-30.5 

-6.9 

227.5 

5.8 

-36.8 

30.8 

-53.1 

-23.4 

47.8 
18.1 
106.3 
-8.8 
149.7 

~-28.~5~ 
-22.4 

"~42.~3~ 


62.3 
3.9 
14.0 
265.0 
46.5 
25.8 
42.2 
-34.5 
20.0 

62.3 
51.8 
181.7 
50.2 
15.7 
12.1 
22.5 
92.4 
35.3 
57.0 


44.3 


Tire fabrics 


43.4 


Sheetings 


42.6 


Cotton and silk mixtures 

Shirtings 


41.0 
34.3 


Lawns, nainsooks, etc 

Cotton flannel 


31.9 
25.9 


Ginghams 


24.9 


Print cloth __ 


21.4 


Tobacco cloth, cheesecloth, 
etc . 


9.6 


Bedspreads, etc 


8.6 


Plushes, etc... 


6.4 


Denims 


6.2 


Table damasks 


5.3 


Tickings 


2.4 


Towels, etc 


2.2 


Drills 


1.6 


Cottonades 


.6 


Undesignated ,. 


106.8 






All woven cloth 


-17.1 


-6.3 


-7.2 


15.5 


-18.3 


-11.0 


3.5 


30.1 


459.8 



1 Percentages are based on data for the first year mentioned in each column. Decreases are indicated 
by minus sign; other percentages indicate gains 



TEXTILES 299 

USE OF RAYON IN NEW ENGLAND TEXTILE INDUSTRIES 

The development of rayon and its use in the textile industries 
constitute one of the marvels of the present decade. While rayon is a 
fiber distinct from cotton, wool, or silk, it is used principally in con- 
junction with these other fibers, although recently fabrics made 
wholly of rayon have become prominent, especially in knitted wear. 
Rayon is not to be considered a competitor of cotton-mill products, 
because this new fiber simply replaces some of the cotton as raw 
material in the cotton mills. 

New England textile manufacturers have shown a good deal of 
enterprise in the employment of rayon. The greater portion of its 
consumption in New England is in conjunction with cotton in making 
fine goods and novelty patterns. From reliable sources it is estimated 
that the country's cotton mills during 1927 used about 24 per cent 
of all the rayon consumed in the United States, and that New Eng- 
land mills used approximately 60 per cent of the rayon consumed 
by all the cotton mills of the country. 

Over half of the New England rayon consumption is accounted 
for by the cotton mills. Manufactures of broad silks come next in 
importance, and plants making knitted hosiery and underwear con- 
sumed slightly less than the silk establishments. One of the recent 
great advances in the use of rayon is in the manufacture of various 
types of pile fabrics, including velvets, transparent velvets, and 
plushes. Many of the mills which manufacture these fabrics are 
located in New England. The apportionment of the total rayon 
consumption of New England in 1928 among the various textile 
industries is estimated to be approximately as follows : 

Per cent of total 
New England 
consumption 

Cotton mills 53 

Broad silks 14 

Narrow fabrics 8 

Hosiery 7 

Underwear 6 

Transparent velvets 5 

Miscellaneous . 7 

The estimated volume of rayon consumption in each State, its 
proportion of the New England total, and New England's share in 
the national consumption in 1927 and in 1928, are presented in the 
following table. These figures should be considered only as careful 
estimates, as they are based upon incomplete records; but they are 
believed to be approximately correct. During 1928 the New Bedford 
textile strike greatly affected rayon consumption within New Eng- 
land, particularly in Massachusetts. No doubt this situation is prin- 
cipally responsible for the decrease in New England rayon consump- 
tion as compared with 1927. Under normal conditions the rayon 
consumption. in New England in 1928 would probably have shown an 
increase, although it is believed that the increase would have been 
slightly below the increase in the country as a whole, which was 
approximately 10 per cent. 



300 



INDUSTRIAL STRUCTURE OF NEW ENGLAND 



Estimated Consumption of Rayon by Individual New England States in 

1927 and 1928 





Consumption in 1927 


Consumption in 1928 


State 


Pounds 


Per cent 

of New 

England 

total 


Pounds 


Per cent 

of New 

England 

total 


Massachusetts _. 


9, 029, 000 
4, 936, 000 
3, 486, 000 
1, 136, 000 
999, 000 
7,000 


46.1 
25.2 
17.8 
5.8 
5.1 


7, 549, 000 
4, 873, 000 
3, 387, 000 
1, 104, 000 
971, 000 
8,000 


42 1 


Rhode Island.. - __ 


27.2 


Connecticut.. 


18.9 


Maine.- . - - ._ 


6.1 


New Hampshire - _. 


5.4 


Vermont - - 










Total 


19, 593, 000 
99, 254, 000 


100. 


17, 892, 000 
110, 568, 000 


100.0 


United States total _ 




New England as per cent of United States. . . 


19.7 


16.1 











Although no exact figures are obtainable for other years, the fol- 
lowing estimates from a reliable authority, based on consumption in 
1927 and 1928, give an approximate picture of the increase in con- 
sumption of rayon from 1919 to 1926, both in New England and in 
the United States as a whole. The increase in its consumption in 
textile industries outside of cotton manufacture was probably more 
gradual in New England during this period than in some other sec- 
tions of the country, especially where the knit-underwear industry is 
important. In this line there has been a pronounced increase in the 
consumption of rayon. 

Estimated Annual Consumption of Rayon in New England and in the 
United States, 1919-1926 







Thousands of pounds] 






Year 


New 
England 


United 
States 


Year 


New 
England 


United 
States 


1926 


11, 586 
10, 598 
7,197 
7,011 


64, 730 
59,210 
40, 206 
39, 167 


1922 


4,742 
3,342 
2,166 
1,670 


26, 494 


1925 


1921 


18, 670 


1924 


1920 


12, 100 


1923 


1919 


9,330 









SOURCES OF RAYON PRODUCTION 



In the production of rayon New England has been recently assum- 
ing some importance, with three concerns actually producing rayon 
in 1928, and with an output estimated at 2,000,000 pounds — approxi- 
mately 2 per cent of the total United States production. Pros- 
pective increases indicate a probable doubling of this production 
in New England in the near future, with an increase in the num- 
ber of New England producers of rayon to five concerns. 

The production of rayon in the United States has had a remark- 
able growth in recent years. In 1927 the United States produced 77 
per cent of the rayon consumed in this country, but in 1928 over 
90 per cent of I he total United States consumption was of domestic 
production, with a proportionate falling off in imports. While in 



TEXTILES 301 

1928 the national consumption increased 11.4 per cent over that of 
1927, there was an increase of 29.2 per cent in national production. 

MARKETING AGENCIES FOR COTTON MANUFACTURES 

The system for marketing cotton-mill products differs from that 
for some other commodities because the greater portion of the output 
must pass through further processes of manufacture and through 
intermediate handlers. Only a small part enters into final consump- 
tion in the form in which it leaves the mill. The unfinished gray 
goods generally require further processing, which includes bleaching, 
mercerizing, dyeing, printing, and various finishing processes that 
are determined by the desired pattern. 

According to a study x by the Harvard Bureau of Business Re- 
search covering the billings in 1924 by manufacturers of about two- 
fifths of the national production of yarn-dyed and gray goods, 57 
per cent of their output was subjected to further manufacturing 
processes after leaving the mill, while 43 per cent of the output was 
marketed directly to cutters-up and other industrial manufacturers. 
Considerably more than half their total yardage tKus required fur- 
ther finishing. The study showed that about 34 per cent of the 
entire mill output was sold to converters and that 23 per cent was 
processed for the mills' own account. 

Three distinct types of distribution agencies intervene between the 
cotton manufacturer and the final consumer. The first of these has 
to do with disposing of the unfinished goods as they come from the 
mill. The second type undertakes the necessary steps for convert- 
ing these goods into the kind of finished product desired by the 
market. The third makes distribution of the finished goods to the 
final consumers or to manufacturers of wearing apparel and makers 
of other products who use cotton fabrics. While there is some 
degree of overlap in the functions of these three types of agencies, the 
general market is organized quite distinctly on this basis. 

In New England the cotton-mill organization and personnel are 
generally quite distinct and independent from the organization for 
marketing the output. The mill treasurer is the principal business 
executive in the operation of the mill. He conducts the financial 
activities required in operation of the plant, buys the raw materials, 
and determines the form of manufacture. The physical operation 
of the mill is in the hands of the mill superintendent or manager, 
who conducts the plant under the direction of the treasurer. Dis- 
posal of the manufactured product is generally under control distinct 
from that of the plant management. 

THE SELLING AGENT OR COMMISSION HOUSE 

Sale of the mill product is made through a separate marketing 
agency known in the trade as the selling agent or commission house. 
This agency is, in fact, the sales department of the mill. It devotes 
its whole attention to selling, and generally has exclusive control of 
marketing the product. It keeps in touch with market conditions 
and carries on advertising and sales promotion for the mill. In 

1 Distribution of Textiles, Bulletin No. 56. Cambridge Mass., 1926. 



302 INDUSTRIAL STRUCTURE OF NEW ENGLAND 

earlier years the prevailing method of marketing cotton-mill products 
was by consignment to a central market, and sale at auction. The 
present system of marketing through an exclusive selling house is the 
outgrowth of the earlier form, wherein a single agency assumes con- 
tinuous charge of all sales. Most of the large commission houses have 
their headquarters in New York City, which is the principal market 
for direct mill sales. Many of these houses have their correspondents 
in the important textile manufacturing centers. 

In addition to its primary service of finding customers for the mill 
product, the selling house performs an important financing function 
by assuming the credit risk on sales and by making money advances 
to the mill for stocks manufactured in anticipation of orders. Com- 
petition among commission houses for the more desirable mill ac- 
counts in the past has led many of them to become financially inter- 
ested in the mills which they represent. 

THE CONVERTER 

Despite the apparent meaning of the name, the converter is a mer- 
chant rather than a manufacturer. This agency has a highly special- 
ized function in the marketing of cotton goods and plays an ex- 
tremely important part in their sale. For the last 50 years the con- 
verters have been a major factor both in the manufacture and in the 
marketing of cotton textiles. The converter purchases the gray 
cloth or yarn-dyed fabrics as they come from the mills, and arranges 
to have them put through the further processes necessary to finish 
them for the market. He thus undertakes most of the burden and 
the risk in selecting the style and finish of fabrics for the final 
consumer. 

The converter is the marketing agency that stands between the 
selling house of the mill, on the one hand, and the distributors or 
users of finished fabrics, on the other. Most of the converters arrange 
to have their goods processed and finished, under contract, by 
plants which specialize in the kind of process that is required; 
but some of the larger converters operate their own finishing 
plants. In recent years there has been a growing tendency among 
the larger cotton manufacturers to take over the functions of the 
converter and to have their goods finished for the final market on 
their own account, either in their own plants or in outside finishing 
plants. 

FINAL, DISTRIBUTION 

There are several kinds of outlets for finished cotton fabrics. On 
the one hand are the garment manufacturers and other makers of 
apparel, draperies, and other products, who purchase the finished 
goods in large lots and make them up into articles for direct con- 
sumption. This outlet is designated as the cutting-up trade. There 
is a similar type of" outlet among the manufacturers in other indus- 
tries, who use col ton goods in connection with the manufacture of 
products such as shoe linings, tire fabrics, and numerous other arti- 
cles. These may be designated as industrial consumers. In addi- 
tion to these are the various wholesaling and retailing agencies which 
handle piece goods. 



TEXTILES 303 

According to the Harvard study referred to on page 301, the indus- 
trial users and the cutting-up trade together absorbed more than 
half of the total billings of cotton piece goods by representative mills 
of the country as a whole, while the retail trade accounted for some- 
what more than one-third. The relative importance of individual 
outlets was indicated in that study by the following percentages of 
total billings: Retailers, 36 per cent; industrial users, 30 per cent; 
cutters-up, 26 per cent; exporters, 6 per cent; institutional outlets, 
such as hospitals, 2 per cent. 

Of the sales made directly from the mills those to cutters-up and 
industrial users comprised slightly less than 25 per cent of their total 
billings, and direct sales to wholesalers, retailers, and exporters com- 
prised 20 per cent of the total. In this latter portion direct sales to 
wholesalers comprised approximately 14 per cent and only 1 per cent 
was made direct to retailers, while 5 per cent was to exporters. . Of 
the goods that were finished for the manufacturers' account before 
sale, however, the portion to wholesalers was considerably greater. 
Here the proportions to different outlets were as follows: Wholesal- 
ers, 46 per cent; cutters-up and other manufacturers, 38 per cent; 
hospitals and unclassified customers, 7 per cent; retailers, 4 per cent; 
exporters, 5 per cent. 

In the past wholesalers have been an important factor in insuring 
the regularity of mill operation through the placing of advance 
orders for merchandise, which ranged all the way from one- fourth to 
three-fourths of their total purchases. There are two main groups 
of these wholesalers, the first comprising the large wholesale mer- 
chants which do a national business, while the second group is made 
up of firms which serve the retail trade in their local territory. 

In the distribution of piece goods to the retail trade the prevailing 
channel has been through the wholesale houses, with only a small 
amount from converters and a very slight portion directly from the 
mill. The Harvard study of sources of purchase by retailers found 
that 89 per cent of the total purchases by retailers were made from 
wholesale distributors. Their purchases of finished goods from con- 
verters and manufacturers comprised 8 per cent; and purchases of 
gray goods and yarn-dyed fabrics directly from the manufacturers 
were only 3 per cent. 

The large metropolitan department stores, which are a very impor- 
tant outlet for piece goods, usually place their initial orders with 
converters and manufacturers at the beginning of each season, and 
place their later fill-in orders with local wholesalers. Purchases by 
the large mail-order houses are made from the converters or directly 
from the mills. The same is true of purchases of piece goods by 
chain-store organizations. Small department stores and general 
merchandise stores purchase cotton piece goods principally through 
wholesale dealers. 

IMPORTANCE OF VARIOUS OUTLETS 

There is a considerable variation in the importance of outlets for 
different kinds of fabrics. The Harvard study found that in the 
marketing of prints, voiles, marquisettes, lawns, shirtings, twills, and 
sateens, the converter was the prevailing outlet. In these fabrics 
four-fifths of the manufacturers' billings were made to converters; 



304 INDUSTRIAL STRUCTURE OF NEW ENGLAND 

one-tenth went to cutters-up; and only one-tenth to industrial manu- 
facturers, wholesalers, and exporters together. With materials for 
fine and fancy mixed goods, also, converters received four-fifths of 
the total billings, and wholesale dealers one-fifth. The bulk of the 
billings of pile fabrics was likewise to converters. 

In some other fabrics, however, the principal outlet for the manu- 
facturer was direct to wholesalers. Most of the billings of ginghams 
went to this outlet, as well as appreciable billings of flannels; of drills, 
cottonades, and cotton suitings, a considerable portion of the billings 
was made to exporters; but for drills, denims, flannels, and cot- 
tonades, the principal outlet was to the cutting-up trade. In 
domestics, such as sheetings, pillow casings, bedspreads, and table 
damask, no single outlet predominated ; of the total billings of these 
fabrics one-third was made to converters and one-third to whole- 
salers. Of the rest one-fifth was billed to other manufacturers, one- 
tenth to exporters, and the remainder to cutters-up and retailers. 

CHANGES IN DISTRIBUTION 

The changes in the distribution of cotton goods in the last few 
years are largely the result of (1) changes from buying for stock to 
small-order buying for current requirements; (2) changes from piece 
goods to ready-to-wear garments; (3) greatly increased importance 
of the style element. 

A period of small-scale buying, originating generally with retailers 
during the crisis of 1920, was inspired by the attitude of caution in 
both the wholesale and retail trade, arising from the shrinkage of in- 
ventory values in a period of rapidly declining prices. Continuous 
fluctuations, both in the price of raw cotton and in that of cotton 
cloth, have encouraged the continuance of this cautious attitude. It 
has been strengthened by the facilitation of quick deliveries, resulting 
from improvements in transportation facilities. 

A general trend toward smaller orders was noticeable, however, 
before 1917, and early periods in cotton manufacture have witnessed 
major fluctuations in size of orders. Systematic attention on the 
part of retailers to increase the rate of merchandise stock-turn, par- 
ticularly in department stores, has made them active in carefully 
controlling purchases and inventories. According to the Harvard 
study previously mentioned, orders received by the cotton mills and 
selling agents were distinctly smaller in 1924 and 1925 than from 
1921 to 1923. The orders from wholesalers showed less variation 
than those from cutter-up and mail-order houses. 

The small-scale placing of orders has been accompanied by a great 
change among consumers from cotton piece goods to ready-to-wear 
apparel. Wholesalers are generally agreed that the sale of piece 
goods in the smaller trading centers, has suffered in consequence of 
the good roads and the general use of automobiles in the rural dis- 
tricts. This has generally resulted in concentration of the piece- 
goods trade in the larger centers. The decline in sales of piece goods 
make- the function of the wholesaler' Jess essential and, in conse- 
quence, he has become increasingly a service agency for taking small 
fill-m orders. 

Records of H) representative department stores located in the East, 
South, and Middle West, for a period from 1911 to 1925, show that 



TEXTILES 



305 



the change from piece goods to ready-to-wear clothing prevails in the 
large cities as well as in the small centers. Relative sales of cotton 
piece goods showed a continuous and pronounced increase from 1913 
up to 1920, and a general decline from 1920 to 1925. Ready-to-wear 
goods, on the other hand, showed a continuous advance after 1914, 
with the exception of 1921 and 1922. The advance in sales of ready- 
to-wear clothing was greater than that of cotton piece goods for all 
but two years of the whole period, as is shown in the following table. 

Relative Sales (by Value) of Cotton Piece Goods and Ready-to- Wear Goods 
by 10 Department Stores in the East, South, and Middle West, 1911-1925 





[Index number, 1913=100] 






Year 


Cotton 
piece 
goods 


Ready- 
to-wear 
clothing 


Year 


Cotton 
piece 
goods 


Ready- 
to-wear 
clothing 


1911 


90 
95 
100 
95 
90 
100 
110 
135 


85 
95 
100 
100 
120 
140 
145 
145 


1919 


195 
250 
210 
180 
200 
185 
155 


210 


1912 . 


1920 


215 


1913 .. 


1921 


200 


1914 


1922 


205 


1915 .. 


1923 


220 


1916 ..._ 


1924 


215 


1917 


1925 


225 


1918 











Source : Distribution of Textiles. 
56. 1926. 



Harvard Bureau of Business Research, Bulletin No. 



Superimposed on the two factors of small-scale buying and change 
to ready-to-wear goods, there has been a third vital factor — that aris- 
ing from the increased rapidity and intensity of style fluctuations. 
This is shown by the decline in the sale of certain standard fabrics, 
such as white goods and wash goods generally, and by the great in- 
crease in number of designs and patterns of goods offered for sale. 
These style changes have brought about a merchandising problem of 
great importance to the cotton manufacturer. 

Conservatism in buying policies and the increased frequency of 
purchases, as a result of rapidly changing styles, have resulted in 
smaller average stocks of individual patterns by department stores 
and other retailers, which has meant smaller purchases of each item 
The problem of small orders for quick delivery has meant for the 
manufacturer an increased risk of loss through depression of mer- 
chandise, resulting from a drop of prices or change of style, in case he 
should undertake to keep his plant operating at full capacity by man- 
ufacturing for stock. 

The only alternative for the manufacturer has been a radical ad- 
justment in his scale of plant operation. These changes in buying 
policies have thus been a serious burden to the manufacturer, without 
compensating advantages. The process of readjustment to these new 
conditions has now been on its way for some time, but it requires 
time to bring it to completion. The factors are beyond the control of 
any one agency in the manufacture and distribution of cotton goods; 
they present a mutual problem whose solution depends upon the re- 
adjustment of manufacturing and marketing methods to meet these 
new merchandising conditions. 



306 INDUSTRIAL STRUCTURE OF NEW ENGLAND 

NEW FACTORS IN PRESENT SITUATION 

While there have been no radical changes in the processes of cotton 
manufacture in recent years (except the rise and development of 
rayon) a number of new elements have entered into the situation, 
which confront the New England manufacturers with special prob- 
lems. Some of these problems arise from the excessive competition 
that has grown up in this whole industry as a consequence of its 
capacity to produce beyond the consumption requirements of the pres- 
ent market. This gives a competitive advantage to manufacturers 
who can produce most cheaply and efficiently — in other words, to 
plants having the lowest cost of production. This must take into ac- 
count the various factors which enter into the cost of making cotton 
goods. 

COMPETITION 

The intense competition in cotton goods during the last few years 
has put every mill to a severe test of its ability to meet present condi- 
tions in production and marketing. This has been true not only in 
New England but in the cotton-producing States of the South. It 
has been even more drastic in the British cotton industry than in the 
United States. Some New England mills have been able to hold on 
under adverse conditions only because of accumulated surpluses from 
past operations. It is obvious that continuance at. a loss under these 
conditions, even though possible for a time, is an uneconomic pro- 
ceeding. 

During this period of adjustment many New England spindles and 
looms have gone out of production, some of them temporarily, and 
many of them permanently. The field of activities has become con- 
centrated in a smaller number of mills favorably situated. 

The conditions of the last few years are serving to redistribute the 
industry and to concentrate it in mills that have stood the test of 
competitive ability. In general, the mills which have fared best are 
(a) those favorably situated in respect to power, either from local 
water power, purchased electric power, or cheap tidewater coal; (b) 
those with well-arranged plants and the most efficient equipment; 

(c) those under the most intelligent and most skillful management; 

(d) those which have given special study and attention to the market 
for their product. 

The difficulty of ascertaining exact production costs, with all the 
variable factors that enter into the manufacture of cotton goods, has 
been a handicap to the industry. It has undoubtedly been true that 
some of the older mills with partially obsolete equipment or with 
unfavorable location in respect to power, transportation, and working 
conditions, could not be operated profitably under stiff competition. 
Many favorably situated New England mills, however, have con- 
tinued to compete successfully with other sections, particularly in 
the making of the fine goods for which New England mills have built 
up a reputation. Numerous mills have demonstrated their ability 
to operate profitably even under the adverse conditions of the last 
few year's. 

In contrast to relatively slight changes in the factors of produc- 
tion, pronounced changes in marketing and distribution of the prod- 



TEXTILES 307 

uct of cotton mills have forced special emphasis upon market organi- 
zation. The most radical changes are in the manner of distributing 
goods. Along with drastic curtailment in the consumption of cotton 
fabrics, there have come revolutionary changes in the types of cotton 
fabrics that are wanted by consumers. With the strong buyers' 
market that has prevailed in the last few years, the advantage has 
lain with the manufacturers who catered to that demand. 

CHANGES IN DEMAND 

In place of the staple cotton fabrics upon which New England 
cotton mills built their fortunes, the market has turned largely to 
novelty goods and specialties, in which style, beauty, and design are 
the primary requisites, rather than durability and quality. The 
great change in types of fabrics consumed is exemplified in the 
extensive use of silk fabrics and silk mixtures, and in the growth 
of rayon manufacture. These new materials and new types of fabrics 
have in large measure supplanted the old staple goods. 

The increased importance of style in the selling of cotton goods 
makes it necessary that the manufacturer be able to adapt his proc- 
esses quickly to changes of fabric. New patterns must be made and 
distributed in as brief a time as possible, for change is the very 
essence of style; hence, the time from the creation of a pattern to 
its offering on the final market must be reduced to a minimum. The 
mill must, therefore, be in instant readiness to make the necessary 
changes required for its manufacture. Moreover, the sales organiza- 
tion must keep in frequent touch with its customers, and it finds the 
former seasonal or semiannual trips to call upon the trade quite 
inadequate. 

CHANGES IN DISTRIBUTION 

In consequence of the rapid changes in style, and, in particu- 
lar, because of the instability of prices in the last few years, great 
changes have taken place in distribution methods. Small-order buy- 
ing of manufactured goods has taken the place of the seasonal pur- 
chases which were the prevailing practice among distributors in 
former years. 

This has worked against the planning and operating of plants for 
continuous manufacture of standard lines for stock, which has been 
the basis of low-cost quantity production. When the consumption 
was prevailingly one of staple goods, manufacturers could make up 
large stocks of standard gray goods in- anticipation of later orders. 
They were thus able to operate their plants continuously on a quan- 
tity production basis, without being disturbed by prospective changes 
in the type of goods required by the market. Likewise these gray 
goods could be finished for stocK in large quantities in anticipation 
of later demand. 

CHANGES IN OUTLETS 

Besides these changes in conditions of distribution, there have been 
pronounced changes in the outlets through which cotton goods are 
distributed. In earlier years these goods found a market mainly for 
sale as piece goods through the wholesale and retail trade. The pro- 



308 INDUSTRIAL STRUCTURE OF NEW ENGLAND 

nounced change in the market from piece goods to ready-to-wear 
garments has meant that an increasing volume of the output of the 
mills goes to garment manufacturers and others in the cutting- up 
trade for further manufacture into ready-made apparel, while a 
diminishing amount is sold through wholesale and retail channels 
as piece goods. This extends even to such articles as sheetings and 
toweling, which in many instances are now made up at the mill into 
sheets and pillow cases or towels, ready for the final user — a mill 
practice which was quite unheard of until the last few years. 

The so-called hand-to-mouth buying, which has beeti attributed to 
postwar influences, but which actually was in progress before the war 
began, is a result partly of the rapid changes in demand arising from 
changes in styles, but it exists largely because of the instability of 
prices. In a prospective falling market the foresighted merchant 
finds it a sound business policy to make his purchases at frequent 
intervals in order to avoid the possibility of stocking up with goods 
at prices higher than those to be realized later. In this the manu- 
facturer whose operations are scaled for quantity production finds a 
serious handicap. Many business men are of the opinion that such 
small-scale distribution is here to stay, while others hold it to be a 
passing practice that will disappear as distribution conditions 
become more stabilized. Whichever view may be the right one, it is 
a factor of serious consequence to manufacturers under present 
conditions. 

CROSS-SECTION OF NEW ENGLAND COTTON INDUSTRY 

The following summary of experiences by a number of New 
England cotton manufacturers during the past few years of ad- 
justment is presented as the result of replies to special inquiries 
by the Department of Commerce, with the cooperation of the New 
England Council. These inquiries were sent to every manufacturer 
for the purpose of obtaining first-hand information regarding the 
conditions of production and marketing prevailing in the cotton- 
goods industry. In response to these inquiries, detailed state- 
ments were obtained from some 118 New England manufacturers of 
cotton woven goods. Ninety-five of these replies contained figures 
of sales and employment from 1921 to 1925. The aggregate 
sales of these 95 concerns in 1925 were $283,000,000 and the total 
number of persons employed was approximately 67,000. The sales 
thus reported represent 51 per cent of the total value of cotton woven 
goods produced by all New England manufacturers as reported in 
the 11)25 census and give a very good cross-section of the manufac- 
ture of cotton woven goods in New England during that period. 

The reports from these companies cover a wide variety of fabrics, 
in which the finer types of goods predominated. One-quarter of the 
replies designated the product simply as cotton cloth and yarn, or 
gray piece goods; the other's indicated a great number of specialty 
fabrics. The range of fabrics covered practically all the types men- 
tioned in the foregoing discussion. In the total number of 118 con- 
cerns, 71 indicated (lie concentration of their efforts upon a single 
type of fabric, and IT reported the manufacture of multiple types or 
of supplementary goods in addition to the specified main product. 



TEXTILES 309 



SIZE OF ESTABLISHMENTS 



The average of sales in 1925 for the 95 plants giving figures 
was $2,980,000. Fifty-three of these reported sales between 
$1,000,000 and $5,000,000; 38 companies had sales ranging between 
$100,000 and $1,000,000, and 15 of these exceeded $500,000. There 
were 11 companies which reported individual sales in excess of 
$5,000,000 each ; 5 of these exceeded $10,000,000 each, running' up to 
a maximum of nearly $50,000,000. These 11 large concerns accounted 
for over one-half of the total sales reported by the 95 companies. 

The average number of employees per plant for these 95 concerns 
was approximately 700 persons. There were 33 concerns whose aver- 
age emplojmient through the year ranged from 100 to 500 persons; 
there were also 18 companies employing fewer than 100 persons 
each. Employment of 500 to 1,000 workers was reported in 27 of the 
replies. There w T ere 17 of the largest concerns each of which had 
over 1,000 employees, and these 17 companies account for 57 per 
cent of the total employment reported by the whole 95. 

The prevalence of large-scale operations in the manufacture of 
cotton woven goods is very evident from these replies. 

AGE AND MANAGEMENT OF PLANTS 

Of 111 replies regarding the date of establishment, there were 45 
which indicated that their plants had been in operation from 50 up 
to 100 years; and there were 8 companies which reported continuous 
operation for more than a century. Four of the five largest estab- 
lishments, each of which exceeded $10,000,000 in 1925 sales, had 
been in continuous operation upward of 50 years. There were 41 
companies whose plants had been in operation between 10 and 50 
years. In addition to the older establishments there were 17 con- 
cerns of recent origin, having been in operation not more than 10 
years. 

Of 107 concerns stating the length of time the plants had been 
under present management there were 51 which reported an un- 
changed management for periods varying from 10 up to 50 years, 
and 6 other companies whose management had been unchanged for 
more than half a century. In contrast with these it is significant 
to note that 50 concerns, nearly one-half of the number report- 
ing, stated that the management or control had been changed 
within the last 10 years; 17 of these had changed management be- 
tween 5 and 10 years ago, and 33 had undergone a change within 
the last 5 years. A very considerable degree of change in the control 
of individual establishments is thus indicated. 

There were 27 concerns which reported the operation of branches 
in addition to their main plant. Eighteen of these had branches in 
New England, and 9 others had branches in the Southern States. 
Of the concerns with New England branches 1 company had 7, an- 
other had 5 branches, 1 had 4, 1 had 3 ; 4 other concerns reported 2 
branches each, and there were 10 other companies, each of which 
reported 1 branch. All these New England branches had been es- 
tablished before the World War and most of them had been under 
unchanged management for many years. Of the 9 New England 

61232°— 30 21 



310 INDUSTRIAL STRUCTURE OF NEW ENGLAND 

companies which reported branches in the Southern States, there 
were 2 concerns each of which had 4 branch plants in the South, 
and 7 other New England companies with 1 southern branch each. 
These companies with branches in the South had been under their 
present New England management for a period ranging from 3 
up to 21 years. Only 2 of the southern branches had been estab- 
lished prior to 1914 ; each of the others was established since 1923. 

FACTORS INFLUENCING LOCATION 

In order to find out the manufacturers' chief economic reasons for 
originally locating or for continuing in New England each one was 
asked to state the reasons which he regarded as most important. 
Many of the mills have been established so long that the present 
owners can not give the reasons which prompted their original loca- 
tion. Of those which stated definite reasons, nearness to market was 
emphasized in 29 replies and labor conditions in 28. Besides these 
two dominant reasons there were 18 replies which mentioned trans- 
portation facilities, 16 water power, and 15 which gave banking 
facilities as important reasons. 

PLANT ACTIVITY 

The extent of physical expansion in the New England cotton- 
goods industry in recent years is indicated to some degree by the pro- 
portion of the mills which have made additions to their total plant 
capacity since 1921. Increases in plant capacity were reported by 
15 mills. These increases varied from slight additions in several cases 
to a doubling of capacity in two or three instances. Most of these 
increases took place in 1922-23, although a few were reported in 
1924-25. Without exception, these reporting additions to plant ca- 
pacity were manufacturers of textile specialties, and none of them 
were makers of single staple fabrics. 

• The degree to which the available capacity has been utilized is 
indicated by the ratio of the output in 1925 to the maximum possible 
capacity in that year. Ninety mills indicated this ratio in terms 
of their 1925 production ; 49 of these stated that they were operating 
at 75 per cent or more of the maximum capacity, and 6 of these were 
at full capacity. Of the others there were 29 mills reporting opera- 
tions from 50 per cent to 75 per cent of their maximum; and 12 were 
operating at less than one-half of capacity. The mills that had 
enlarged their physical capacity have apparently justified the in- 
crease by higher ratio of utilization than those that made no 
additions. 

Naturally the concerns whose activities were at a high ratio of 
capacity were the ones showing increases in total sales. Yet among 
21 mills whose individual sales decreased continuously from 1923 
to 1925 there were 13 that reported operations in 1925 at 75 per cent 
or more of their maximum capacity. It is significant also that in the 
32 mills reporting individual increases in sales in 1924-25, but a 
reduction below their 1923 sales totals, there were only 14 which 
reported operations in 1925 at 75 per cent or upward; 13 of them 
were operating in 1925 from 50 per cent to 75 per cent of their pos- 
sible output, and 5 of these Imd less than 50 per cent. For all the 



TEXTILES 311 

90 mills the output in 1925, in terms of a maximum possible output, 
was 74.1 per cent, this figure representing a weighted average of the 
total aggregate sales of the whole group. 

TREND OF SALES OF INDIVIDUAL COMPANIES 

Practically all the reporting companies showed increases in 
individual sales in 1928 as compared with 1921, and most of them 
had higher total sales in 1925 than in 1921. Of 82 mills which sub- 
mitted continuous sales figures from 1923 to 1925 there were 27 
whose sales volume in 1925 exceeded that of 1923. Eighteen of these 
fell back in 1924, while 9 of them showed a continuous increase. 
There were 36 other mills whose 1925 sales volume was greater than 
that of 1924, but less than that of 1923. Thus 63 of these 82 mills 
showed an advance in their individual sales of 1925 over those for 
1924. There were 19 other mills, however, whose individual sales 
volume increased through both 1924 and 1925. 

There was apparently no single factor to account for these indi- 
vidual differences in sales trends. No clear-cut distinctions are 
shown as to the method of marketing theii" products. Generally, 
however, the group of companies showing increases in sales volume 
includes the manufacturers of specialties and diversified products, 
while the group showing sales decreases includes, largely, the makers 
of plain staples. Thus mills which reported continuous advances in 
sales volume for the 1923 period of adjustment were generally either 
the manufacturers of specialty products and the finer staples or they 
had diversified their production and had adjusted it to changes in 
market requirements. The replies indicated that many manufac- 
turers were concentrating their efforts upon meeting the changed 
type of demand and that a great deal of adjustment had already 
taken place by the end of 1925. 

SOURCES OF RAW MATERIALS 

The reports from these New England cotton mills indicated that 
the two chief materials used — raw cotton and rayon — are obtained 
principally from sources outside New England. Over one-half of 
the mills reporting indicated the use of rayon or silk, or of both rayon 
and silk, and these materials are purchased from a variety of outside 
sources. The mills purchasing cotton yarn, unfinished gray cloth, 
and cotton waste obtained these supplies mainly from within New 
England, although a considerable number of companies obtained 
their yarns from southern mills. Several of the reporting manu- 
facturers complained of the handicap which they suffered as a result 
of fluctuations in the price of raw cotton. One of these men re- 
ported that the unsettled conditions of the raw-cotton market 
affected his business more than any other single factor. 

LABOR AND EMPLOYMENT 

The importance of labor in the New England cotton-goods indus- 
try is indicated by the fact that in 1925 wages paid to workers in 
New England cotton mills were equivalent to 63.2 per cent of the 
value contributed by the processes of manufacture outside the cost 
of materials, and represented 26.1 per cent of the total value of 



312 INDUSTRIAL STRUCTURE OF NEW ENGLAND 

the product. For the rest of the country, outside New England, 
the payments to wage earners represented 50.5 per cent of the value 
added by manufacture and 17.6 per cent of the value of the product. 
The average annual wages of cotton workers of New England in 
1925 was $963 and for the rest of the country $696. 

The item of labor cost and labor efficiency is thus of particular 
concern to New England. Labor cost per hour or per day is not so 
significant as the cost per unit of product. Labor efficiency is closely 
related to plant management and plant equipment. New England 
has certain distinct advantages in the efficiency of its labor, which 
are partly a matter of acquired skill and partly the result of a 
climate that is favorable to continuous physical exertion. 

Fluctuations in seasonal employment, resulting from changes in 
manufacturing activity at different times of the year, present serious 
problems, both to the mill managers and to the communities in which 
cotton manufacture is the predominating industry. 

For the whole cotton-goods industry of New England the months 
of high employment in 1925 were from January to April, inclusive, 
while the low months were from July to September, inclusive. In 
that year the month of maximum employment, as shown by the 
number of persons on pay rolls, was March, with 175,337, and the 
lowest month was September, with 151,831. The monthly average for 
the year was approximately 165,000. The monthly variation in em- 
ployment for the cotton-goods industry as a, whole in New England, 
as shown by the difference between the month of maximum employ- 
ment and that of minimum employment, was 14.25 per cent of the 
yearly average number of employees. For the United States as a 
whole, including New England, it was 7.15 per cent. 

A number of mills have taken definite steps to overcome seasonal 
employment by diversifying their products, developing supplemen- 
tary lines or manufacturing for stock, whereby they have made sat- 
isfactory progress in increasing the uniformity of employment 
throughout the year. 

One of the ways in which management aids in promoting labor 
efficiency is by the adoption of properly designed incentive methods 
of wage payment, such as piecework or similar systems, which, by 
offering a financial reward to workers in proportion to their output, 
has a tendency to reduce unit labor costs. The proportion of em- 
ployees paid by such incentive methods is noticeably high, as indi- 
cated by the reports of the representative mills making replies. Each 
mill was asked to state the proportion of its employees paid by 
piecework or other incentives, to those paid by the day or hour, 
together with the number of persons employed in January, April, 
July, and October, of 1923 and 1925. 

For the group of 76 cotton mills giving this information, whose 
total average employment in 1925 was 66,000 wage earners, it was 
found thai of this total number of workers 52.5 per cent were paid 
by piecework incentives. A considerable number of mills had 75 per 
cent or- upward of their employees oil this basis, and there were few 
reporting less than 35 per cent of their workers so compensated. The 
comparison of mills replying in the different States, as shown by 
a simple unweighted average of percentages, shows the following: 



TEXTILES 313 

Connecticut, 64 per cent ; Maine, 51 ; Massachusetts, 48 ; New Hamp- 
shire, 45; Vermont, 42; and Rhode Island, 39. 

CHANGES AND IMPROVEMENTS IN MANUFACTURE 

The greater portion of the mills reporting in this group indicated 
that various improvements have been effected in their manufactur- 
ing operations. Accident prevention was mentioned in the greatest 
number of cases. The other adjustments most frequently mentioned 
are changes in production methods, changes in type of product, and 
changes in selling practices. 

Changes in "production methods. — Regarding improvements in pro- 
duction methods, numerous replies indicated success in reducing the 
cost of manufacture through the installation of new labor-saving ma- 
chinery or through increased efficiency of their workers by accident 
prevention or other means. One manufacturer of cotton piece goods, 
with sales in 1925 of $2,000,000, reported a reduction of 20 per cent 
in operating costs through the organization of production methods. 
The development of new processes whereby cheaper forms of raw 
material were made available is reported in another instance. 

A maker of gray piece goods reports increased production with 
fewer operatives and higher wages as a result of rearranging and 
consolidating the employees' operations. In another instance the 
costs of production of certain styles were said to be reduced 15 to 25 
per cent by rearrangement of jobs in the mills and by a better system 
of production control. Better knowledge of production costs and 
better feeling among workmen are cited as improvements effected by 
another cotton-goods manufacturer. These are but a few examples 
from many received. 

Aside from changes in production methods through internal man- 
agement of plants, active efforts to modify the type and quality 
of products are reported in numerous instances. One $5,000,000 com- 
pany maintained production through the introduction of a varied 
line of rayon fabrics. Another large concern, making ginghams, 
toweling, and domestics, reports the addition of supplementary prod- 
ucts in the line of finishing of yarn and cloth. Maintenance of pro- 
duction is obtained by another large manufacturer by diversity of 
cloth construction; and a mill whose chief output has been muslins 
reports diversification to include other styles of fabrics. A large 
maker of surgical gauze and cheesecloth reports that by diversifica- 
tion of product for sale to different classes of trade, and by a careful 
program of manufacture for stock, his mill has been able to keep 
employment and production regular and to have a continuous in- 
crease in sales each year since 1921. Lowered manufacturing costs 
and increased business, through the addition of new products, are 
reported by a small manufacturer of sheets and bedspreads. Many 
concerns making bedspreads have developed a line of rayon spreads 
in the last few years to meet domestic demands. 

One of the larger mills making a variety of products reports that 
it has been driven by southern competition on coarse staple goods 
to make many specialties: the result of this has been better prices 
but less volume on any individual line. A medium-sized plant which 
changed from making plain cloths to fancy goods, such as handker- 



314 INDUSTRIAL STRUCTURE OF NEW ENGLAND 

chief material, shirtings, and voiles, reports increased sales and more 
continuous operation as a consequence of its independence of varia- 
tion in gray-goods values. In another instance a maker of mixed 
cotton, rayon, and silk specialties for corsets and lounging robes 
has found that the product of his mill has not followed the general 
variations of the textile business. Success obtained in developing 
specialized products in a field of less competition than that of the 
staples is reflected by another manufacturer who reports a change 
from making raw cloth to converted goods, such as dress goods and 
linings, which are sold direct to the cutting-up trade. 

Statements by executives. — Leading executives in the cotton-textile 
industry were asked to make statements as to their policy regarding 
the installation of new equipment, and their opinion regarding the 
attitude of the New England industry as a whole in this respect. 
The general tenor of these statements is that the more progressive 
and prosperous cotton mills are fully alive to the importance of main- 
taining their equipment in the best possible shape. There is indica- 
tion, however, that this attitude does not persist in some portions of 
the industry. Statements of some of the executives are reproduced 
below as direct quotations to indicate the attitude of the leaders 
among New England mills : 

1. It has been necessary to adapt our equipment and plants in New England 
to the better quality of work which is most suitable for manufacture in this 
region. To this end we have during the past two or three years added to and 
changed our equipment to produce this character of product, although in the 
case of our mills this did not require the same radical changes as might be 
necessary in other companies for the reason that our general line of product 
fits to a remarkable degree the present demand for light-weight goods for both 
men and women, and cotton goods of varying character and style. 

2. Our policy in regard to new and up-to-date equipment has been very liberal, 
in that we have installed new equipment very freely, having even spent more 
money in this direction than was proper under the business conditions and our 
general financial situation. In this connection we would call attention to the 
fact that the New England cotton industry has been unjustly criticized for 
failure to put in automatic looms. On the very fine yarns making style fabrics 
there is a reasonable doubt as to whether the automatic loom makes sufficient 
labor saving to compensate for the large additional cost, both initial cost and 
upkeep cost. This is further complicated on the fine-yarn goods by rapid style 
changes, making it necessary to scrap existing weaving equipment and put in 
new equipment. This, again, argues against the more expensive automatic 
looms. On medium and coarse goods, where the automatic loom is an unde- 
niable benefit, the competition with the cheap-labor centers of the Southeast 
has tended to remove the manufacture of this type of goods from New England. 

3. It has always been the policy of this company to keep our mills up to date 
in equipment, both as regards repairing machinery already installed in the mills 
and in replacing obsolete machinery as better machinery is brought out, when- 
ever it is profitable to do so. 

With regard to the attitude of the industry in general in New England on 
this subject we believe that the majority of the mills follow this principle, al- 
though some have been unable to do so because of their financial situation. 

4. It is the policy of this company to keep its machinery as modern as possible. 
We have our plant in such shape that it could go a lifetime without replace- 
ment, if these replacements were not made necessary on account of improved 
machinery. We do believe, however, thai our competitors in this field in New 
England are allowing their plants to depreciate, due to the fact that they do 
not make proper allowance in their costs for this depreciation or obsolescence. 

5. We have the most up-to-date equipment, we believe, that is on the market 
with regard to winding, warping, and finishing. We have just put in new 






TEXTILES 315 

finishing machinery, and installed a complete system of warping two years 
ago ; purchased a warp tying-in machine at that time and, in fact, have bought 
everything that we can lay our hands on that will give better production and 
better material. 

6. Our company has always felt under the necessity of keeping its plant 
and equipment in a high state of operating efficiency. We fyave also investi- 
gated every new machine and device in the textile or textile-finishing industry 
to see if it was economy to install it. Any machine which will pay for itself 
in two years is installed without question. Much new machinery is installed 
if it will pay for itself in five years. From an examination of quite a number 
of textile mills in New England we should say that we were in the upper 
quarter in that point of view. Many of the mills have machinery dating back 
to 1878, which was low in efficiency even 20 years ago. 

7. During the last four or five years of depression in the cotton textile 
industry, it has been the policy of this company to keep their equipment up to 
date in all respects so that they might be in a position to take advantage of 
better times when conditions changed. Of course, we know that in some 
sections the machinery and equipment have been allowed to depreciate. 

8. As to our policy in regard to the installation of new and up-to-date equip- 
ment, up to two years ago it was our policy for some years to spend from 
$200,000 to $300,000 annually on plant improvements in the way of replacing 
obsolete equipment. For the last two years, however, this has not been pos- 
sible on account of our figures going into red. 

The extent of reorganization that has been found necessary in 
individual instances is illustrated by the following statement from 
the executive of a large New England company, with several mills, 
which has undergone thorough reorganization in recent years : 

Recent improvements have resulted in the replacement of a widely scattered 
collection of plants of all degrees of usefulness by a more closely knit group 
of the most promising plants, augmented by the best machinery, etc., from 
the least promising plants which were gradually discarded as conditions 
determined. This elimination of " deadwood " brings to each surviving active 
plant a greater share in the attention of the management and permits a lower 
production cost for the company's products. General conditions were for the 
most part unfavorable during the period when this overhauling and revamping 
were taking place. 

SELLING ORGANIZATION 

Marketing mediums. — The commission house is still the principal 
single marketing medium for New England cotton mills making 
colored-yarn goods ready for the market, and for some important 
gray-goods mills which finish their own goods and market these 
through commission houses or through their own sales departments 
with headquarters in New York. A majority of other gray-goods 
mills sell their products direct to the converting trade and the large 
cutting-up trade through brokers. A few mills have New York 
selling offices, but their sales representatives sell largely through 
outside brokers. The commission houses that sell the gray-goods 
products of a few New England mills also sell in part through out- 
side brokers. 

In the case of mills whose product is sold through commission 
houses, selling methods are wholly in the hands of the selling agents. 

Advertising. — The commonest medium of advertising was said to 
be the trade journal ; a few manufacturers reported the use of news- 
paper advertising, and several of them advertised their product by 
means of direct mail. 

The average advertising costs, as reported by 70 representative 
mills, was two-tenths of 1 per cent of the aggregate value of their 



316 INDUSTRIAL STRUCTURP] OF NEW ENGLAND 

sales in 1925, while the reported selling costs, exclusive of advertis- 
ing, were 3.4 per cent. 

Use of trade-marks. — Of 77 concerns which indicated their prac- 
tice regarding the use of trade-marks, there were 40 which identified 
all or a portion of their product by this means. Almost an equal 
number, 37 concerns, stated that none of their goods were trade- 
marked. Of those which made use of trade-marks, 15 reported that 
their entire output was so identified. In numerous cases the manu- 
facturer reported that his concern did no advertising, but that the 
product of the mill was trade-marked as a whole or in part. 

Sales plans. — Typical examples of general sales plans in use by 
representative mills were obtained from a few leading executives. 
A number of these plants which ,sold their products solely through 
selling agents required no special sales organization. While it is 
apparent that many mills find such arrangement satisfactory, it is 
evident that millmen are not unanimous on this score, as is indicated 
in the following statement from one mill executive : 

Our product is sold exclusively through one commission house, with whom 
we are under contract to dispose of our entire product. We feel, however, that 
at the present time this is one of the greatest problems, and there is a very 
open question in our minds as to whether we are pursuing the best policy under 
the present market conditions. Our commission house has eight salesmen who 
are paid on a salary basis, and each man is assigned a definite section of the 
United States to cover. In Chicago and Boston we have branch offices with 
two local people in each office. 

Sales plans followed by some large mills which have their own 
selling organization are indicated, along with reference to significant 
changes which they are facing, in the following statements by execu- 
tives of typical mills : 

1. The general sales plan which our mills have been following since Septem- 
ber 1, 1926, is to sell goods under our own name with our own merchandising 
organization. Our former commission house, however, is continuing as selling 
agents, and as such is manager of our merchandising department. At the pres- 
ent time we have approximately 50 salesmen who are classed as such, and they 
are paid a straight salary. We are making changes in the matter of assigning 
territories, so that I do not know that we would have anything of special interest 
to contribute. The change in the character of product and demand for textile 
fabrics has brought about the necessity of a radical change in our merchandising 
and selling methods, and this we are putting into effect just as fast as condi- 
tions will permit. 

2. Our general sales plan is to sell our product principally through the office 
of a New York company, which is maintained for that purpose. Sales are made 
almost entirely through that office to converters. We do not attempt to sell 
through jobbers, wholesalers, or retail stores, and our goods are put out almost 
entirely in the gray form, not finished. There are only a few salesmen, and 
their market Is almost — practically entirely — New York City amongst the con- 
verting trade, which is centered there. 

3. We have a very small line of customers, selling only to the cutting-up 
trade. Maintain offices In Chicago, New York, and Hyde Park, handling all 
employees on a salary basis. Have a commission agent in Los Angeles who does 
a limited business. Do do advertising, but plan on keeping in direct touch with 
our customers and giving them the best service possible. 

4. We have five regular salaried salesmen and two commission men. Our 
market Ls three-fourths In the jobbing trade. Being a small organization, we 
have maintained the personal touch, both in the assigning of territories and in 
the studying of the market ; while we believe that the compensation of salesmen 
should be based on gross profits from their sales, we have not yet made the 
change from direct salaries to that form of compensation. 



TEXTILES 317 

5. Our products are sold through salesmen traveling from branch offices where 
warehousing facilities arc maintained. The branch managers continue to sell 
and arc always picked from our more experienced salesmen. There is no par- 
ticular plan for the assigning of territories. Geographic considerations, trans- 
portation, personality, and efficiency of branch offices have their bearing. All 
salesmen work on budgeted quotas and receive with branch-office managers 
bonuses based on the excess of their quotas. Contests and prizes are used to 
sustain interest, enthusiasm, and initiative. Market conditions are studied by 
salesmen's reports, investigations made through advertising agencies and others, 
by specially detailed salesmen, and by curves and tendencies as shown through 
statistics accumulated and tabulated in a department one of whose important 
functions is precisely that. 

We have in the New York office five salesmen who cover the eastern section 
of the country. We have one agent in Cuba and one agent in the Philippine 
Islands. In the Chicago office we have two salesmen who cover the Chicago 
territory and the section west of Chicago. While every salesman has his own 
territory, it is the policy in some sections to have two salesmen, and they alter- 
nate in making calls on the trade. They are all paid a certain fixed salary, plus 
a commission on sales. 

CHANGES REPORTED IN DEMAND AND IN DISTRIBUTION METHODS 

The opinion of leading mill executives regarding the extent to 
which changes in the nature of demand and in buying policies in 
recent years have affected the operations of New England cotton 
mills are indicated in the statements from a few of the numerous re- 
plies to a special inquiry. While the opinion of some executives was 
that changes in consumer demand had had no appreciable effect on 
their business, a number of them indicated an outstanding influence 
on mill operation. 

The lack of forward buying in connection with the general change 
toward hand-to-mouth purchasing was emphasized in one case as 
working a distinct handicap as far as profits are concerned during 
the period of the rapidly falling cotton market of the last few years. 
A mill which formerly received orders on certain lines only twice a 
year finds that now orders come in every week, and that where it 
formerly put out sample lines at stated periods, with very little new 
designing between seasons, it now finds that its designing room, 
which is claimed to be larger than that of any other firm in its 
particular lines, is continually buried by demands for new ideas and 
new patterns. 

A manufacturer of fabrics for hospital use reports that in conse- 
quence of the great fluctuations of cotton prices hospitals which used 
to contract for six months or a year now contract for only a 3-month 
supply at a time. In the sale of cheesecloth this mill regards the 
hand-to-mouth buying of retailers and wholesalers as a good thing 
for the trade, because it flattens out production and sales curves, thus 
making operating and employment conditions more stable. The 
executive sees a tendency on the part of large consumers to desire 
more permanent relations with their sources of supply, on the basis 
of continuing contracts or other means for assuring regular supplies. 

The executive of a mill making ginghams states that the rapid 
changing of fashions and styles has resulted in buying in very small 
quantities. On account of the time required for manufacture — some 
three months from designing to finishing — there is a consequent ex- 
cessive expense for distribution along with the natural diminution 
of total sales. 



318 INDUSTRIAL STRUCTURE OF NEW ENGLAND 

The executive of a plant engaged in the manufacture of mechani- 
cal fabrics, including fabric and cord for the automobile-tire industry, 
states that the general adoption of the cord tire and balloon tire \ 
few years ago made obsolete a very large proportion of its equip- 
ment, which was designed to make canvas for tires. Quite radical 
changes and additions to equipment were thus made necessary. This 
executive states: 

The production of the plant a few years ago was usually sold up for a year or 
even 18 months ahead ; but by reason of the adoption of a hand-to-mouth buying 
policy we are fortunate now to be sold up two or three months ahead. 

A summary of the numerous problems which the changes in con- 
sumer demand and other factors have brought to New England cot- 
ton manufacturers is offered in the following extended comments of 
a leading executive : 

There has been a great change in the consumer demand and buying policy in 
the last five years ; changes in styles have been radical and frequent, more so 
than during previous periods, and buying all along the line has been what is 
termed on a hand-to-mouth basis. This has been done in order to keep inven- 
tories low and to meet the frequent changes in styles. This has made oper- 
ation of the mills more difficult, as a manufacturing program must naturally be 
laid out for several months ahead, whereas our customers have not been willing 
on the whole to buy for several months ahead. This has, therefore, shifted 
the burden of carrying stock from the buyer to the maker, and to a certain 
extent put the guessing as to what fabrics would be most salable onto the mills 
instead of the buyer. Many manufacturers in the face of this situation have 
therefore curtailed their production rather than stand the hazard of piling up 
goods. 

Another very disturbing element during the last five years has been erratic 
changes in the price of raw cotton, which has influenced buyers in their pur- 
chases and introduced serious risks in mill operations. 

Another factor has been the large increase of imported goods in the finer 
counts of yarns. This reached its peak two years ago, and has now dwindled 
off somewhat on account of adverse conditions in England. 

Another factor has been the quite general practice in the South of running 
their mills nights. The large increase in production thereby obtained, which 
is obtained at a labor cost considerably less than in the North, has taken a large 
amount of business away from the northern mills. This has led a number 
of northern mills to discontinue making lines made by southern mills, and to 
go on to new lines which have been heretofore exclusively made in the North, 
thereby increasing competition of the northern mills among themselves. 

Another factor has been the large use Of rayon, which has been the means 
of displacing a considerable amount of all cotton cloth, thereby depressing the 
price of such cloth. 

An important adverse element which has affected the manufacture of medium 
and fine cotton cloth, particularly those fabrics entering into women's wear, 
has been the change of women's styles requiring less yardage of cloth, and also 
a marked tendency to use silk wherever possible. 

All these factors combined have created many serious problems for the mills, 
which some mills have been able to meet successfully, while others have not. 

Recognition of the need for special attention by New England 
manufacturers to the selling end of their business is voiced in the 
comment of a cotton-yarn manufacturer, whose annual sales amount 
to $2,250,000. 

The principal trouble in business to-day is selling. The desire of mil). 
managers to keep mills running lias led to price cutting, though a large per- 
oentage of sales are made at a loss. Price cutting hinders rather than helps 
sales. Management Is Largely to blame for the present unsatisfactory balance 
sheets. 

Thai manufacturers are o^ivino; increased attention to the market 
end of their business and are catering actively to the demand for 



tkxtii.es 319 

specialties and novelties is indicated in numerous replies. One of 
the largest manufacturers of printed and finished cloth and yarn in 
New England reports the concentration of attention upon a new sell- 
ing policy. A manufacturer of bed comfortables doing a $3,000,000 
business reported the consolidation of selling activities and the open- 
ing of a plant in the Middle West. The executive of a mill making 
ginghams and other piece goods, doing a $5,000,000 business, reports 
that decreased sales due to changed styles have been offset by catering 
to the popularity of silk and rayon fabrics. This concern sells its 
goods under its own trade-mark through a commission agent. An- 
other large company making velvets and corduroys states that better 
selling and new lines of fabric have taken business from their com- 
petitors. 

A manufacturer of handkerchief materials, shirtings, and voiles 
credits increased sales to better sales organization ; while a manufac- 
turer of absorbent gauze and cotton bandaging attributes increased 
sales to more intensive selling and a better product. A mill making 
coat linings reports also that its own efforts and those of its selling 
agents have enabled the plant to run continuously. A small manu- 
facturer of cotton and rayon curtain materials reports increased sales 
in New England resulting from local sales made at the plant, and 
another mill maintains a retail store for the sale of remnants. Fre- 
quent emphasis is placed on the fact that consumer demand has 
changed the market from one of seasonal activity to one of hand-to- 
mouth buying. As a consequence, the production of cloth and yarn is 
spasmodic rather than seasonal. The replies, as a whole, indicate 
that a closer coordination is taking place between the production 
phases of cotton manufacture and the marketing of the product. 

DYEING AND FINISHING TEXTILES 

The processes of dyeing, bleaching, mercerizing, printing, and 
finishing textiles are carried on mainly in establishments apart from 
the mills w T hich spin yarn and weave cloth. The unfinished goods 
are usually sold as they come from the mills to other parties, who 
have them finished in specialized plants that have equipment for" 
performing the particular processing required for the final market. 
This work is done principally under contract at a certain price per 
yard or per pound, for* converters who purchase the goods in the 
gray from the mills. Some of the larger mills have their own dyeing 
and finishing establishments, and some others have all or a portion 
of their mill output finished for their account in outside plants. 

Dyeing and finishing plants thus do not usually buy and sell the 
goods which they prepare, but are rather sellers of their services. 
Their logical location is near the mills, which provide the market for 
these services. Nearness to the textile mills and to the market for 
the finished products has been the dominant reason for the establish- 
ment and continuance of dyeing and finishing plants in New Eng- 
land. An abundant supply of clear water for the processes of dyeing 
and bleaching has also favored their growth in this section. The 
clear streams of New England are a distinct and permanent asset 
in this respect. 

The processes require elaborate and highly specialized equipment 
for particular kinds of finishing. Most of the work done by sepa- 



320 



INDUSTRIAL STRUCTURE OF NEW ENGLAND 



rate dyeing and finishing plants is in connection with cotton manu- 
facture. In wool manufacture the prevailing practice has been to 
finish the goods at the plants where they are woven. 



IMPORTANCE OF THIS PHASE OF MANUFACTURE 

This branch of the textile industry in New England engaged the 
activities in 1925 of nearly 30,000 persons, including more than 26,000 
wage earners. It distributed in salaries and wages nearly $39,000,000 
and was a source of manufacturing revenue to the region of approxi- 
mately $62,700,000. 

Of the 147 establishments reported by the census in 1925, all but 
3 were located in Massachusetts, Rhode Island, and Connecticut. 
In these three States were 37 per cent of the persons engaged nation- 
ally in this activity. The number of establishments is approximately 
equal in Massachusetts and in Rhode Island, although the industry 
has greater importance in the former State. In Connecticut it is 
of much less consequence than in the other two States. 

Census figures for 1927 show an increase since 1925 of six es- 
tablishments, with a slight reduction in wage earners but actual in- 
crease in total wage payments. Despite a substantial falling off in 
the gross value of the product and in the outlay for materials, there 
w T as an actual increase in the reported net revenue, as indicated in 
value added by manufacture. Figures for the individual States for 
the two census years are shown in the following table. 



Dyeing and Finishing of Textiles in 


New England 


States, 


1925 and 1927 




Estab- 
lish- 
ments 


Wage 
earners 


Thousands of dollars 


State and year 


Wages 


Cost of 
materials 


Value of 
products 


Value 
added by 
manu- 
facture 


Massachusetts: 

1927 


68 
65 

62 
63 

20 
16 


13, 826 
13, 872 

9,590 
9,860 

2,551 
2,408 


16, 229 
16, 099 

11, 521 
11, 471 

3,256 
2,935 


51, 434 

87, 586 

19, 566 
21, 961 

4,812 
3,902 


84, 460 
119, 110 

44, 979 
47, 164 

11, 779 
9,875 


33, 025 


1925 


31, 524 


Rhode Island: 

1927 


25, 414 


1925 - --- 


25, 202 


Connecticut: 

1927 


6,967 


1925 


5,973 






Total: 

1927 


150 
144 


25, 967 
26, 140 


31, 006 
30, 505 


75, 812 
113,449 


141, 218 
176, 149 


65, 406 


1925 1..- .. ... 


62, 699 







i Not Including Maine, I establishment; New Hampshire, 2 establishments. 

Because of incomplete statistics for this branch of the textile inclus- 
ti \. arising from lack of a uniform basis for reporting the value of 
product and (he cost of materials in individual plants, the data from 
the census can riot be construed as strictly comparable with figures for 
other textile lines. They are presented here as reported, however, in 
order- to give an approximate idea of the status of the industry in the 
various States. These include not only the dyeing and finishing 
plants for- the cotton industry but for wool, silk, and other textiles as 
well, since the census makes no distinction in types of fabric in this 
industry. 



TEXTILES 321 

Outside New England the three States of New Jersey, Pennsyl- 
vania, and New York had about one-half the total number of persons 
engaged in this line for the whole United States. Each of these 
States had a greater number of establishments than did all New 
England, but in no one of them individually were there as many 
persons engaged. New Jersey had approximately 27 per cent of the 
national total of persons engaged in the industry, and New York and 
Pennsylvania together had 22 per cent. 

The activity in New England and these three other important 
States represents over 85 per cent of the United States total. It is 
relatively unimportant in other States. North Carolina, with 10 
establishments, and South Carolina, with 8 establishments, are the 
only other States in which more than 1,000 persons were engaged in 
1925. Several large plants have been established in these Southern 
States since that time. 

The industry in New England has followed the general trend of 
textiles, for the fortunes of dyeing and finishing plants fluctuate with 
mill activity. The maximum year in number of persons engaged 
and in salaries and wages paid was 1925. The greatest number of 
establishments and the highest net income, however, was reported in 
1923. There was a loss of 10 establishments in the 2-year interval, 
but a very slight increase in the number of persons engaged. From 
1914 to 1919 there was an increase of 29 establishments and an in- 
crease of 3,200 in number of persons engaged. 

From 1914 to 1925 the number of wage earners in this line in- 
creased 24 per cent in New England, in comparison with a national 
increase of 46 per cent. From 1923 to 1925 the number of wage 
earners in New England increased by less than 1 per cent, while for 
the United States as a whole the increase amounted to 11.6 per cent. 

EXPERIENCES OF NEW ENGLAND PLANTS 

The following summary of statements received from executives 
representing a portion of this industry in New England is presented 
to show the recent experiences of concerns engaged in dyeing and 
finishing textiles: 

Type of operation. — Of 33 firms giving information regarding 
plant operations, the greater part were engaged in dyeing, bleach- 
ing, and finishing cotton cloth, but 9 of them devoted their activities 
exclusively to yarns. Most of these establishments have been en- 
gaged in this kind of activity since their start. 

Age of business. — Eight of the reporting firms had been established 
within the last 15 years, and 9 of them between 15 and 50 years. 
There were 8 plants that had been in operation over 50 years, and 4 
others were more than 100 years old. Fifteen of the establishments 
had been under the present management less than 15 years, 6 of them 
from 15 to 25 years, and 8 of them over 25 years. 

Branches. — Only four companies reported any branches; one of 
these has a branch in the Middle West and another branch in the 
South, established in 1911 and 1922, respectively; another concern 
reports a branch in Philadelphia, established in 1912; one company 
has a branch in Rhode Island, while another is a branch of a New 
Jersey company. 

Plant activity. — Twenty-six companies which gave figures regard* 
ing their 1925 activity reported an aggregate income of approxi- 



322 INDUSTRIAL STRUCTURE OF NEW ENGLAND 

mately $18,750,000 and had an average employment of 5,094 workers. 
Fifteen of these firms had an annual income in 1925 of less than 
$500,000 each, and 11 of them had over $500,000; of the former, the 
income of 8 was under $100,000 each and that of 7 others was between 
$100,000 and $500,000; of the larger companies, 7 did a business 
between $500,000 and $1,000,000, and 4 were over a million ; 3 of these 
exceeded $2,000,000, and 1 of them approached $4,000,000. The 10 
largest companies account for over 80 per cent of the total income for 
the 26, and more than 90 per cent of the total employment ; 12 firms 
employed fewer than 50 workers each, 11 of them between 50 and 250 
workers, and 6 between 250 and 1,000 workers. 

Changes in the aggregate income of 23 concerns giving continuous 
figures from 1923 to 1925 are shown by the following totals : For 
1923, $17,844,000; for 1924, $15,251,000; for 1925, $18,749,000. Prac- 
tically all these companies showed an increase in income from 1921 
to 1923; 16 showed a decrease from 1923 to 1924, and 7 showed an 
increase from 1924 to 1925. Twelve establishments reported that 
they were operating in 1925 at from 75 per cent to 100 per cent of 
their maximum capacity ; 9 firms from 50 per cent to 75 per cent ; and 
2 concerns at less than 50 per cent of the maximum. Seven establish- 
ments reported increases in the capacity of their plants since 1921, 
4 of these being 25 per cent each, 2 others 50 per cent each, and 1 
increased 100 per cent. 

Materials used. — The principal materials reported by these manu- 
facturers are chemicals for bleaching and dyeing, starches and other 
finishing material, soaps, oils, chlorine gas and lime, besides boxes, 
paper, and lumber for cases. 

Distribution of output. — The replies indicate that all these con- 
cerns operated for textile manufacturers or converters on a contract 
basis, by the yard, pound, or piece, often shipping the finished product 
to the converters' customers. Three of the establishments sell yarn 
in addition to their commission finishing, and each of these reported 
the use of trade-marks on their product. Fifteen of the companies 
reported the use of trade journals with a national circulation as 
advertising mediums. 

Sources of business. — Regarding the principal source of their 
business, 12 firms reported that from 75 per cent to 100 per cent comes 
from clients within New England. Six others, including one of the 
largest, stated that only from 10 to 20 per cent of their activity 
was contributed by mills within New England. One concern stated 
that all of its business originated within a 100-mile radius, and an- 
other confined its whole activity to six converters in New York City. 
One manufacturer explained that the tendency to concentrate the con- 
verting of cotton and silk goods in the New York market was re- 
sponsible for the decreased activity of New England plants. 

Improvements effected. — Comments by individual manufacturers 
Regarding improvements effected in facing the problems of the in- 
dustry include in one case the introduction of a special bonus system 
for paying the entire force, and in another instance monthly meet- 
ings of foremen for joint consideration of ways to maintain and in- 
crease plant efficiency. One manufacturer speaks of the necessity of 
very close inspection of goods on account of market declines. A 
change iron) the bleaching and dyeing of cotton piece goods to fast- 



TEXTILES 



323 



color dyeing and finishing of rayon fabrics is indicated by one execu- 
tive, and another states that increases in rayons have made up for 
the decrease in cottons. Other concerns report improvements in 
working conditions, standardization of products and practices, pro- 
duction control through development of purchasing schedules, and 
maintenance of high quality of output through close inspection of 
products. 

COTTON MANUFACTURES OTHER THAN OF WOVEN GOODS 

The New England production of other cotton fabrics in addition to 
woven cotton cloth, comprising yarns for sale, thread, waste, small 
wares, and cotton lace, is of substantial importance. The aggregate 
value of its output in 1925 exceeded $180,000,000, and represented 
over one-fourth of the total value of all New England cotton manu- 
factures. The general location of establishments in these groups 
runs parallel to the location of other cotton manufactures, w 7 ith the 
greater portion of activity confined to the three southern States of 
New England. 

Statistics for yarn, thread, and cotton waste are included with 
woven goods in the census totals for cotton goods as a whole ; hence 
these individual items can not be segregated by States. Figures 
for cotton small wares and cotton lace, however, which are com- 
piled separately, are available for the individual States. 

Production and value of yarns for sale, cotton sewing thread; and 
waste, in New England as a whole, and their relation to the total for 
the United States, are shown for the census years from 1909 to 1925, 
inclusive, in the next table. 

In each of these three lines it is observed that the value of the 
New England production represents a higher proportion of the 
national production than does the quantity produced, thus indicat- 
ing the relatively higher unit value of the New England output. 

New England Production and Value of Cotton Yarns for Sale, and of 
Cotton Sewing Thread and Cotton Waste for Sale 1909-1925 





Thousands of 
pounds 


New 
England 
as per 
cent of 
United 
States 


Value in thousands 
of dollars 


New 
England 
as per 
cent of 
United 
States 


Year 


New 
England 


United 
States 
outside 

New 
England 


New 
England 


United 
States 

outside 
New 

England 


Yarns for sale: 

1925 __• 


109, 123 
113,310 
104, 393 
209, 132 
143, 329 
Ul, 788 

23, 312 

21, 164 
15, 989 
12, 163 
10, 389 
10, 279 

172, 548 
172, 783 
144, 113 
180, 639 
184, 979 
189, 496 


517, 234 
507, 416 
379, 825 
409, 070 
354, 658 
328, 583 

14, 273 
10, 481 
7,286 
14,279 
16,118 
13, 422 

244, 547 
205, 857 
127, 663 
134, 675 
132, 381 
121,017 


17.4 
18.3 
21.6 
33.8 

28.8 
30.1 

62.0 
66.9 
68.7 
46.0 
39.2 
43.7 

41.4 
45.6 
53.0 
57.3 
58.3 
61.0 


68, 178 
79, 800 
77, 742 
191, 997 
50, 075 
42, 723 

43, 912 

41, 127 
35,000 
25,231 
8,558 
8,802 

19, 137 
18, 513 
7,996 
24,166 
9,629 
7,619 


244, 882 
268, 884 
140, 813 
261, 768 
77, 289 
66, 592 

15, 964 
14, 184 
15, 202 
29, 778 
14, 359 
11, 714 

21, 480 
18, 793 
5,311 
12, 192 
4,793 
3>256 


21.8 


1923 


22.9 


1921 


35.6 


1919 


42.3 


1914_._ 


39.3 


1909 


39.1 


Cotton sewing thread: 

1925 


73.3 


1923.. 


74.4 


1921 


70.0 


1919 


45.9 


1914 


37.3 


1909 


42.9 


Cotton waste for sale: 

1925 


47.1 


1923 


49.6 


1921 


60.1 


1919 


66.5 


1914 


66.1 


1909 


70.8 







324 INDUSTRIAL STEUCTUfeE OK NEW ENGLAND 

COTTON YARN FOR SALE 

Cotton yarns produced in New England for sale had a value in 
1925 exceeding $68,000,000, representing 10.3 per cent of all cotton 
manufactures of the region. New England contributed only 22 per 
cent of the total national value, however, in contrast with 36 per cent 
in cotton manufactures as a whole. The State of Massachusetts is 
naturally the chief producer, with a produce in 1925 valued at 
$45,000,000. The output in Rhode Island had a value of about 
$9,600,000 and that of Connecticut approached $6,000,000. In 1925 
the State of North Carolina produced more than twice as much yarn 
for sale as all New England. 

Most of the yarn made by New England cotton mills is woven into 
cloth at the mill. Some mills, however, sell their whole output as 
yarn and quite a number of others whose primary product is cloth 
sell a portion as yarns. 

There are several outlets for yarns sold by New England mills. 
Some of it is sold to other mills for making woven mixtures with wool 
or silk, but much of it is used in the manufacture of sewing thread 
and of various cotton small wares, also in making cotton knit goods. 

Cotton yarn has followed the general trend of cotton-goods manu- 
facturing in New England. Its position in the national output was 
well maintained from 1909 to 1919, and it showed a substantial in- 
crease in relation to the rest of the country during the war period. 
The year of maximum production, as well as maximum value, was 
1919. In the next two years both volume and value fell off to less 
than half the 1919 figures. These both showed a substantial increase 
in 1923, with a pronounced falling off in 1925. 

Size and age of establishments. — Replies to inquiries by the De- 
partment of Commerce were received from 19 manufacturers of cotton 
yarns, embracing a total volume of sales exceeding $21,000,000 and 
giving employment to approximately 5,300 persons. Eleven of these 
concerns made and sold nothing but yarn, while 8 of them made addi- 
tional products. Their individual sales volume in 1925 ranged 
from $100,000 to $3,000,000 each. There were 8 with sales between 
$1,000,000 and $3,000,000; 7 others between $500,000 and $1,000,000; 
and 3 between $100,000 and $500,000. Four of the firms reported 
between 500 and 1,000 employees, 13 between 100 and 500, and 2 
fewer than 100 employees. 

Only 2 of the companies had been in business less than 15 years; 
bat 7 had had new management within that period, while 8 had been 
under the same management from 25 to 50 years and 1 over 50 years. 
Branch plants were reported by 3 of the companies — 1 located in 
Pennsylvania and 2 in New England — established in 1919, 1924, and 
19255. respectively. Nine of the establishments were operated at 75 
per cent or more of maximum capacity in 1925, and 3 of these 
reported full operation. Six were operating from one-half to three- 
quarters of (he maximum and 4 below one-half capacity. Additions 
to capacity of plant since 1921 were reported in two instances. 

Cha/nces i/n sales, — Fourteen of the replies Indicated significant in- 
creases in sales from 192! to 1925, and live indicated decreases. While 
decreased sales were experienced from 1923 to 1924 by all but 2 of the 
19 firm-, substantial increases were shown by 7 companies from 1923 



TEXTILES 325 

to 1925, 10 showed decreases, and 2 remained unchanged. Several 
companies made very substantial increases in 1925. The total sales 
of five large manufacturers, each with a 1925 volume between $1,- 
000.000 and $3,000,000, increased from $7,460,000 in 1923 to $9,- 
145,000 in 1925. 

Increased sales are credited by individual manufacturers to main- 
tenance of a high standard of quality, to the opening up of new sales 
territory, and to making the right material at right prices' to the 
consumer. One manufacturer reported an increase in New England 
sales as due to low prices and better salesmanship. The head of a 
concern doing a $500,000 business, which had changed its product 
from tire-fabric yarns to cotton yarns for sale, spoke of southern 
competition and of mill capacity in excess of requirements, saying : 
" Our present aim is to produce a quality that will be sought." In 
another instance a large manufacturer reports the starting of a weav- 
ing plant to take care of the surplus product of his cotton spindles. 
A manufacturer of fine cotton yarn, doing a $2,000,000 business 
says : " Our organization as a whole is constantly improving." A 
number of the replies spoke of the keen competition from outside 
New England, while a few reported competition from both New 
England and the South. 

The product of these mills was sold prevailingly in New England 
or the Middle Atlantic States. Ten of the manufacturers reported 
that from three-quarters to all of their sales were made in New Eng- 
land, while 3 indicated that from one-half to three-quarters of their 
market was in that section, and 4 stated less than half. Sales in 
New England were said, in 10 of the replies, to be decreasing, while 
5 stated they were increasing and 3 indicated no change. Six con- 
cerns reported sales in the Middle West and one in the Western 
States. Only four firms indicated direct exports, and these were 
very- slight amounts. 

Channels of distribution. — Ten of the 19 companies reported sales 
made direct to manufacturers, while 7 made sales through selling 
agents and 2 sold direct to wholesalers. One yarn manufacturer 
reached his New England trade by his own salesman, but covered 
New York and Pennsylvania through a selling agent. Twelve of the 
firms indicated that they use a single channel, while 7 employ more 
than one. 

Trade-marks and advertising. — Practice regarding the use of trade- 
marks on their yarns was evenly divided between concerns whose 
product bore an identifying brand or name and those with no trade- 
mark. In the use of advertising, also, there was no uniformity, 7 
concerns reporting the use of trade journals or direct mail and 5 in- 
dicating no advertising of any kind. 

COTTON SEWING THREAD 

The sewing-thread industry of the country is largely concentrated 
in New England, in the States of Massachusetts and Khode Island. 
New England produced about five-eighths of the national output of 
cotton sewing thread in 1925, comprising three-fourths of the 
national value. 

61232°-— 30 22 



326 INDUSTRIAL STRUCTURE OF NEW ENGLAND 

Growth of industry.— The industry has shown a continuously 
steady and healthy growth in New England. The New England 
production advanced from 43 per cent of the national total in 1000 
and a value of less than $9,000,000 to 70 per cent in 1921 and to over 
73 per cent in 1925, when its value was nearly $44,000,000. The 
manufacture of sewing thread in New England has had a steady and 
healthy growth, with no setbacks either in volume produced or in 
value of output. The 1925 production of 23,312,000 pounds was an 
increase of more than 2,000,000 pounds over 1923 and of more than 
7,000,000 pounds over 1921. The national production increased by 
61 per cent in quantity from 1921 to 1925, while that of New England 
increased only 46 per cent. In value, however, the national increase 
was only 19 per cent, while in New England the increase was more 
than 25 per cent. 

Massachusetts, the only State for which separate figures are avail- 
able, produced 13,210,000 pounds of cotton sewing thread in 1925, 
with a value of $22,467,000, contributing slightly more than half the 
New England total in that year. 

Source of materials. — Cotton yarn is the chief material used by * 
thread manufacturers, and the source is about equally divided be- 
tween New England and other sections. Replies from 11 concerns 
making sewing thread for sale to shoe and garment manufacturers or 
as spool cotton indicated that all of them purchased cotton yarn from 
other concerns rather than spinning it themselves. Each of these 
concerns was engaged solely in making thread. The total sales of 
these companies in 1925 were $8,754,000, and they employed 1,150 
workers. Nine of the 11 plants had been established within the last 
25 years and 6 of these within 12 years. 

Distribution of products. — The majority of replies reported distri- 
bution direct to the manufacturing consumer, although a few market 
their output through selling agents or wholesalers, and one company 
maintains its own sales offices and retail stores in New York and 
Middle Western States. 

Trade-marks and advertising. — The practice of using trade-marks 
appears general, all but 2 of these concerns stating that all of their 
output was branded, and the other 2 trade-marked a portion. Na- 
tional advertising was indicated in four instances, the trade journal 
being the main channel. 

Location of markets. — This product shows wide distribution. 
Seven concerns stated that their principal sales are made in New 
England and the Middle Atlantic States, while 3 others market 
their product chiefly in the Middle West and 2 concerns reported 
nation-wide distribution. Nine of these companies stated that 
sales within New England comprised 20 per cent or less of their total 
business, and only two replies indicated New England as the prin- 
cipal market. Direct exports of any consequence were reported in 
only one instance, where they amounted to 6 per cent of the com- 
pany's total business; three other plants stated that their exports 
were less than 1 per cent. Sources of competition were stated by these 
concerns to be confined to New England and the Middle Atlantic 
State-. 



TEXTILES 327 



COTTON WASTE! 



The value of the cotton waste produced in New England for sale 
in 1925 was more than $19,000,000. Massachusetts, which was the 
leading State of the country in the production of cotton waste for 
sale, contributed nearly $11,000,000 of this total and Rhode Island 
nearly $5,000,000; minor amounts came from Connecticut, Maine, and 
New Hampshire. 

Cotton waste is used principally for wiping machinery, for pack- 
ing car-wheel journals and heavy machines, and for making mop 
yarns and various other coarse textile products. The proximity of 
a market for this by-product of the cotton-goods industry provides 
a commercial outlet of substantial importance. The volume of New 
England production of cotton waste for sale has been fairly regular 
in recent years, except for a sharp drop in 1921. Its value, how- 
ever, has fluctuated widely in the different census years and has 
borne little relationship to the quantity produced. The value of 
the New England output showed a moderate increase in 1925 com- 
pared with 1923, but the New England proportion of the national 
value has declined, in consequence of great increases in the output 
of other sections of the country. 

Replies from a number of concerns engaged in the processing of 
cotton and wool waste for sale indicated that the New England mar- 
ket absorbed upward of half of their output. About 70 per cent of 
the product of these reporting companies was branded. Distribu- 
tion was generally made direct to the industrial consumers, but in 
some cases it was made through wholesale and retail dealers, or 
through selling agents. 

COTTON SMALL WARES 

The cotton small-wares industry is a specialized branch of tex- 
tile manufacture which includes a considerable variety of narrow 
woven or braided fabrics, such as webbing, elastic and nonelastic 
tapes and cords, also mill banding, buffing wheels, fabric belts and 
belting, garment trimmings, edgings, figure labels, as well as flat 
and round braids, shoe laces, and corset laces. Most of these products 
are made in separate establishments, but a small portion of the 
total is included with other cotton goods. The industry contains a 
relatively large number of medium-sized or small plants in compari- 
son with the other cotton manufactures of New England. Although 
the value of these products made in separate establishments com- 
prised only 7 per cent of all New England cotton manufactures in 
1925, yet the national importance of this industry is indicated in the 
fact that New England contributes more than 60 per cent of the total 
United States output of cotton small wares. Outside of New 
England the important States are Pennsylvania, New York, Georgia, 
and New Jersey, in the order given. 

The product of 140 New England establishments in this industry 
was valued, in 1925, at nearly $45,000,000, engaging the activities 
of more than 11,000 persons, who were paid more than $12,000,000 
in wages and salaries. The industry added more than $20,000,000 
to the New England manufacturing income. It provided a market 
for materials amounting to nearly $25,000,000, including fuel, power, 
and mill supplies, in addition to textile materials. Southern New 



328 



INDUSTRIAL STRUCTURE OF NEW ENGLAND 



England is the seat of this industry, Rhode Island leading in 1925 
with 66 establishments, which contributed nearly 40 per cent of the 
New England total. Connecticut surpassed Massachusetts in output, 
although the latter State had more than three times as many estab- 
lishments engaged in this line. Its importance in the various 
States is shown in the following table. 

Importance of Cotton Small-Wakes * Industry in New England in 1925 





Estab- 
lish- 
ments 


Persons 
engaged 


Thousands of dollars 


States 


Wages 

and 
salaries 


Co§t of 
materials 


Value of 
products 


Value 
added by 
manu- 
facture 


Rhode Island.- _ 


66 
16 
52 
6 


4,704 

3, 085 
2,943 

288 


5,221 

3,610 

3,101 

316 


10, 117 

7,144 

6,952 

502 


17, 845 
13, 641 
12, 375 
1,040 


7,728 


Connecticut 


6,728 


Massachusetts 


5,423 


New Hampshire. - 


539 






New England 


140 

230 


11,020 

17, 778 


12, 248 
19, 801 


24. 715 
41,816 


44, 901 
74, 675 


20,418 


United States 


32, 859 







1 Small wares reported as secondary products bv establishments engaged primarily in other industries 
for the whole United States in 1925 amounted to $5,600,000. 

Materials and products. — The principal textile materials used in 
this industry are cotton yarns and domestic short-staple raw cotton, 
with some silk and rayon and rubber thread. This industry in 
1925 in the whole country consumed 21,339,000 pounds of raw cot- 
ton and 42,734,000 pounds of purchased yarn. It thus appears that 
about two-thirds of the industry buys yarns manufactured by other 
establishments, while one-third spins its own yarn from the raw 
cotton. A portion of the purchased yarn comes from New England 
mills, but a considerable part of it comes from outside New Eng- 
land. 

The most important single product is woven elastic webbing, 
whose value in Rhode Island, Connecticut, and Massachusetts in 
1925 exceeded $20,000,000. Its volume in that year was 14,034,000 
pounds, showing a substantial increase in weight from 1923 but a 
reduction in linear yardage as well as a reduction in total value. 
For the country as a whole the value of all cotton small wares 
showed an increase of 2 per cent in this period in the value of the 
product but a falling off of 5 per cent in the value added by manu- 
facture. 

Prod/action and sales practices. — Replies to special inquiries re- 
garding production and sales practices were received from 57 New 
England manufacturers of cotton small wares with aggregate sales 
of $27,887,000 and a total employment of 5,125 workers. They 
represented 57 per cent of the New England total for this industry 
in that year. Thirty of these concerns were engaged primarily in 
making elastic or nonelastic webs, braids, or tapes, while 19 other 
plants were makers of shoe laces and other lacings as their sole or 
main product. Secondary lines reported by individual companies 
include the making of specialties for radio and other electrical 
equipment, sleevings, lamp wicks, cotton neckwear, trimmings, and 
notion-. Two concerns reported also job dyeing and converting of 



TEXTILES 329 

yarn as supplementary activities, and one firm manufactures broad 
silk cloth as a side line. 

Size and age of establishments. — The small-scale operation in this 
industry is indicated by the fact that the majority of these estab- 
lishments employed fewer than 50 workers each. Twelve firms re- 
ported from 25 to 50 persons, and 12 others employed from 50 to 
100 workers each. Of the larger companies, 6 firms had a pay roll 
of upward of 100 workers each, and 4 of these exceeded 200 workers 
each : 2 of these companies had over 500 employees, and 1 of them 
over 1,000. The four largest establishments employed nearly three- 
fifths of the total workers reported. Sales in 1925 of less than 
$100,000 each w T ere reported by 23 manufacturers, and in 14 of these 
they were under $50,000. Sales in excess of $100,000 were reported 
by 34 concerns, 8 of these exceeding $500,000 each, and 6 of them 
over $1,000,000 each. Sales of the 6 largest firms made up two- 
thirds of the total for the 57 companies. 

The replies indicated that this industry is of much more recent 
development in New England than the cotton-goods industry in 
general, and that considerable readjustment has been taking place 
recently. The majority of the plants reporting were established 
within the last 25 years. Thirty-two had come into existence with- 
in 15 years and 21 of these wdthin 10 years. In 17 plants a change 
in management had taken place within 10 years. Of the manufac- 
turers of shoe laces, the oldest one reporting under present man- 
agement goes back only 21 years. Only five of the other cotton 
small-ware manufacturers had been under their present manage- 
ment longer than 25 years, the oldest one being 41 years. 

Branch plants were reported by 9 of the companies; 6 of these 
are in New England, 1 in Tennessee, 1 in Michigan, 1 in Califor- 
nia, and 1 in Canada. 

Changes from original products. — Most of the companies indi- 
cated no changes from the original use of their plants. Two firms 
had discontinued shoe laces; another had changed from shoe manu- 
facturing to shoe laces; one had changed from making shoe goods 
to nonelastic webbing; one made a different type of webbing; and 
another had added new automotive lines. One manufacturer dis- 
continued the spinning of yarn because he found it cheaper to 
buy yarn from the South. 

Sales volume and plant activity. — The aggregate volume of sales 
of 41 concerns making small wares other than shoe laces in 1923 
was $23,700,000; in 1924 it was $19,875,000, and in 1925 it was 
$22,700,000, thus showing a reduction in their total of approxi- 
mately $1,000,000 from 1923 to 1925. Over this 2-year period the net 
change for 38 of these concerns wdiich gave continuous sales figures 
included 22 companies whose sales increased, 14 which decreased, 
and 2 which remained unchanged. Of the total number of 57 re- 
porting concerns which indicated the ratio of their production 
in 1925 to the maximum capacity in that year, there were 29 
which reported operations from 75 per cent to 100 per cent, and 
6 of these were operating their plants at the maximum; there were 
22 others operating at 50 per cent to 75 per cent and 6 others 
below 50 per cent of their maximum producing ability. The ratio 
of output to maximum capacity in 1925 showed an average of 68 per 
cent for all plants reporting. 



330 



INDUSTRIAL STRUCTURE OF NEW ENGLAND 



Markets. — It appears that the majority of the cotton small wares 
find a market outside New England. Fifteen companies stated that 
their principal market was in the Middle Atlantic States and 2 
reported national distribution. Out of 43 firms indicating the pro- 
portion of sales made in New England, 35 of them stated that less 
than one-half of their sales were in this section, and only 8 reported 
the majority of their sales there. Twenty-two firms indicated the 
presence of keen competition from within the New England States, 
while only 12 mentioned competition elsewhere — 3 of these stating 
the Middle Atlantic States and 3 of them the South. 



COTTON LACE AND LACE PRODUCTS 

Machine-made cotton-lace goods and articles in which cotton lace 
is largely used comprise one of the minor textile industries of New 
England. The cotton-lace industry in these States is estimated to 
engage the activities in 1925 of some 2^000 persons, paying about 
$1,750,000 in wages and salaries and adding about $3,500,000 to the 
New England income from manufacturing. It provided a market 
for various materials, including fuel and supplies, estimated at 
$2,684,000. Nearly all the mills in this industry purchase their 
yarns. Imported yarns are used chiefly in making Nottingham and 
Levers lace, and in bobbinet machines. 

Cotton lace. — There were 15 lace-making establishments in New 
England reported in the 1925 census. Separate figures were given 
for only nine establishments in Rhode Island, whose product had a 
value of nearly $3,000,000. By apportioning the figures for the 6 
establishments in Connecticut and 1 in Massachusetts from the 
undistributed United States total, the importance of the industry for 
New England as a whole appears as shown in the following table. 
In this activity New England is greatly overshadowed by Pennsyl- 
vania, which contributed more than 60 per cent of the national value. 
New York State also surpassed Rhode Island. Rhode Island pro- 
duced approximately one-half of the national output of Levers laces, 
its product amounting to 4,481,000 square yards, valued at $2,963,000. 

Cotton Lace Goods in New England, 1925 and 1927 



State and year 


Estab- 
lish- 
ments 


Wage 
earners 


Wages 


Cost of 
materials 


Value of 
product 


Value 
added by 
manufac- 
ture 


Rhode Island: 

1927 


10 
9 
6 


846 
733 
459 


$927, 298 
825, 000 
533, 832 


$1, 143, 037 

1, 243, 000 

505, 978 


$2. 792, 670 
2, 973, 000 
1,474,993 


$1, 649, 633 


1925.. 


1, 730, 000 


Connecticut: > 1927 


969, 015 







1 There were 6 establishments in Connecticut in 1925. 

Replies: to special inquires were received from eight New England 
establishments making lace, representing a total employment of 384 
workers and sales in 11)25 of $1,750,000. Three of these concerns were 
located in Rhode Inland. 3 in Connecticut, and 1 each in Massa- 
chusetts and New Hampshire. All these concerns were of compara- 
tively recent origin, the oldest one being only 15 years under its pres- 



TEXTILES 331 

ent management. Several made supplementary products in addition 
to lace, the principal ones being curtains, bedspreads, woven trim- 
mings, edgings, fancy braids, and the finishing of silk piece goods. 
Five of these concerns had individual sales of less than $100,000, and 
three of them did a volume of business between $200,000 and $400,000 
each. Only two companies gave employment to more than 50 persons 
each. 

The aggregate sales volume of these eight concerns was $1,809,000 
in 1923, $1,472,000 in 1924, and $1,750,000 in 1925. Five of the com- 
panies reported operations in 1925 at less than one-half their maxi- 
mum capacity and three had from 50 to 85 per cent of maximum. 
The largest firm reporting, and the only large company whose sales 
showed a continuous growth, increased its business by the addition 
of silk finishing to its main line of lace making. 

Reasons generally given for decreased sales were the lessened de- 
mand for laces for wearing apparel and household fabrics and the 
competition from the low-cost imported goods. One manufacturer 
says, " Women wear much less lace, and it can be imported cheaper 
than we can make it." 

Several reported that they made no sales in New England, and all 
but one indicated that New England sales represent only a small por- 
tion of their business. The principal sales channels are through 
wholesalers and the cutting-up trade to dress and hat manufacturers 
and to embroiderers. Sales are made largely through New York 
City. One small firm expressed the intention of selling by mail direct 
to consumers. As regards improvements, one of the three large 
concerns reported a consolidation of selling activities, while another 
had introduced new sales methods and new products, and a third 
small establishment spoke of emphasis upon better quality and a 
lessened cost of production. 

Curtains and draperies. — The manufacture of goods in which lace 
is an important material shows some interesting contrasts with the 
making of lace itself. Replies from concerns making lace curtains, 
scrim, marquisette, and novelty curtains, overdrapes, and curtain 
piece goods showed aggregate sales of 12 reporting companies 
amounting to $4,219,000 in 1923, $5,111,000 in 1924, and $6,886,000 
in 1925. Ten of these companies were located in eastern Massa- 
chusetts and one each in Connecticut and Rhode Island. Five of 
them had been in business 10 years or less, 5 others between 10 and 
20 years, and 2 more than 25 years. With one exception all had been 
under the same management since their start. Two of the establish- 
ments reported individual sales of less than $100,000 and 6 as be- 
tween $100,000 and $500,000, while 2 large concerns had sales between 
$500,000 and $1,000,000, and 1 more than $3,000,000. 

The average employment of 5 of these concerns was fewer than 50 
persons, of 5 others between 50 and 100 persons, while the largest 
company had 650 workers on its pay roll. Two of the concerns 
reported making piece goods and sheeting in addition to curtains. 
Of 10 replies regarding the ratio of 1925 output to maximum capac- 
ity, 5 concerns were running at full capacity, 4 at 75 per cent 
to 80 per cent, and 1 at 60 per cent. Eight of the concerns had 



332 INDUSTRIAL STEUOXUBB pF XKW KNGLAND 

a continuous net increase of sales from 1923 to 1925, and there were 
10 whose sales showed an increase since 1924. In comparison with 
the cotton-lace industry, therefore, these manufacturers of curtains 
and other lace products showed decided prosperity. 

Five companies indicated that the greater part of their product 
was sold in New England, while 9 indicated that not more than one- 
third of their sales were in those States. Five companies had their 
principal market in the Middle Atlantic States and 4 reported 
national distribution ; others mentioned market outlets in the Middle 
West, the Southern States, and the far Western States. Three man- 
ufacturers stated that their New England sales were on the increase, 
and one of these indicated a marked growth of business in that sec- 
tion. A maker of ruffled curtains stated that he thought t >.e Middle 
West a better selling market. Decreased sales in New England were 
reported as due to a change in selling policy, while another manu- 
facturer stated that the demand for low-cost goods had decreased 
his New England sales. 

The majority of the manufacturers in this line sell their products 
direct to retailers ; 10 replies indicated this channel, while 2 reported 
sales to wholesalers. Several manufacturers stated that their entire 
output was branded, while two made no use of trade-marks. The 
employment of advertising was reported by six companies, mainly in 
the form of trade journals or direct mail, with the use of local news- 
papers in one instance. Increased sales by the manufacturer of 
novelty curtains selling throughout New England and the United 
States were attributed to " hard work by salesmen, volume buying, 
and close selling." One of the concerns, operating at full capacity 
and doing a national business, with its principal market in the Middle 
West, credited its continued increase of business to " continued 
' pep '," while another manufacturer frankly blamed the small volume 
of his New England sales upon his own lack of effort to cultivate 
the market. 

The treasurer of a large and growing concern making marquisette 
curtains, scrims, and sheetings, whose business more than doubled 
since 1923, reports as follows regarding the marketing practice of 
his company : 

Our organization is a growing concern with a new idea. We have our own 
selling organization, which sells direct to jobbers and to the large retailers 
who do not buy through jobbers. Our salesmen are mostly paid a salary, 
although some have a commission which covers all their expenses. We dis- 
tribute the salesmen over the different territories, 1 taking the Pacific coast, 3 
dividing up the Western States, 1 in the Southern States, 3 in New York and 
the Central States and Canada, and 2 in Massachusetts. Besides these, two 
officers of the corporation are salesmen, who operate generally without specific 
territories. 

Another medium-sized concern manufacturing curtain materials 
maintains a salesroom and display department in New York City. 

From the replies of manufacturers of curtains and curtain goods, 
this industry appears to show pronounced prosperity. It affords 
an example of success attained by catering to the popular demand 
for a new type of manufactured product, which can be marketed by 
direct merchandising methods, 



TEXTILES 



333 



WOOL MANUFACTURES 



RELATIVE IMPORTANCE OF INDUSTRY 



Although the wool manufactures of New England are surpassed 
in volume by cotton manufactures, the former are of much greater 
national significance. New England contains approximately one-half 
of all the wool-manufacturing establishments of the United States 
and contributed 54 per cent of the value of the national output in 
1925. In the manufacture of woolen and worsted goods, which are its 
principal wool products, New England contributed 64 per cent of the 
total value and 65 per cent of the national income from this branch 
of manufacture. The wool manufactures contributed 11 per cent 
of the total value of all manufactured products of this region in 
1925 and represented about 8.5 per cent of the total New England 
income derived from all manufacturing activity. 

The 538 New England wool establishments added to the revenue 
of the region not far from $250,000,000, and their product had a 
value exceeding $660,000,000. Of this income more than $153,000,000 
was distributed in wages and salaries to some 120,000 persons who 
were engaged in its various activities. The importance of the va- 
rious lines of wool manufacture in 1925 and 1927 is indicated by the 
following table. 

Wool Manufacture in New England. 1925 and 1927 





Estab- 
lish- 
ments 


Wage 
earners 


Thousands of dollars 


Commodity and year 


Wages 


Cost of 
materials 


Value of 
products 


Value 
added by 
manu- 
facture 1 


Woolen and worsted: 

1927 


418 
443 

10 
9 

17 
18 

26 
36 

12 
12 


102, 458 
106, 155 

4.473 
4,427 

1,249 
1,229 

667 
662 

568 

544 


117, 565 
142, 996 

5, 613 
5,668 

1,559 
2,004 

815 
1,161 

859 
973 


333 041 
394, 063 

10, 638 
12, 027 

6,679 
7,470 

2, 585 
3,474 

688 
880 


543,304 
614, 936 

22, 680 
23,883 

10, 653 

11, 938 

4,298 
5,216 

1,094 
2,398 


210, 264 


1925 1 


220, 274 


Carpets and rugs: 

1927 


12, 043 


1925 2 


11, 836 


Felt goods: 

1927 


3,974 


1925 3. . 


4,469 


Reworked wool: 

1927 


1,712 


1925 4 


1,743 


Wool scouring: 

1927 


405 


1925 5 


1,518 






Total: 

1927 


483 

518 

1,044 

49.6 


109, 415 
113,017 
207, 586 

54.4 


126, 410 
152, 802 
283, 335 

53.9 


353, 632 
418, 514 
768, 391 

54.5 


582, 029 

658, 371 

1, 217, 322 

54.1 


228, 397 


1925 6 


239, 860 


Total United States, 1925 


448, 879 


New England as per cent of United States 
in 1925 


53.4 







1 Excluding 4 worsted establishments in New Hampshire and 1 in Vermont. 

2 Massachusetts only, excluding 1 establishment in Connecticut. 

3 Excluding 2 establishments in Maine, 2 in New Hampshire, and 2 in Rhode Island. 

4 Excluding 2 establishments in Maine and 2 in Vermont. 

5 Excluding 1 establishment in Connecticut and 1 in Rhode Island. 

6 Exclusive of 20 establishments. 

The principal item, woolen and worsted goods, represents over 90 
per cent of all New England wool manufactures, with a product 
approximating $615,000,000 in gross value in 1925 and a contribution 
of more than $220,000,000 to the income of the region. In this branch 



334 



INDUSTRIAL STRUCTURE OF NEW KXOLAND 



there were 448 establishments, which engaged the activities of more 
than 111,600 persons. There were also 40 concerns for reworking 
wool and 14 establishments engaged in wool scouring. 





/ 


i \ 




X 5' 


1 WmWSW'1 1 






Ji 




pi) 


W • * ,-L-^ tGRAFTOt 




• \C 






r ' 


P W <'t-i|*/ U. ♦ (|j| • 






BCnnino r aJ—~_^— 






'l 1 


' " V*' Steffi: 


LOCATION OF ESTABLISHMENTS 
» MAKING 

23 WOOLEN and WORSTED GOODS 


W FRANKLIN \v*OR \£VDDLCS£X # \l^J * • « 


li : : /Yrr^i • • • ' : '*'. *• ^ : vera 1 ** 


NEW ENGLAND STATES 

1927 




1 § . J^) HA^P&HF^*- -) * * • * ' 




j^DOK AND FIGURES SHOH NUMBER IN EACH COUNTY 




LiTCHFifLD ]^-/ufirropc\ r() '- l * N f-^ WIND. 








, y B ARN5rABU 1 


x's' 




(ba4'tzo-4i) 



Figure 40 



Besides these there were 2G concerns making felt goods and felt 
hatfi from wool and hair, with a product exceeding $12,000,000 in 
value. The manufacture of wool carpets and nigs was represented 
by 10 concerns, with a product estimated at more than $25,000,000 
in value. 



TEXTILES 



335 



MATERIALS USED 

The wool industries of New England in 1925 provided a market 
for materials, including fuel, power, and supplies, in addition to the 
fibers directly used in manufacture, amounting to about $420,000,000. 

New England wool industries absorb more than one-half of the 
total raw wool consumed within the United States, The proportion 
in 1925 was 51 per cent; in 1919, 54 per cent; and in 1914, 52 per 
cent. Slightly more than one-half the wool in the grease purchased 
for New England manufacture in 1925 was of domestic origin, and 
slightly less than one-half came from foreign countries. These pro- 
portions reflect, in general, the sources for the country as a whole, 
although imported stocks in 1925 made up more than half the total 
national consumption. In addition to raw wool the industry pro- 
vides a market for a considerable volume of animal hair, cotton, re- 
covered wool fiber, waste and noils, silk, and an increasing quantity 
of rayon, as well as substantial quantities of yarns. The importance 
of the specific materials purchased for manufacture by New England 
mills in 1925, and also in 1919 and 1914, is indicated in the following 
table, which gives all the figures that are available for separate 
States, 

Principal Materials Used in New England Wool Industries in 1925, 1919, 

and 1914 

[Thousands of pounds] 



Material and States included 



Wool, in condition as purchased (Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connec- 
ticut, New Hampshire, Maine) : 

Total 

Domestic 

Foreign 

U. S. total 

Domestic 

Foreign 

Wool equivalent in scoured condition (Massachusetts, Rhode Island, 
Connecticut, Maine, New Hampshire): 

Total _.. 

U. S. total 

Waste and noils of wool mohair, etc. (Massachusetts, Maine, New Hamp- 
shire, Connecticut, Rhode Island): 

Total 

U. S. total 

Recovered wool fiber (New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Maine, Connec- 
ticut, Rhode Island): 

Total 

U. S. total -. 

Cotton (Massachusetts, Maine, New Hampshire, Rhode Island): 

Total 

U. S. total ____ 

Tops, purchased (Massachusetts, Rhode Island): 

Total 

U. S. total 

Animal hair (Massachusetts, Maine): 

Total . 

U. S. total 

Yarns, purchased (Massachusetts, Connecticut, Rhode Island, Maine, 
New Hampshire) : 

Total 

U. S. total 



1925 


1919 


274, 644 
143, 044 
131, 600 
555, 263 
261, 893 
293, 370 


» 266, 684 

:1 137, 131 

i 129, 552 

491, 728 

253, 838 

237, 890 


169, 704 
351, 067 


i 164, 387 
295, 388 


37, 986 
59, 815 


4 26, 469 
51, 481 


29, 356 
40, 345 


5 24, 887 
37, 532 


19, 166 

40, 188 


6 9, 727 
22, 683 


32, 585 
46, 360 


18, 852 
26, 467 


14, 125 
69, 518 


s 15, 489 
54, 340 


80, 682 
237, 579 


60, 074 
171,915 



2 262, 768 

« 149, 198 

i 113, 570 

502, 857 

277, 588 

225, 269 



* 157, 603 
307, 706 



* 19, 553 
50, 350 



I 13, 574 
30, 159 



s 17, 004 
35, 307 



19, 332 

29, 178 



* 9, 200 
44, 131 



72, 801 
214, 451 



1 Excluding 6 establishments. 

2 Excluding 7 establishments. 

3 Excluding 3 establishments. 



1 Excluding 4 establishments. 
> Excluding 2 establishments. 
5 Excluding 1 establishment. 



336 



INDUSTRIAL STRUCTURE OF NEW ENGLAND 



Principal Materials Used in New England Wool Industries in 1925, 1919 

and 1914 — Continued 



[Thousands of pounds] 








Material and States included 


1925 


1919 


1914 


Yarns purchased (Massachusetts, Connecticut, Rhode Island, Maine, 
New Hampshire) — Continued. 
Worsted (Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut)— 

Total 


35, 353 
53, 820 

3,337 
37, 246 

24, 093 
52,001 

7,882 
85, 460 

1,598 
2,543 

215, 304 

718, 845 


30, 124 
47, 127 

3,316 
25, 759 

6 23, 119 
46,039 

2,938 
47, 389 

6,848 
39, 990 

243, 463 
542, 587 


3 38, 528 
62, 895 


U. S. total 


Woolen (Massachusetts)— 

Total 


3,986 


U. S. total 


23, 802 
" 23,410 


Cotton (Massachusetts, Connecticut, Maine, Rhode Island, New 
Hampshire)— 
Total ■_ 


U.S. total . 


56,988 
4,790 


Jute and other (Massachusetts)— 

Total 


U. S. total 


61, 653 
( 8 ) 


Rayon (Massachusetts)— 

Total 


U. S total 


( 8 ) 


Silk and spun silk (Massachusetts, Rhode Island): 
Total T 


311,778 


U. S. total 


794, 693 







3 Excluding 3 establishments. 

6 Excluding 1 establishment. 

7 Excluding 5 establishments. 

8 Figures not available. 

Note.— The table includes only data for States for which separate statistics are available. 
BOSTON WOOL MARKET 

Boston is the leading wool market of the United States and of the 
Western Hemisphere, and is outranked in total volume of sales only 
by London. Through the Boston market flows over 60 per cent of 
the wool consumed in the United States. Outside of Boston, next in 
importance is Philadelphia, and lesser market centers are Chicago 
and St. Louis. Philadelphia is especially important as a market for 
carpet wools. Although attempts have been made to develop wool- 
marketing centers in New York and Chicago, these places have 
never been able to cope with the advantages that have built up 
Boston's dominant j:>osition. 

The preeminence of Boston as a market for raw wool is the 
logical result of its economic position. This is the most con- 
veniently located center with respect to wool consumption. Prac- 
tically all the large wool mills of New England are within a day's 
rail or trucking distance from Boston. There is an unusual combi- 
nation of port facilities and storage capacity, with abundant ware- 
house space adjacent to tidewater for receiving and storing both 
foreign and domestic wool. Boston has sufficient warehouse space 
at the water front for an entire year's wool clip of the United 
States. Numerous public warehouses are available for storing im- 
ported wool, which is graded, for the most part, in the country of 
origin. In handling the domestic- clip, where large floor space is 
required lor opening and grading the wool, the great private ware- 
house- are available. 

On account of the great variation in grades of wool, not only be- 
tween fleeces hut, even in the same fleece, precise grading is necessary. 
The stocks of wool for consumption in the United States are there- 
fore concentrated in two or three wool centers, where they are 



TEXTILES 



337 



classified and held in stock after grading, to be drawn upon as 
needed by the manufacturers. Actual inspection before purchase 
is the general practice in the wool market ; hence, it has been found 
difficult to adhere to fixed standards as a basis for trading. No 
success has been attained in establishing a market for wool futures 
as has been done in cotton futures. 

The Boston wool market not only serves as a reservoir for sup- 
plying the manufacturer's needs but also serves largely to finance the 
wool clip of the entire country. A large part of the United States 
production is handled by dealers on a consignment basis. This 
usually means a cash advance to the growers, running up to 60 
per cent of the value. The cooperative marketing of wool by the 
growers is as yet relatively unimportant. According to the United 
States Department of Agriculture, a total of only about 20,000,000 
pounds of domestic wool was marketed through growers' coopera- 
tives in 1927, representing approximately 6 per cent of the United 
States wool clip of that year. 

The importance of the Boston wool market in the country's wool 
industry is indicated in the following table of annual wool con- 
sumption in the United States, and of Boston receipts and ship- 
ments, as compiled by the Boston Grain and Flour Exchange. 

United States Consumption of Wool, 1918-1927, and Shipments and Receipts 

at Boston, 1914-1927 



Year 



Total annual United States con- 
sumption of foreign and domestic 
wools (grease equivalent, in 
thousands of pounds) 



Domestic Foreign 



Total 



Annual receipts and shipments of 
wool at Boston (grease-wool re- 
ceipts, in thousands of pounds) 



Domestic Foreign 



Total 



Shipments 
reported, 
all wools, 
thousands 
of pounds 



1927. 
1926 _ 
1925 _ 
1924 _ 
1923- 
1922 _ 
1921 _ 
1920_ 
1919_ 
1918. 
1917_ 
1916. 
1915_ 
1914_ 



311,505 

248, 525 
265, 326 
281, 964 

249, 920 
374, 666 
290, 283 
251. 295 
304, 651 
293, 142 



240, 023 
261, 508 
260, 959 
255, 796 
391, 688 
279, 460 
239, 211 
327, 543 
322, 233 
448, 575 



551, 52S 
510, 033 
526, 285 
537, 760 
641, 608 
654, 126 
529, 494 
578, 838 
626, 884 
741, 717 



218, 189 
169, 270 
131,447 
200, 239 
144, 137 
190, 952 
143, 720 
105, 707 
213. 905 
183, 297 
210, 125 
205, 195 
181, 701 
190, 731 



123, 359 
177, 661 
174, 173 
121, 785 
271, 966 
242, 856 
199, 352 
168, 357 
265, 112 
320,180 
296, 461 
234, 998 
247, 914 
144, 145 



341, 549 
346, 931 
305, 619 
322, 025 
416, 103 
433, 808 
343, 072 
274, 063 
479,017 
503, 477 
506, 586 
440, 193 
429, 615 
334, 876 



199,725 
201, 182 
168, 403 
170, 993 
148. 880 
102, 458 
115, 197 
136, 040 
149, 646 
200, 558 
279. 851 
302, 868 
272, 473 
267. 149 



The wool dealers play an important part also in financing the 
manufacturers. The prevailing terms of sale to the mills provide 
for payment in 60 days. The financing of these wool stocks to the 
growers as w T ell as to the mills is done through Boston banks, largely 
with notes and on personal security rather than through the use of 
warehouse receipts. The large financial resources of Boston banks 
and the prestige which wool dealers enjoy with them thus constitute 
an important factor in the operation of the wool market. 

The number of wool dealers and brokers in the Boston market 
is estimated to be about 300. The bulk of the domestic business is 
now carried on by 25 or 30 large houses. The generally depressed 
condition of wool manufactures since 1923 has naturally affected 
the activities and the prosperity of these dealers in the wool market. 



338 



INDUSTRIAL STRUCTURE OF NEW ENGLAND 



The Boston wool market handles not only foreign and domestic 
grease wool but also semimanufactures, consisting of tops, noils, and 
waste. Most of the large New England mills find it to their ad- 
vantage to do their own wool scouring, but some independent estab- 
lishments adjacent to the wool market do scouring for manufacturers 
or dealers on contract. 

A great deal of raw wool now moves from the Boston market to 
the mills by motor truck. The large mills have their own fleets of 
trucks and buy the wool f . o. b. Boston, thus enabling them to obtain 
immediate deliveries of the size of shipment desired for current 
manufacture. Many mills carry small stocks and depend upon the 
wool dealers to meet their current requirements, especially in the 
recent years of short-order buying. The market thus, in addition 
to warehousing and grading the wool, performs the important 
function of financing and holding it for the manufacturer's needs. 

The wool manufacturers of the country have in recent years be- 
come better organized than heretofore, as is evidenced in the for- 
mation of the Wool Institute. Through their various associations 
the woolgrowers of the country have likewise been strengthening 
their marketing position by organized effort. The wool dealers who 
stand between these two groups have thus far shown little tendency 
to organize their activities in concerted effort. The prevailing 
method of trading is by private individual sale. 

PRINCIPAL PRODUCTS 

The suitings, dress goods, overcoatings, and cloakings made by 
New England mills represented approximately two-thirds of the 
national value in 1925 and comprised about 60 per cent of the value 
of all New England wool manufactures. The value of wool yarns 
produced for sale in the four principal producing States of this 
section represented more than 53 per cent of the United States total 
for wool yarns in that year and comprised upward of 18 per cent of 
the value of all wool manufactures of New England. The quantity 
and value of the principal wool products in 1925, 1923, and 1921 are 
shown in the following table, as far as is possible to present indi- 
vidual State figures. Although not to be regarded as complete, this 
table indicates, for the major fabrics, New England's position in 
the United States production. 

Principal Products of New England Wool Industries, Quantities and 
Values, 1925, 1923, and 1921 

[All figures in thousands] 



Product and State 


1925 


1923 


1921 


Baitings, dress goods, overcoating, find cloakings (Massachusetts, 
Rhode [Bland, Maine, Connecticut, New Hampshire): 


i 180, 076 

315, 897 

$372, 750 

i $566, 675 

66, 961 
$112,969 

$211,537 


2 212, 395 
342, 901 

$437, 395 
2 $057, 308 

76, 202 
$128,027 
$253, 496 


3 165, 262 




304, 437 


\' ;) |lir. 


$335, 996 




3 $501,895 


for sale (Rhode Island, Massachusetts, Maine, Connecticut): 


55, 572 




$81,368 


U. 8. value 


$161, 427 



i Exclusive of 2 establishments. 3 Exclusive of 1 establishment. 

2 Exclu Mishments. 



TEXTILES 



339 



Principal Products of New England Wool Industries, Quantities and 

Values, 1925, 1923, and 1921— Continued 

[All figures in thousands] 



Product and State 



Satinets and linseys (Massachusetts): 

Pounds 

Square yards 

Value 

U. S. value 

Blankets, cotton warp 4 (Maine): 

Pounds 

Square yards 

Value -- 

U. S. value 

Other woolen and worsted woven goods (Massachusetts, Maine, 
Connecticut, New Hampshire): 

Pounds 

S quare yards 

Value 

U. S. value 

Carpets and rugs (Massachusetts): 

Square yards 

Value _- 

U. S. value 

Felt goods (Massachusetts, Connecticut): 

Pounds 

Value 

U. S. value.... 

Noils and wool waste (Massachusetts, Rhode Island): 

Pounds 

Value . 

U. S. value 

Other products and amounts received from contract work (Massa- 
chusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, Maine): 

Value 

U. S. value 



1925 



3, 815 
6,136 

$2, 208 
$4, 244 

4,543 

7,849 
$3, 218 
$7,411 



28, 820 
51,591 

$58, 032 
$84, 832 

8,392 
$23, 368 
$183, 008 

11,954 
$11,437 

$40, 591 

26, 967 

$10, 806 
$18, 167 



$32, 432 
$62, 513 



1923 



2,313 
3,631 

$1, 280 
$2, 278 

2,049 
3, 526 

$1,412 
$6, 149 



30, 303 

64, 876 
$51,548 
$75, 479 

9,687 
$23, 316 
$192, 157 

16, 529 

$12, 297 
$39, 889 

32, 761 
$11, 778 
$19, 362 



$25, 831 
$48, 240 



1921 



1,417 
2,737 

$864 
$1, 525 

1,888 
3,067 

$1, 506 
$6, 109 



15, 368 
39, 051 

$30, 063 
$44, 499 

8,330 
$10, 824 
$100, 038 

8,685 
$7, 130 
$22, 399 

22, 637 

$5, 959 
$9, 587 



$17, 700 
$29, 228 



4 Not including horse blankets. 

Note.— This table includes only data for States for which separate statistics are available. 

WOOLENS AND WORSTEDS 

EARLY DEVELOPMENT 

Wool manufacturing has had quite a different history in the United 
States from that of cotton manufacture because of different de- 
velopments in the manufacturing processes. Wool products form 
two distinct classes of goods, based upon different processes in spin- 
ning the yarn, which result in different types of fabrics. The proc- 
esses of weaving are practically the same for both. Goods made 
from yarn which hasi been prepared for spinning by carding the 
wool fibers form woolen fabrics. When combing processes are used 
to make the wool fibers lie parallel so as to permit spinning a hard, 
firm yarn, the product is known as worsted. The processes of manu- 
facture for these two types of yarn are quite distinct and require 
very different kinds of machinery. 

The early development of wool manufactures was mainly in the 
making of woolen goods. Worsteds did not attain commercial im- 
portance until after the invention of power machinery for combing 
wool — about 1860. 

Weaving of woolen cloth was a household industry until well 
after the beginning of the nineteenth century. The early wool mills 
were the outgrowth of fulling mills, which had been established 
as small local enterprises to prepare the coarse homespun cloth for 
wear by special processing. Fulling mills date from 1643, when 
the first one in New England was established at Rowley, Mass, 
Various others followed in Connecticut, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, 



340 INDUSTRIAL STRUCTURE OF NEW ENGLAND 

and Virginia. The first fulling mill to utilize water power was set 
up in Byfield, Mass., in 1794. 

The first American wool mill containing more than a single loom 
was established at Hartford, Conn., in 1788. This was soon followed 
by several others, and by 1810 there were 24 wool mills in the United 
States. These were all small concerns, the largest establishment 
making wool cloth, located at Humphreysville (now Seymour), 
Conn., giving employment to 150 people. After the war of 1812 
small wool mills appeared everywhere in the United States and in 
the western Territories. The early wool-manufacturing industry, 
however, had a short-lived prosperity because of the competition of 
imported British goods. 

The outstanding development of wool manufacturing as a New 
England industry dates from shortly before the Civil War period. 
Notable changes then took place in types of raw wool available for 
manufacture and in processes for making wool cloth. Previously 
almost all the wool yarn was made directly from carded stock, and 
not combed, first, because of the lack of long-stap]e wool in this 
country suitable for combing, and, second, because of the lack of 
combing machinery. The reciprocity treaty with Canada, which 
was in force from 1854 to 1866, gave this country a supply of long- 
staple wool, and about the same time a power wool -combing machine 
was invented by the British. 

The first wool-combing machine in the United States was set up at 
Lawrence, Mass., in 1854. Prior to 1860 there were only three large 
producers of worsteds in New England. The Civil War was a great 
spur to the manufacture of worsted as a material for army uni- 
forms. The scarcity of cotton also stimulated the use of wool in 
its place, and many cotton mills, finding themselves short of raw 
cotton, turned to the manufacture of worsteds. Some of these con- 
tinued making worsteds after the war. The discontinuance of the 
Canadian reciprocity treaty cut off the supply of Canadian long- 
staple wool, but the development of improved machinery for clean- 
ing wool, as well as the perfecting of combing machinery, made 
Argentine wools available for worsted manufacture. Because of 
these improvements in machinery, almost all types of wool could be 
combed by 1900, and could thus be used in the manufacture of 
worsteds. There was a continuous contest for many years between 
carded and combed fabrics as material for making men's clothing, 
but by 1890 the leadership of worsteds over woolens was definitely 
established; and by 1909 twice as much wool was used in worsted 
manufacture as in all other branches of the wool industries. Since 
the World War, however, woolens have increased in popularity at 
the expense of worsted fabrics. 

The first worsted mills were large ventures, capitalized at about 
$1,000,000 each. The average investment per mill between 1870 and 
1923 ranged from $100,000 to $500,000, while the investment in 
individual woolen mills rarely exceeded $100,000. In numbers of 
wage earners as well as output the worsted mills exceeded the woolen 
mills from three to five times. The manufacture of worsted goods 
is thus carried on mainly in large units, while the milJs making 
woolen goods are much smaller. 

The worsted mills of the country are now concentrated principally 
in Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Pennsylvania, and New Jersey; a 



TEXTILES 341 

few are located in Maine, Connecticut, and New York. The leading 
cities in this line are Lawrence, Providence, Philadelphia, and 
Passaic. The worsted industry is more localized than is cotton man- 
ufacture, and it is more complete in its organization ; the raw material 
is received and completely fabricated into cloth, generally in one 
organization. Worsted manufacture duplicates the mechanical proc- 
ess of cotton manufacturing more closely than does woolen. 

In the worsted industry labor-saving machinery has been installed 
much more generally than has been possible in the woolen mills. 
Men outnumber women in woolen manufacture by a large margin, 
while in the worsted manufacture more women are employed than 
men. Although the carded-wool business now has three times as 
much capital invested as in 1860, when it was supreme in wool manu- 
factures, it has yielded place definitely to combed wool. Woolens 
have come into increased importance, however, in the past few years. 

New England's position in the national output of these two lines 
of wool manufacture is approximately the same, its proportion of 
woolens being 63.7 per cent in 1925 and of worsteds 64.5 per cent. 
Although the number of woolen mills in New England was much 
greater than the number of worsted mills, the volume and value of 
worsted goods produced in this region was greatly in excess of the 
product of the w r oolen mills. The number of mills, however, is not 
significant. In number of establishments the New England woolen 
mills outnumbered the worsted mills by nearly 100, but in value of 
output worsteds exceeded woolens by more than $150,000,000. In 
1925 there were 273 woolen mills, which employed 45,800 workers 
and added to the New England income some $91,000,000; but 170 
worsted mills employed 65,700 workers and added to the New Eng- 
land income $129,000,000. In general, the size of woolen mills was 
thus much smaller than that of worsted mills, the average number 
of employees per woolen mill being 160, while for worsted mills it 
was 369. 

GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION 

The geographic distribution of these two branches of wool manu- 
facture varies sharply in the different States, the proportion of 
woolen mills being much greater in the three northern States than 
in the rest of New England. 

According to the Biennial Census of Manufacturers for 1925, there 
were in Vermont 16 woolen mills and only 1 worsted mill; in New 
Hampshire, 35 woolen mills and 4 worsted mills ; in Maine, 53 woolen 
mills and 9 worsted mills; while Connecticut had 35 woolen mills 
and 14 worsted mills. In Rhode Island, however, the worsted mills 
predominated in number as well as in importance, with 66 establish- 
ments employing nearly 19,000 workers, in contrast with 28 woolen 
mills with fewer than 3,300 workers. In Massachusetts there were 81 
worsted mills, which employed about 36,800 workers, while there 
were 106 woolen mills in the State which employed slightly more 
than 18,000 workers. 

At different periods there have been pronounced contrasts between 
woolen mills and worsted mills in the number of establishments. The 
number of woolen mills showed a pronounced reduction in the years 
preceding 1914, from 350 in 1900 to 235 in the latter year. During 

61232°— 30 23 



342 



INDUSTRIAL STRUCTURE OF NEW ENGLAND 



the World War, however, the number of woolen mills increased ma- 
terially, rising to 287 in 1919; from this the number fell off to 255 
in 1921, but increased to 273 in 1925. The number of worsted mills 
shows almost an opposite trend, increasing from 109 in 1900 to 164 
in 1914. During the war, however, the number fell off to 154 in 
1919. This was followed by a postwar increase to 166 in 1921 and to 
173 in 1923. There were 170 New England establishments making 
worsted goods in 1925. 

LOCALIZATION WITHIN NEW ENGLAND 

Approximately one-half of the total income of New England de- 
rived from woolen and worsted manufacture in 1925 was contributed 
by Massachusetts plants. Yet in Massachusetts wool manufactures 
represent less than 7 per cent of the State's total income for manufac- 
turing. It is of approximately equal importance in Rhode Island 
and in Maine, representing in each instance about one-sixth of the 
State's total manufacturing income. Incomplete data indicate that 
wool manufactures of New Hampshire contribute about one-tenth of 
the State's total income from manufactures, and in the case of 
Vermont about one-twelfth. 

The following table shows the status of woolen and worsted manu- 
factures in the individual States, and New England's position in 
the national industry. 

Woolen and Worsted Manufactures in Individual States of New England 

in 1925 





Estab- 
lishments 


Persons engaged 


Wages 
and 

salaries, 
in thou- 
sands of 
dollars 


Cost of 
materials, 
in thou- 
sands of 

dollars 


State and item 


Total 


Wage 
earners 


Massachusetts: 

Woolen and worsted.. 


187 
106 
81 

94 

28 
66 

62 
53 
9 

49 
35 
14 

35 
4 

16 

1 


57, 610 
19, 070 

38, 540 

23, 331 
3,470 
19, 861 

12, 314 
7,739 
4,575 

9,588 
6, 852 
2,736 

5, 632 


54, 876 
18, 091 
36, 785 

22, 206 
3,283 
18, 923 

11, 789 
7,305 
4,575 

8,897 
6,470 
2,427 

5,363 


73, 021 

26, 735 
46, 286 

28, 559 
5,251 
23, 308 

16, 542 
11,018 
5,524 

13, 335 
9,482 
3,853 

7,493 


200, 289 


Woolen 


54, 725 


Worsted 


145, 564 


Rhode Island: 

Woolen and worsted _ 


99, 707 


Woolen . 


13, 866 


Worsted 


85, 841 


Maine: 

Woolen and worsted 


37, 432 


Woolen.. 


24, 486 


Worsted 


12, 946 


Connecticut: 

Woolen and worsted... 


30, 816 


Woolen 


19, 541 


Worsted 


11, 275 


New Hampshire: 

Woolen 


17, 110 


Worsted 




Vermont: 

Woolen 


3,070 


2,933 


4,046 


9,309 


Worsted 














New England: 

Woolen and worsted 


443 
273 
170 

832 
503 
329 

68. 2 

54. 3 
51.7 


111,545 
45, 833 
66,712 

174, 708 
71,044 

103,664 

83. 8 
64.5 
63.4 


106,155 
43, 445 
62, 710 

165, 224 
67, 056 
98, 168 

64.2 
64.8 
63.9 


142, 996 
64, 025 
78, 971 

220, 170 
94, 673 
125, 497 

64.9 
67.6 
62.9 


394, 663 


Woolen 


139, 037 


Worsted 


255, 626 


United ' 

Woolen and w or tted 


620, 402 


Woolen 


219,618 


Wonted 


400, 784 


New England be per cent of United states: 
Woolen and worsted 


63.6 


Woolen 


63.3 


Wonted .- 


63.8 







TEXTILES 



343 



Woolen and Worsted Manufactures in Individual States of New England 

in 192f — Continued 





Value of products 


Value added by manufacture 


State and item 


Thou- 
sands of 
dollars 


State as 
per cent 
of New 
England 
total 


Per cent 
of total 
manufac- 
tures in 
State 


Thou- 
sands of 
dollars 


State as 
per cent 
of New 
England 
total 


Per cent 
of total 
manufac- 
tures in 
State 


Massachusetts: 

Woolen and worsted.. __ 


309, 528 
93, 080 
216, 448 

146, 646 
21, 142 
125, 504 

64,923 
40, 002 
24,921 

50, 605 
32, 748 
17, 857 

28,906 


50.3 


9.0 


109, 239 
38, 355 
70, 884 

46, 939 
7,276 
39, 663 

27, 491 
15, 517 
11, 975 

19, 789 
13, 207 
6,582 

11, 796 


49.6 


6.7 


Woolen 




Worsted ___ _ 










Rhode Island: 

Woolen and worsted 


23.8 


23.6 


21.3 


17.0 


Woolen . 




Worsted . _ 










Maine: 

Woolen and worsted __ _ _. _ __ 


10.6 


17.5 


12.5 


16.5 


Woolen __ 




Worsted ._. _______ 










Connecticut: 

Woolen and worsted .__ _ 


8.2 


4.0 


9.0 


3.0 


Woolen _ _ 




Worsted 










New Hampshire: 

Woolen _ _ __ 


4.7 


8.8 


5.4 


8.7 


Worsted 




Vermont: 

Woolen ___ ___ 


14, 328 


2.3 


10.4 


5,019 


2.3 


7.9 


Worsted 


















New England: 

Woolen and worsted 


614, 936 
230, 206 
384, 730 

957, 790 
361, 524 
596, 266 

64.2 
63.7 

64.5 


100.0 


10.0 


220, 274 
91, 170 
129, 104 

337, 389 
141, 906 
195, 483 

65.3 
64.2 
66.0 


100.0 


7.5 


Woolen 




Worsted 










United States: 

Woolen and worsted 




1.5 




1.3 


W r oolen 








Worsted _ ___ 










New England as per cent of United States: 
Woolen and worsted 










Woolen 










Worsted 





















MACHINERY USED 

The number of cards, wool-combing machines, spindles, looms, 
and other equipment used in woolen and worsted manufactures in 
each State of New England, as reported for 1925, is shown in the 
following table. 

Machinery Used in New England Wool Industries in 1925 



State 


Cards 


Wool- 
combing 
machines 


Producing 
spindles 


Power 
looms 


Pickers 


Garnett 
machines 


Massachusetts 


1,583 

284 
556 
438 
562 
134 


991 
491 
31 
96 
36 
4 


587, 153 
132, 656 
214, 415 
147, 044 
217, 599 
63, 563 


32, 735 
8,580 
5,576 
4,147 
5,183 
1,793 


317 
44 
82 
57 

132 
47 


54 


Rhode Island.. ._ 


8 


Connecticut — 


22 


New Hampshire. . . 


4 


Maine 


6 


Vermont 


4 






New England 


3,557 
6,140 

57.9 


1,649 
2,733 

60.3 


1, 362, 430 

2, 258, 436 

60.3 


58, 014 
90, 841 

63.9 


679 
1,125 

60.4 


98 


United States... 


206 


New England as per cent of United 
States 


47.6 







344 



INDUSTRIAL STRUCTURE OF NEW ENGLAND 



An indication of the extent to which this equipment has been used 
in active production is afforded by the following table, which shows 
for the country as a whole the activity of wool-working machinery 
in each year from 1923 to 1927, as a percentage of maximum capacity. 
This table shows that in the past few years the available equipment 
has been far in excess of that employed in actual production. 

Activity of Wool- Working Machinery in the United States 1923-1927 
[Average total hours operation expressed as percentage of maximum single-shift capacity] 



Year 


Broad 
looms 


Narrow 
looms 


Carpet 
and rug 
looms 


Cards 


Combs 


Spinning machines 


Woolen 


Worsted 


1927 


61.9 
62.7 
69.0 
68.5 
82.5 


63.0 
60.6 
63.6 
61.6 
76.2 


64.1 
63.5 
71.8 
65.9 
82.2 


79.5 
77.1 
85.5 
88.1 
98.5 


80.0 
78.7 
77.2 
80.0 
97.4 


77.7 
73.3 
34.6 
85.0 
92.1 


67.0 


1926 


69.0 


1925 


66.3 


1924 


65.8 


1923 


91,5 







Source: U. S. Bureau of the Census. 

The amount of machinery in active operation has been undergoing 
considerable reduction. The total number of looms in active opera- 
tion in 1928 and their distribution in the different States of the Union, 
as compiled by the Wool Institute, are shown below. According to 
these recent figures there were 64,700 power looms in regular opera- 
tion in the woolen and worsted mills in the country in 1928, and of 
this number there were 44,857 in the six New England States. 

Power, Looms in Operation, July, 1928 



New England : Total 44, 857 

Massachusetts 28, 469 

Rhode Island 5, 910 

New Hampshire 3,303 

Connecticut 3, 153 

Maine 3, 039 

Vermont 983 

Outside New England : Total— 19, 843 

New Jersey 6, 432 

Pennsylvania 6, 171 

New York 2,009 

Ohio 1, 988 

Tennessee 712 



Outside New England — Contd. 

Georgia 361 

Wisconsin 309 

South Carolina 301 

Indiana 301 

Illinois 225 

Michigan 210 

Oregon 198 

Virginia 196 

Maryland 172 

West Virginia 82 

California 67 

Minnesota 56 

Utah 53 

Total United States 64,700 



TREND OF MANUFACTURE 

Throughout the 45-year period from 1880 to 1925 New England 
has maintained, quite uniformly, its national position as a maker of 
woolens and worsteds. The total number of establishments in this 
section was exactly the same in 1025 as in 1909. 

There was a net increase after the World War — from 421 establish- 
ments in 1021 to 418 in 1025. The year of greatest activity, as shown 
by the number of persons engaged, by the outlay for materials, and 
by the 'value of the product, was 1023. Although the activity in 1925 



TEXTILES 



345 



was greater than in 1919, it showed a substantial reduction below 
the maximum attained in 1923. The trend of activity is indicated 
by the following table, giving statistics for each census year. It 
should be borne in mind that no account is taken of changes in the 
value of the dollar in different years. 

New England Compared with the Rest of United States in Woolen and 
Worsted Manufactures, 1880-1925 







Establishments 


Persons engaged 


Salaries and wages 




New 
England 


United 

States 
outside 

New 
England 


New 
England 


United 

States 
outside 

New 
England 


New 
England 
as per 
cent of 
United 
States 


Thousands of dollars 


New 


Census year 


New 
England 


United 
States 
outside 

New 
England 


England 
as per 
cent of 
United 

States 


1925 1 


443 
441 
421 
424 
382 
448 
454 
459 
485 
529 


389 
410 
393 
428 
417 
537 
564 
762 
969 
1,537 


111, 545 
129, 394 
109, 939 
111, 173 
103, 955 
110, 176 
92, 150 
76, 009 
69, 113 
59, 712 


63, 663 
75, 242 
61, 939 
65, 000 
60, 735 
64,688 
54, 360 
54,456 
53, 831 
45, 595 


63.7 
63.2 
63.9 
63.0 
63.1 
62.9 
62.9 
58.3 
56.2 
56.7 


142, 996 
164, 705 
130, 948 
127, 923 
56, 147 
53, 828 
40, 686 
31, 034 
26, 193 
18, 829 


79, 681 
89, 355 
70, 294 
71, 168 
30, 353 
28, 696 
20, 747 
19, 092 
18, 166 
35, 486 


64.2 


1923 2 --- 


64.8 


1921 3 


65. 1 


1919* 


64.3 


1914 6 _ 


64.9 


1909 6 


65.2 


1904 " 


66.2 


1900 8 .-- 


61.9 


1890 9 


59.0 


1880 


41.5 








Cost of materials 


Value of products 


Value added by manufacture 




Thousands of dollars 


New 
England 
as per 
cent of 
United 
States 


Thousands of dollars 


New 
England 
as per 
cent of 
United 
States 


Thousands of dollars 


New 


year 


New 
England 


United 
States 

outside 
New 

England 


New 
England 


United 
States 
outside 

New 
England 


New 
England 


United 

States 
outside 

New 
England 


England 
as per 
cent of 
United 
States 


1925 1 

1923 2 

192H 

1919 4 

1914 5 

1909 6 

19047 

19003 

1890» 

1880 


394, 662 
399, 121 
270, 004 
424,069 
154, 201 
177, 176 
129, 896 
90, 631 
77, 927 
71, 703 


225, 740 
223, 611 
130, 042 
241, 526 
92, 296 
105, 702 
67, 593 
57, 456 
55, 050 
111,413 


63.6 
64.1 
67.5 
63.7 
62.6 
62.6 
65.8 
61.2 
58.6 
39.2 


614, 936 
687, 530 
488, 406 
675, 495 
237, 388 
275, 648 
201, 315 
146, 364 
124, 658 
116, 355 


342, 854 
375, 028 
267, 178 
389, 939 
142, 096 
160, 331 
106, 6